Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

1. Antibiotics for treating osteomyelitis in people with sickle cell disease. (PubMed)

Antibiotics for treating osteomyelitis in people with sickle cell disease. Osteomyelitis (both acute and chronic) is one of the most common infectious complications in people with sickle cell disease. There is no standardized approach to antibiotic therapy and treatment is likely to vary from country to country. Thus, there is a need to identify the efficacy and safety of different antibiotic treatment approaches for people with sickle cell disease suffering from osteomyelitis (...) . This is an update of a previously published Cochrane Review.To determine whether an empirical antibiotic treatment approach (monotherapy or combination therapy) is effective and safe as compared to pathogen-directed antibiotic treatment and whether this effectiveness and safety is dependent on different treatment regimens, age or setting.We searched The Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register, which comprises references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearching of relevant

2019 Cochrane

2. Biologics versus Immunomodulators or Antibiotics for the Management of Fistulizing Crohn’s Disease: A Review of Comparative Clinical Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness

Biologics versus Immunomodulators or Antibiotics for the Management of Fistulizing Crohn’s Disease: A Review of Comparative Clinical Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness Biologics versus Immunomodulators or Antibiotics for the Management of Fistulizing Crohn’s Disease: A Review of Comparative Clinical Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness | CADTH.ca Find the information you need Biologics versus Immunomodulators or Antibiotics for the Management of Fistulizing Crohn’s Disease: A Review (...) of Comparative Clinical Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness Biologics versus Immunomodulators or Antibiotics for the Management of Fistulizing Crohn’s Disease: A Review of Comparative Clinical Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness Last updated: March 29, 2019 Project Number: RC1107-000 - RD0051-000 Product Line: Research Type: Drug Report Type: Summary with Critical Appraisal Result type: Report Question What is the comparative clinical effectiveness of biologics (with or without concomitant immunomodulators

2019 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

3. Antibiotic awareness: important messages on antibiotic use

Antibiotic awareness: important messages on antibiotic use Antibiotic awareness: important messages on antibiotic use - GOV.UK GOV.UK uses cookies which are essential for the site to work. We also use non-essential cookies to help us improve government digital services. Any data collected is anonymised. By continuing to use this site, you agree to our use of cookies. Accept cookies You’ve accepted all cookies. You can at any time. Hide Search Guidance Antibiotic awareness: important messages (...) on antibiotic use This document explains how to use antibiotics responsibly for patients, animal keepers, pet owners and prescribers. Published 23 September 2014 Last updated 7 October 2019 — From: Documents Ref: PHE publication gateway reference: GW-779 If you use assistive technology (such as a screen reader) and need a version of this document in a more accessible format, please email . Please tell us what format you need. It will help us if you say what assistive technology you use. Details PHE has

2019 Public Health England

4. Probiotics for Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Pediatrics: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines

Probiotics for Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Pediatrics: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Probiotics for Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Pediatrics: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines | CADTH.ca Find the information you need Probiotics for Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Pediatrics: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Probiotics for Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Pediatrics: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Last updated (...) : March 25, 2019 Project Number: RC1086-000 Product Line: Research Type: Drug Report Type: Summary with Critical Appraisal Result type: Report Question What is the clinical effectiveness of probiotics (with or without concurrent antibiotics) for preventing and treating antibiotic-associated diarrhea in the pediatric population? What are the evidence-based guidelines regarding the use of probiotics (with or without concurrent antibiotics) for the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated

2019 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

5. Effect of Bismuth Subsalicylate vs Placebo on Use of Antibiotics Among Adult Outpatients With Diarrhea in Pakistan: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Effect of Bismuth Subsalicylate vs Placebo on Use of Antibiotics Among Adult Outpatients With Diarrhea in Pakistan: A Randomized Clinical Trial Many of the 4.5 billion annual episodes of diarrhea are treated unnecessarily with antibiotics; prevalence of antibiotic resistance among diarrheal pathogens is increasing. Knowledge-based antibiotic stewardship interventions typically yield little change in antibiotic use.To compare antibiotic use among adult outpatients with diarrhea given bismuth (...) assigned (1:1) to receive BSS or placebo for 48 hours or less.Use of systemic antibiotics within 5 days of enrollment. Secondary outcomes included measures of duration and severity of illness.Among eligible patients, 39 declined to participate, 440 enrolled, and 1 enrolled participant was lost to follow-up, for a total of 439 patients included in the analysis. Median (interquartile range) participant age was 32 (23-45) years and 187 (43%) were male. Two hundred twenty patients were randomized to BSS

2019 EvidenceUpdates

6. Association of Use of the Neonatal Early-Onset Sepsis Calculator With Reduction in Antibiotic Therapy and Safety: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Association of Use of the Neonatal Early-Onset Sepsis Calculator With Reduction in Antibiotic Therapy and Safety: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis The neonatal early-onset sepsis (EOS) calculator is a clinical risk stratification tool increasingly used to guide the use of empirical antibiotics for newborns. Evidence on the effectiveness and safety of the EOS calculator is essential to inform clinicians considering implementation.To assess the association between management of neonatal EOS (...) guided by the neonatal EOS calculator (compared with conventional management strategies) and reduction in antibiotic therapy for newborns.Electronic searches in MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were conducted from 2011 (introduction of the EOS calculator model) through January 31, 2019.All studies with original data that compared management guided by the EOS calculator with conventional management strategies for allocating antibiotic therapy to newborns suspected to have EOS were

2019 EvidenceUpdates

7. Antibiotics for trachoma. (PubMed)

Antibiotics for trachoma. Trachoma is the world's leading infectious cause of blindness. In 1996, WHO launched the Alliance for the Global Elimination of Trachoma by the year 2020, based on the 'SAFE' strategy (surgery, antibiotics, facial cleanliness, and environmental improvement).To assess the evidence supporting the antibiotic arm of the SAFE strategy by assessing the effects of antibiotics on both active trachoma (primary objective), Chlamydia trachomatis infection of the conjunctiva (...) , antibiotic resistance, and adverse effects (secondary objectives).We searched relevant electronic databases and trials registers. The date of the last search was 4 January 2019.We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that satisfied either of two criteria: (a) trials in which topical or oral administration of an antibiotic was compared to placebo or no treatment in people or communities with trachoma, (b) trials in which a topical antibiotic was compared with an oral antibiotic in people

2019 Cochrane

8. Prophylactic antibiotics to prevent surgical site infection after breast cancer surgery. (PubMed)

Prophylactic antibiotics to prevent surgical site infection after breast cancer surgery. Surgery has been used as part of breast cancer treatment for centuries; however any surgical procedure has the potential risk of infection. Infection rates for surgical treatment of breast cancer are documented at between 3% and 15%, higher than average for a clean surgical procedure. Pre- and perioperative antibiotics have been found to be useful in lowering infection rates in other surgical groups, yet (...) there is no consensus on the use of prophylactic antibiotics for breast cancer surgery. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2005 and last updated in 2014.To determine the effects of prophylactic (pre- or perioperative) antibiotics on the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) after breast cancer surgery.For this fourth update, in August 2018 we searched the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); Ovid MEDLINE (including In-Process

2019 Cochrane

9. Antibiotics for treating acute chest syndrome in people with sickle cell disease. (PubMed)

Antibiotics for treating acute chest syndrome in people with sickle cell disease. The clinical presentation of acute chest syndrome is similar whether due to infectious or non-infectious causes, thus antibiotics are usually prescribed to treat all episodes. Many different pathogens, including bacteria, have been implicated as causative agents of acute chest syndrome. There is no standardized approach to antibiotic therapy and treatment is likely to vary from country to country. Thus (...) , there is a need to identify the efficacy and safety of different antibiotic treatment approaches for people with sickle cell disease suffering from acute chest syndrome. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2007, and most recently updated in 2015.To determine whether an empirical antibiotic treatment approach (used alone or in combination):1. is effective for acute chest syndrome compared to placebo or standard treatment;2. is safe for acute chest syndrome compared to placebo or standard

2019 Cochrane

10. Antibiotic treatment for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in people with decompensated liver cirrhosis: a network meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Antibiotic treatment for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in people with decompensated liver cirrhosis: a network meta-analysis. Approximately 2.5% of all hospitalisations in people with cirrhosis are for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). Antibiotics, in addition to supportive treatment (fluid and electrolyte balance, treatment of shock), form the mainstay treatments of SBP. Various antibiotics are available for the treatment of SBP, but there is uncertainty regarding the best (...) antibiotic for SBP.To compare the benefits and harms of different antibiotic treatments for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in people with decompensated liver cirrhosis.We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index Expanded, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and trials registers until November 2018 to identify randomised clinical trials on people with cirrhosis and SBP.We included only randomised clinical trials (irrespective of language

2019 Cochrane

11. Antibiotic or silver versus standard ventriculoperitoneal shunts (BASICS): a multicentre, single-blinded, randomised trial and economic evaluation. (PubMed)

Antibiotic or silver versus standard ventriculoperitoneal shunts (BASICS): a multicentre, single-blinded, randomised trial and economic evaluation. Insertion of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt for hydrocephalus is one of the commonest neurosurgical procedures worldwide. Infection of the implanted shunt affects up to 15% of these patients, resulting in prolonged hospital treatment, multiple surgeries, and reduced cognition and quality of life. Our aim was to determine the clinical and cost (...) -effectiveness of antibiotic (rifampicin and clindamycin) or silver shunts compared with standard shunts at reducing infection.In this parallel, multicentre, single-blind, randomised controlled trial, we included patients with hydrocephalus of any aetiology undergoing insertion of their first ventriculoperitoneal shunt irrespective of age at 21 regional adult and paediatric neurosurgery centres in the UK and Ireland. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1 in random permuted blocks of three or six) to receive

2019 Lancet

12. Mechanical and oral antibiotic bowel preparation versus no bowel preparation for elective colectomy (MOBILE): a multicentre, randomised, parallel, single-blinded trial. (PubMed)

Mechanical and oral antibiotic bowel preparation versus no bowel preparation for elective colectomy (MOBILE): a multicentre, randomised, parallel, single-blinded trial. Decreased surgical site infections (SSIs) and morbidity have been reported with mechanical and oral antibiotic bowel preparation (MOABP) compared with no bowel preparation (NBP) in colonic surgery. Several societies have recommended routine use of MOABP in patients undergoing colon resection on the basis of these data. Our aim

2019 Lancet

13. Duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy in people with cystic fibrosis. (PubMed)

Duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy in people with cystic fibrosis. Progressive lung damage from recurrent exacerbations is the major cause of mortality and morbidity in cystic fibrosis. Life expectancy of people with cystic fibrosis has increased dramatically in the last 40 years. One of the major reasons for this increase is the mounting use of antibiotics to treat chest exacerbations caused by bacterial infections. The optimal duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy is not clearly (...) defined. Individuals usually receive intravenous antibiotics for 14 days, but treatment may range from 10 to 21 days. A shorter duration of antibiotic treatment risks inadequate clearance of infection which could lead to further lung damage. Prolonged courses of intravenous antibiotics are expensive and inconvenient. The risk of systemic side effects such as allergic reactions to antibiotics also increases with prolonged courses and the use of aminoglycosides requires frequent monitoring to minimise

2019 Cochrane

14. Long-term follow-up of the AVOD randomized trial of antibiotic avoidance in uncomplicated diverticulitis

Long-term follow-up of the AVOD randomized trial of antibiotic avoidance in uncomplicated diverticulitis The aim of this study was to assess the long-term results in patients with uncomplicated diverticulitis who had participated in the Antibiotics in Acute Uncomplicated Diverticulitis (AVOD) RCT, which randomized patients with CT-verified left-sided acute uncomplicated diverticulitis to management without or with antibiotics.The medical records of patients who had participated in the AVOD (...) trial were reviewed for long-term results such as recurrences, complications and surgery. Quality-of-life questionnaires (EQ-5D™) were sent to patients, who were also contacted by telephone. Descriptive statistics were used for the analysis of clinical outcomes.A total of 556 of the 623 patients (89·2 per cent) were followed up for a median of 11 years. There were no differences between the no-antibiotic and antibiotic group in recurrences (both 31·3 per cent; P = 0·986), complications (4·4 versus 5

2019 EvidenceUpdates

15. Respiratory tract infections (self-limiting) – reducing antibiotic prescribing

Respiratory tract infections (self-limiting) – reducing antibiotic prescribing Respiratory tract infections (self-limiting) – reducing antibiotic prescribing Management of self-limiting respiratory tract infections in adults and children in primary care bpac nz guidelines www.bpac.org.nz/guidelines November 20152 RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS (SELF-LIMITING) – REDUCING ANTIBIOTIC PRESCRIBING WWW.BPAC.ORG.NZ/GUIDELINES This is a bpac nz contextualisation of NICE Clinical Guideline 69 © NICE 2008 (...) 2 Contents Introduction 3 Patient-centred care 5 1. Guidance 6 The clinical effectiveness of antibiotic management strategies for self-limiting respiratory tract infections (RTIs) 7 Identifying those patients with RTIs who are likely to be at risk of developing complications 8 2. Notes on the scope of the guidance 9 3. Implementation 9 4. Other versions of this guideline 9 4.1 Full NICE guideline (UK) 9 5. Updating the guideline 9 Appendix A: The Guideline Review and Contextualisation Group

2019 Best Practice Advocacy Centre New Zealand

16. Excess Antibiotic Treatment Duration and Adverse Events in Patients Hospitalized With Pneumonia: A Multihospital Cohort Study. (PubMed)

Excess Antibiotic Treatment Duration and Adverse Events in Patients Hospitalized With Pneumonia: A Multihospital Cohort Study. Randomized trials demonstrate no benefit from antibiotic treatment exceeding the shortest effective duration.To examine predictors and outcomes associated with excess duration of antibiotic treatment.Retrospective cohort study.43 hospitals in the Michigan Hospital Medicine Safety Consortium.6481 general care medical patients with pneumonia.The primary outcome (...) was the rate of excess antibiotic treatment duration (excess days per 30-day period). Excess days were calculated by subtracting each patient's shortest effective (expected) treatment duration (based on time to clinical stability, pathogen, and pneumonia classification [community-acquired vs. health care-associated]) from the actual duration. Negative binomial generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were used to calculate rate ratios to assess predictors of 30-day rates of excess duration. Patient outcomes

2019 Annals of Internal Medicine

17. Anaesthetic analgesic ear drops to reduce antibiotic consumption in children with acute otitis media: the CEDAR RCT

Anaesthetic analgesic ear drops to reduce antibiotic consumption in children with acute otitis media: the CEDAR RCT Anaesthetic analgesic ear drops to reduce antibiotic consumption in children with acute otitis media: the CEDAR RCT Journals Library An error occurred retrieving content to display, please try again. >> >> >> Page Not Found Page not found (404) Sorry - the page you requested could not be found. Please choose a page from the navigation or try a website search above to find (...) the information you need. >> >> >> >> Issue {{metadata .Issue }} Toolkit 1)"> 0)"> 1)"> {{metadata.Title}} {{metadata.Headline}} Anaesthetic analgesic eardrops reduced antibiotic consumption, but a short recruitment period led to a reduced sample size and imprecise treatment effect estimates. {{author}} {{($index , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , & . Alastair D Hay 1, * , Harriet Downing 2 , Nick A Francis 3 , Grace J Young 4 , Clare Clement 4 , Sue D Harris 1 , Aideen Ahern 4 , Behnaz Schofield 3 , Tammy E

2019 NIHR HTA programme

18. Use of Antibiotics Without a Prescription in the U.S. Population: A Scoping Review. (PubMed)

Use of Antibiotics Without a Prescription in the U.S. Population: A Scoping Review. Use of antibiotics without a prescription may increase unnecessary and inappropriate drug use or doses as well as global risk for antimicrobial resistance.To perform a scoping review of research on the prevalence of nonprescription antibiotic use in the United States and to examine the factors that influence it.Searches of PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Scopus, and relevant Web sites without language restrictions from (...) January 2000 to March 2019.Studies reporting nonprescription use of antibiotics, storage of antibiotics, intention to use antibiotics without a prescription, and factors influencing nonprescription use.Two reviewers independently screened citations and full texts and performed data abstraction.Of 17 422 screened articles, 31 met inclusion criteria. Depending on population characteristics, prevalence of nonprescription antibiotic use varied from 1% to 66%, storage of antibiotics for future use varied

2019 Annals of Internal Medicine

19. C-Reactive Protein Testing to Guide Antibiotic Prescribing for COPD Exacerbations. (PubMed)

C-Reactive Protein Testing to Guide Antibiotic Prescribing for COPD Exacerbations. Point-of-care testing of C-reactive protein (CRP) may be a way to reduce unnecessary use of antibiotics without harming patients who have acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).We performed a multicenter, open-label, randomized, controlled trial involving patients with a diagnosis of COPD in their primary care clinical record who consulted a clinician at 1 of 86 general medical (...) practices in England and Wales for an acute exacerbation of COPD. The patients were assigned to receive usual care guided by CRP point-of-care testing (CRP-guided group) or usual care alone (usual-care group). The primary outcomes were patient-reported use of antibiotics for acute exacerbations of COPD within 4 weeks after randomization (to show superiority) and COPD-related health status at 2 weeks after randomization, as measured by the Clinical COPD Questionnaire, a 10-item scale with scores ranging

2019 NEJM

20. Procalcitonin-Guided Antibiotic Discontinuation and Mortality in Critically Ill Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Procalcitonin-Guided Antibiotic Discontinuation and Mortality in Critically Ill Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Procalcitonin (PCT)-guided antibiotic discontinuation appears to decrease antibiotic use in critically ill patients, but its impact on survival remains less certain.We searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and CENTRAL for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of PCT-guided antibiotic discontinuation in critically ill adults reporting survival or antibiotic (...) duration. Searches were conducted without language restrictions from inception to July 23, 2018. Two reviewers independently conducted all review stages; another adjudicated differences. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Study quality was assessed with the Cochrane risk of bias tool, and evidence was graded using GRADEpro.Among critically ill adults (5,158 randomized; 5,000 analyzed), PCT-guided antibiotic discontinuation was associated with decreased mortality (16 RCTs; risk ratio

2019 EvidenceUpdates