Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

181. Antibiotics for exacerbations of asthma. (PubMed)

Antibiotics for exacerbations of asthma. Asthma is a chronic respiratory condition that affects over 300 million adults and children worldwide. It is characterised by wheeze, cough, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. Symptoms typically are intermittent and may worsen over a short time, leading to an exacerbation. Asthma exacerbations can be serious, leading to hospitalisation or even death in rare cases. Exacerbations may be treated by increasing an individual's usual medication (...) and providing additional medication, such as oral steroids. Although antibiotics are sometimes included in the treatment regimen, bacterial infections are thought to be responsible for only a minority of exacerbations, and current guidance states that antibiotics should be reserved for cases in which clear signs, symptoms, or laboratory test results are suggestive of bacterial infection.To determine the efficacy and safety of antibiotics in the treatment of asthma exacerbations.We searched the Cochrane

2018 Cochrane

182. Dual antibiotics for bronchiectasis. (PubMed)

Dual antibiotics for bronchiectasis. Bronchiectasis is a chronic respiratory disease characterised by abnormal and irreversible dilatation of the smaller airways and associated with a mortality rate greater than twice that of the general population. Antibiotics serve as front-line therapy for managing bacterial load, but their use is weighed against the development of antibiotic resistance. Dual antibiotic therapy has the potential to suppress infection from multiple strains of bacteria (...) , leading to more successful treatment of exacerbations, reduced symptoms, and improved quality of life. Further evidence is required on the efficacy of dual antibiotics in terms of management of exacerbations and extent of antibiotic resistance.To evaluate the effects of dual antibiotics in the treatment of adults and children with bronchiectasis.We identified studies from the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register (CAGR), which includes the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL

2018 Cochrane

183. Impact of antibiotics on smell dysfunction (Full text)

Impact of antibiotics on smell dysfunction Viral or bacterial respiratory infections can cause long-lasting olfactory dysfunction. Antibiotic therapy is indicated in severe cases; however, it is unclear whether antibiotic use produces a positive, negative, or null effect on olfactory function. This retrospective study sought to determine whether antibiotic use has an influence on odor identification and detection threshold test scores of patients with smell dysfunction secondary to upper (...) respiratory infections (URIs), lower respiratory infections (LRIs), or rhinosinusitis.Data from a total of 288 patients presenting to the University of Pennsylvania Smell and Taste Center were evaluated.Patients with a URI etiology who had taken bactericidal antibiotics had lower detection thresholds than did patients who had not taken antibiotics (P < 0.023; analysis of covariance with age and time since infection onset as covariates). Moreover, thresholds were lower for bactericidal antibiotic users

2018 World journal of otorhinolaryngology - head and neck surgery PubMed

184. Continuous versus intermittent antibiotics for bronchiectasis. (PubMed)

Continuous versus intermittent antibiotics for bronchiectasis. Bronchiectasis is a chronic airway disease characterised by a destructive cycle of recurrent airway infection, inflammation and tissue damage. Antibiotics are a main treatment for bronchiectasis. The aim of continuous therapy with prophylactic antibiotics is to suppress bacterial load, but bacteria may become resistant to the antibiotic, leading to a loss of effectiveness. On the other hand, intermittent prophylactic antibiotics (...) , given over a predefined duration and interval, may reduce antibiotic selection pressure and reduce or prevent the development of resistance. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the current evidence for studies comparing continuous versus intermittent administration of antibiotic treatment in bronchiectasis in terms of clinical efficacy, the emergence of resistance and serious adverse events.To evaluate the effectiveness of continuous versus intermittent antibiotics in the treatment of adults

2018 Cochrane

185. Are Latino Cultural Beliefs Increasing Antibiotic Resistance in the US?

Are Latino Cultural Beliefs Increasing Antibiotic Resistance in the US? Are Latino Cultural Beliefs Increasing Antibiotic Resistance in the US? – Clinical Correlations Search Are Latino Cultural Beliefs Increasing Antibiotic Resistance in the US? June 8, 2018 3 min read By Daniela Rebollo Salazar Peer Reviewed In the past ten years, the number of bacterial pathogens resistant to multiple antibiotics has dramatically increased. The emergence of resistant microorganisms is a direct product (...) of the excessive use of antibiotics, as exposure to multiple antibacterial agents provides the selective pressure for the rise and spread of these pathogens. 1 Studies have shown that the overuse of antibiotics is a consequence of the increased worldwide availability of these agents and 1 This issue is particularly relevant in Latin American countries, . 2 Given the increase in the numbers of Latino immigrants, it is important to examine their perceptions of medicine and antibiotic use in order to devise

2018 Clinical Correlations

186. Antibiotics: repeated treatments before the age of two could be a factor in obesity

Antibiotics: repeated treatments before the age of two could be a factor in obesity Prescrire IN ENGLISH - Spotlight ''Antibiotics: repeated treatments before the age of two could be a factor in obesity'', 1 June 2018 {1} {1} {1} | | > > > Antibiotics: repeated treatments before the age of two could be a factor in obesity Spotlight Every month, the subjects in Prescrire’s Spotlight. 100 most recent :  |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |  (...)  |  Spotlight Antibiotics: repeated treatments before the age of two could be a factor in obesity Antibiotics disrupt the intestinal flora (intestinal microbiota) and could be a factor in weight gain. Prescription of antibiotics for children should not be automatic but should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. Overweight and obesity are the result of an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure and can be associated with various known genetic, hormone, environmental

2018 Prescrire

187. Appropriate and timely antibiotic administration for neonatal sepsis in Mesoamérica (Full text)

Appropriate and timely antibiotic administration for neonatal sepsis in Mesoamérica Neonatal sepsis is a leading cause of mortality among children under-5 in Latin America. The Salud Mesoamérica Initiative (SMI), a multicountry results-based aid programme, was designed to improve maternal, newborn and child health in impoverished communities in Mesoamérica. This study examines the delivery of timely and appropriate antibiotics for neonatal sepsis among facilities participating in the SMI (...) project. A multifaceted health facility survey was implemented at SMI inception and approximately 18 months later as a follow-up. A random sample of medical records from neonates diagnosed with sepsis was reviewed, and data regarding antibiotic administration were extracted. In this paper, we present the percentage of patients who received timely (within 2 hours) and appropriate antibiotics. Multilevel logistic regression was used to assess for potential facility-level determinants of timely

2018 BMJ global health PubMed

188. Procalcitonin-Guided Use of Antibiotics for Lower Respiratory Tract Infection. (Full text)

Procalcitonin-Guided Use of Antibiotics for Lower Respiratory Tract Infection. The effect of procalcitonin-guided use of antibiotics on treatment for suspected lower respiratory tract infection is unclear.In 14 U.S. hospitals with high adherence to quality measures for the treatment of pneumonia, we provided guidance for clinicians about national clinical practice recommendations for the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections and the interpretation of procalcitonin assays. We (...) then randomly assigned patients who presented to the emergency department with a suspected lower respiratory tract infection and for whom the treating physician was uncertain whether antibiotic therapy was indicated to one of two groups: the procalcitonin group, in which the treating clinicians were provided with real-time initial (and serial, if the patient was hospitalized) procalcitonin assay results and an antibiotic use guideline with graded recommendations based on four tiers of procalcitonin levels

2018 NEJM PubMed

189. Systemic Antibiotics for the Treatment of Skin and Soft Tissue Abscesses: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Systemic Antibiotics for the Treatment of Skin and Soft Tissue Abscesses: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis The addition of antibiotics to standard incision and drainage is controversial, with earlier studies demonstrating no significant benefit. However, 2 large, multicenter trials have recently been published that have challenged the previous literature. The goal of this review was to determine whether systemic antibiotics for abscesses after incision and drainage improve cure (...) rates.PubMed, the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scopus, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and bibliographies of selected articles were assessed for all randomized controlled trials comparing adjuvant antibiotics with placebo in the treatment of drained abscesses, with an outcome of treatment failure assessed within 21 days. Data were dual extracted into a predefined worksheet and quality analysis was performed

2018 EvidenceUpdates

190. Long-Term Effects of Omitting Antibiotics in Uncomplicated Acute Diverticulitis

Long-Term Effects of Omitting Antibiotics in Uncomplicated Acute Diverticulitis Traditionally uncomplicated acute diverticulitis was routinely treated with antibiotics, although evidence for this strategy was lacking. Recently, two randomized clinical trials (AVOD trial and DIABOLO trial) published short-term results of omitting antibiotics compared to routine antibiotic treatment. Both showed no significant differences regarding recovery from the initial episode, as well as rates (...) of complicated or recurrent diverticulitis and sigmoid resection. However, both studies showed a trend of higher rates of sigmoid resection in the observational groups. Here, the long-term effects of omitting antibiotics in first episode uncomplicated acute diverticulitis were assessed.A total of 528 patients with CT-proven, primary, left-sided, uncomplicated acute diverticulitis were randomized to either an observational or an antibiotic treatment strategy (DIABOLO trial). Outcome measures were complicated

2018 EvidenceUpdates

191. Preventive Antibiotics in Stroke Study (PASS): A cost-effectiveness study

Preventive Antibiotics in Stroke Study (PASS): A cost-effectiveness study To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of preventive ceftriaxone vs standard stroke unit care without preventive antimicrobial therapy in acute stroke patients.In this multicenter, randomized, open-label trial with masked endpoint assessment, 2,550 patients with acute stroke were included between 2010 and 2014. Economic evaluation was performed from a societal perspective with a time horizon of 3 months. Volumes and costs

2018 EvidenceUpdates

192. Continuous low-dose antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent urinary tract infection in adults who perform clean intermittent self-catheterisation: the AnTIC RCT

Continuous low-dose antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent urinary tract infection in adults who perform clean intermittent self-catheterisation: the AnTIC RCT Continuous low-dose antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent urinary tract infection in adults who perform clean intermittent self-catheterisation: the AnTIC RCT Journals Library An error occurred retrieving content to display, please try again. >> >> >> Page Not Found Page not found (404) Sorry - the page you requested could not be found. Please (...) choose a page from the navigation or try a website search above to find the information you need. >> >> >> >> Issue {{metadata .Issue }} Toolkit 1)"> 0)"> 1)"> {{metadata.Title}} {{metadata.Headline}} Continuous low-dose antibiotic prophylaxis reduced the frequency of symptomatic, antibiotic-treated urinary tract infection by 48%, although antimicrobial resistance of bacteria isolated from the urine of those taking prophylaxis increased. {{author}} {{($index

2018 NIHR HTA programme

193. Prophylactic antibiotics at the time of elective cholecystectomy are effective in reducing the post-operative infective complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis (Full text)

Prophylactic antibiotics at the time of elective cholecystectomy are effective in reducing the post-operative infective complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis The objective of this article is to evaluate the role of prophylactic antibiotics in preventing the infective complications in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy (ELC).A systematic review of the literature on the published randomized, controlled reporting the role of prophylactic antibiotics (...) in preventing the infective complications in patients undergoing ELC was undertaken using the principles of meta-analysis.Twenty-five RCTs on 6,138 patients evaluating the infective complications in patients undergoing ELC were systematically analysed. There were 3,099 patients in antibiotics group and 3,039 patients in no-antibiotics group. The risk of surgical site infection (SSI) [odds ratio (OR), 0.75 (95% CI, 0.52-1.07), P=0.11], distant infection [OR, 0.66 (95% CI, 0.21-2.14), P=0.49] and residual

2018 Translational gastroenterology and hepatology PubMed

194. Carefully managed antibiotic use could halve antibiotic-resistant infections

Carefully managed antibiotic use could halve antibiotic-resistant infections Carefully managed antibiotic use could halve antibiotic-resistant infections Discover Portal Discover Portal Carefully managed antibiotic use could halve antibiotic-resistant infections Published on 17 October 2017 doi: Antibiotic stewardship programmes could halve the number of infections due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria compared with unguided prescribing. Combining these programmes with hand hygiene (...) , such as washing hands with soap and water and using alcohol-based hand-rubs, could reduce antibiotic resistance further. Bacterial resistance to existing antibiotics is increasing, and for some conditions, there aren’t enough new antibiotics available to treat infections caused by resistant bacteria. Antibiotic stewardship involves promoting the appropriate use of antibiotics according to local resistance patterns and aims to give patients the right antibiotics for the right length of time and at the correct

2018 NIHR Dissemination Centre

195. Long-term antibiotics likely to reduce risk of recurrent cellulitis

Long-term antibiotics likely to reduce risk of recurrent cellulitis Long-term antibiotics likely to reduce risk of recurrent cellulitis Discover Portal Discover Portal Long-term antibiotics likely to reduce risk of recurrent cellulitis Published on 17 October 2017 doi: Antibiotics may reduce the risk of leg cellulitis by about two thirds, in adults who have had at least two previous episodes, but only while they take the antibiotics. There is limited evidence measuring the efficacy of other (...) forms of prevention. A review of five studies showed that the risk of developing repeated cellulitis was reduced in participants who were taking long-term (more than six months) penicillin or erythromycin, compared with a control group. Once the antibiotic course had finished, participants’ risk of recurrent cellulitis was no different from the control group. Cellulitis is a bacterial skin infection that spreads and worsens quickly. Risk of recurrence is high in people with a predisposing condition

2018 NIHR Dissemination Centre

196. Intravenous antibiotics, administered over 3 hours, are linked to lower death rates in sepsis

Intravenous antibiotics, administered over 3 hours, are linked to lower death rates in sepsis Intravenous antibiotics, administered over 3 hours, are linked to lower death rates in sepsis Discover Portal Discover Portal Intravenous antibiotics, administered over 3 hours, are linked to lower death rates in sepsis Published on 31 January 2018 doi: The risk of death in adults with sepsis was 30% lower when each dose of antibiotic was given intravenously over three hours compared to a bolus or less (...) than 60 minutes. This systematic review included adults on intensive care units with a range of ages, severity of sepsis and other symptoms. A variety of antibiotics of the anti-pseudomonal beta-lactam class were used in the trials. These included carbapenems, penicillins and cephalosporins. In the UK, current guidance for intravenous use of these drugs is to give them over a period of up to 30 minutes. This review provides high-quality evidence that suggests that all patients should be given

2018 NIHR Dissemination Centre

197. Blood test reduces mortality and shortens antibiotic use among adults with chest infection

Blood test reduces mortality and shortens antibiotic use among adults with chest infection Blood test reduces mortality and shortens antibiotic use among adults with chest infection Discover Portal Discover Portal Blood test reduces mortality and shortens antibiotic use among adults with chest infection Published on 16 January 2018 doi: It may be feasible to use procalcitonin blood levels to guide antibiotic treatment for adults in hospital with a suspected chest infection. By measuring (...) procalcitonin, an indicator of bacterial infection, clinicians could review their diagnosis earlier. This reduced antibiotic exposure by 2.5 days with fewer adverse effects and also less mortality. About 14 extra people in every 1,000 who had their management guided by the blood test would be expected to survive the first month, compared with those receiving standard care without this test. Antibiotics are commonly prescribed pre-emptively for a suspected respiratory infection and may be continued longer

2018 NIHR Dissemination Centre

198. Antibiotics are probably of no benefit for acute asthma attack

Antibiotics are probably of no benefit for acute asthma attack Study shows no benefit of an antibiotic for acute asthma Discover Portal Discover Portal Study shows no benefit of an antibiotic for acute asthma Published on 21 December 2016 doi: The antibiotic azithromycin did not reduce symptoms or change other outcomes in adults seeking emergency care for an acute asthma attack. However people not already taking antibiotics were hard to find and the trial failed to enrol enough people to answer (...) the research question. In this UK-based trial, people with asthma who received azithromycin on top of standard treatment with corticosteroids had no better symptoms ten days later than people who received corticosteroids alone. Almost half of almost 4,600 potential participants had already been given antibiotics. This study shows that many people are being prescribed antibiotics to treat an asthma attack despite British guidance stating that antibiotics should not be routinely used. This raises questions

2018 NIHR Dissemination Centre

199. Nitrofurantoin is as effective as other long-term antibiotics for preventing recurrent urinary tract infections

Nitrofurantoin is as effective as other long-term antibiotics for preventing recurrent urinary tract infections Nitrofurantoin is as effective as other long-term antibiotics for preventing recurrent urinary tract infections Discover Portal Discover Portal Nitrofurantoin is as effective as other long-term antibiotics for preventing recurrent urinary tract infections Published on 19 December 2016 doi: The antibiotic nitrofurantoin works as well as other long-term antibiotics for preventing (...) recurrent urinary tract infections in women. However gastrointestinal side effects were more common in people on nitrofurantoin. The potential for inducing less antibiotic resistance compared to trimethoprim is a potential advantage of nitrofurantoin but this wasn’t a specified outcome for this review. This review of 12 trials, with 1,063 women, compared nitrofurantoin with other antibiotics such as trimethoprim, or oestrogen cream. It was hoped that this older antibiotic could be a first-line strategy

2018 NIHR Dissemination Centre

200. A strategy of 'delayed antibiotic prescribing' for respiratory infections may reduce antibiotic use

A strategy of 'delayed antibiotic prescribing' for respiratory infections may reduce antibiotic use A strategy of 'delayed antibiotic prescribing' for respiratory infections may reduce antibiotic use Discover Portal Discover Portal A strategy of 'delayed antibiotic prescribing' for respiratory infections may reduce antibiotic use Published on 19 December 2017 doi: Delaying antibiotic prescribing made little difference to most symptoms of respiratory infection. It reduced antibiotic use and did (...) not affect patient satisfaction compared with immediate prescribing of antibiotics. Increasing antibiotic resistance is a global health concern. Many people don’t realise that viruses cause most respiratory infections and that antibiotics won’t help. The strategy allows some time for symptoms to improve naturally. This review of the latest evidence on delayed prescribing for self-limiting respiratory infections is in line with current guidance. On the whole delaying antibiotics made little difference

2018 NIHR Dissemination Centre