Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

21. Prophylactic antibiotics in the prevention of infection after operative vaginal delivery (ANODE): a multicentre randomised controlled trial. (PubMed)

Prophylactic antibiotics in the prevention of infection after operative vaginal delivery (ANODE): a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Risk factors for maternal infection are clearly recognised, including caesarean section and operative vaginal birth. Antibiotic prophylaxis at caesarean section is widely recommended because there is clear systematic review evidence that it reduces incidence of maternal infection. Current WHO guidelines do not recommend routine antibiotic prophylaxis (...) for women undergoing operative vaginal birth because of insufficient evidence of effectiveness. We aimed to investigate whether antibiotic prophylaxis prevented maternal infection after operative vaginal birth.In a blinded, randomised controlled trial done at 27 UK obstetric units, women (aged ≥16 years) were allocated to receive a single dose of intravenous amoxicillin and clavulanic acid or placebo (saline) following operative vaginal birth at 36 weeks gestation or later. The primary outcome

2019 Lancet

22. Antibiotic therapy for chronic infection with Burkholderia cepacia complex in people with cystic fibrosis. (PubMed)

Antibiotic therapy for chronic infection with Burkholderia cepacia complex in people with cystic fibrosis. Cystic fibrosis (CF) a life-limiting inherited disease affecting a number of organs, but classically associated with chronic lung infection and progressive loss of lung function. Chronic infection by Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and therefore represents a significant challenge to clinicians treating people with CF. This review (...) examines the current evidence for long-term antibiotic therapy in people with CF and chronic BCC infection.The objective of this review is to assess the effects of long-term oral and inhaled antibiotic therapy targeted against chronic BCC lung infections in people with CF. The primary objective is to assess the efficacy of treatments in terms of improvements in lung function and reductions in exacerbation rate. Secondary objectives include quantifying adverse events, mortality and changes in quality

2019 Cochrane

23. Route of antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of cerebrospinal fluid-shunt infection. (PubMed)

Route of antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of cerebrospinal fluid-shunt infection. The main complication of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt surgery is shunt infection. Prevention of these shunt infections consists of the perioperative use of antibiotics that can be administered in five different ways: orally; intravenously; intrathecally; topically; and via the implantation of antibiotic-impregnated shunt catheters.To determine the effect of different routes of antibiotic prophylaxis (i.e (...) . oral, intravenous, intrathecal, topical and via antibiotic-impregnated shunt catheters) on CSF-shunt infections in persons treated for hydrocephalus using internalised CSF shunts.We conducted a systematic electronic search without restrictions on language, date or publication type. We performed the search on the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE and Embase, with the help of the Information Specialist of the Cochrane Multiple Sclerosis and Rare

2019 Cochrane

24. FSRH CEU statement on antibiotic cover for urgent insertion of intrauterine contraception in women at high risk of STI

FSRH CEU statement on antibiotic cover for urgent insertion of intrauterine contraception in women at high risk of STI FSRH CEU statement on antibiotic cover for urgent insertion of intrauterine contraception in women at high risk of STI (May 2019) - Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare FSRH CEU statement on antibiotic cover for urgent insertion of intrauterine contraception in women at high risk of STI (May 2019) FSRH CEU statement on antibiotic cover for urgent insertion (...) of intrauterine contraception in women at high risk of STI (May 2019) Share this article Published on: 22 May 2019 File size: 241kb PDF File type: Clinical Statements This statement provides guidance on antibiotic cover for urgent insertion of intrauterine contraception in women at high risk of STI. Download the full document here. Your download should start automatically. If not . Document types Thinking about taking a qualification? Registration is now quick and easy online. About FSRH FSRH is a faculty

2019 Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare

25. Are Antibiotics Effective in the Treatment of Children With Prolonged Wet Cough? (Full text)

Are Antibiotics Effective in the Treatment of Children With Prolonged Wet Cough? Are Antibiotics Effective in the Treatment of Children With Prolonged Wet Cough? - Annals of Emergency Medicine Email/Username: Password: Remember me Search Terms Search within Search Share this page Access provided by Volume 73, Issue 5, Pages 453–455 Are Antibiotics Effective in the Treatment of Children With Prolonged Wet Cough? x Brit Long , MD (EBEM Commentator) , x Michael D. April , MD, DPhil (EBEM (...) Commentator) Department of Emergency Medicine, San Antonio Uniformed Services Health Education Consortium, Fort Sam Houston, TX DOI: | Publication History Published online: November 13, 2018 Expand all Collapse all Article Outline Take-Home Message Antibiotics may improve clinical cure and reduce progression of illness in children with prolonged wet cough. Methods Data Sources Authors identified trials from the Cochrane Airways Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE OvidSP, and EMBASE OvidSP through September

2019 Annals of Emergency Medicine Systematic Review Snapshots PubMed

26. CRP-guided antibiotic treatment in acute exacerbations of COPD in hospital admissions

CRP-guided antibiotic treatment in acute exacerbations of COPD in hospital admissions The role of antibiotics in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is controversial and a biomarker identifying patients who benefit from antibiotics is mandatory. We performed a randomised, controlled trial in patients with acute exacerbations of COPD, comparing C-reactive protein (CRP)-guided antibiotic treatment to patient reported symptoms in accordance with the Global (...) Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) strategy, in order to show a reduction in antibiotic prescription.Patients hospitalised with acute exacerbations of COPD were randomised to receive antibiotics based either on the GOLD strategy or according to the CRP strategy (CRP ≥50 mg·L-1).In total, 101 patients were randomised to the CRP group and 119 to the GOLD group. Fewer patients in the CRP group were treated with antibiotics compared to the GOLD group (31.7% versus 46.2%, p=0.028; adjusted

2019 EvidenceUpdates

27. Perioperative Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Total Joint Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Perioperative Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Total Joint Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis The 2017 U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for the prevention of surgical site infection (SSI) recommended against continuation of antibiotics postoperatively after total joint arthroplasty. This is disconcerting, as the revised guidelines are based on only 6 orthopaedic studies, of which 83% (5 of 6) were published from 1987 to 1991. The purpose of the current (...) study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature regarding the efficacy and duration of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) in total joint arthroplasty.PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and Ovid Embase were screened for "surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis orthopedic," in accordance with PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines, without a specified time frame with respect to publication date. A total of 693 studies were screened, and 32

2019 EvidenceUpdates

28. Guideline-Based Clinical Assessment Versus Procalcitonin-Guided Antibiotic Use in Pneumonia: A Pragmatic Randomized Trial

Guideline-Based Clinical Assessment Versus Procalcitonin-Guided Antibiotic Use in Pneumonia: A Pragmatic Randomized Trial Efforts to reduce unnecessary and unnecessarily long antibiotic treatment for community-acquired pneumonia have been attempted through use of procalcitonin and through guidelines based on serial clinical assessment. Our aim is to compare guideline-based clinical assessment- and procalcitonin algorithm-guided antibiotic use among patients with community-acquired pneumonia.We (...) performed a pragmatic, randomized, multicenter trial from November 2012 to April 2015 at 12 French hospitals. We included emergency department (ED) patients older than 18 years with community-acquired pneumonia. Patients were randomly assigned to either the procalcitonin-guided or clinical assessment group. In accordance with past studies, we hypothesized that serial clinical assessment would be superior to procalcitonin-guided care. The primary outcome was antibiotic duration, and secondary outcomes

2019 EvidenceUpdates

29. Antibiotic use for irreversible pulpitis. (PubMed)

Antibiotic use for irreversible pulpitis. Irreversible pulpitis, which is characterised by acute and intense pain, is one of the most frequent reasons that patients attend for emergency dental care. Apart from removal of the tooth, the customary way of relieving the pain of irreversible pulpitis is by drilling into the tooth, removing the inflamed pulp (nerve) and cleaning the root canal. However, a significant number of dentists continue to prescribe antibiotics to stop the pain (...) of irreversible pulpitis.This review updates the previous version published in 2016.To assess the effects of systemic antibiotics for irreversible pulpitis.We searched Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 18 February 2019); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2019, Issue 1) in the Cochrane Library (searched 18 February 2019); MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 18 February 2019); Embase Ovid (1980 to 18 February 2019); US National Institutes of Health Ongoing Trials Register

2019 Cochrane

30. Antibiotic therapy for adults with neurosyphilis. (PubMed)

Antibiotic therapy for adults with neurosyphilis. Neurosyphilis is an infection of the central nervous system, caused by Treponema pallidum, a spirochete capable of infecting almost any organ or tissue in the body causing neurological complications due to the infection. This disease is a tertiary manifestation of syphilis. The first-line treatment for neurosyphilis is aqueous crystalline penicillin. However, in cases such as penicillin allergy, other regimes of antibiotic therapy can be used.To (...) assess the clinical effectiveness and safety of antibiotic therapy for adults with neurosyphilis.We searched the Cochrane Library, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and Opengrey up to April 2019. We also searched proceedings of eight congresses to a maximum of 10 years, and we contacted trial authors for additional information.We included randomised clinical trials that included men and women, regardless of age, with definitive

2019 Cochrane

31. Head-to-head oral prophylactic antibiotic therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (PubMed)

Head-to-head oral prophylactic antibiotic therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; including chronic bronchitis and emphysema) is a chronic respiratory condition characterised by shortness of breath, cough and recurrent exacerbations. Long-term antibiotic use may reduce both bacterial load and inflammation in the airways. Studies have shown a reduction of exacerbations with antibiotics in comparison to placebo in people with COPD (...) , but there are concerns about antibiotic resistance and safety.To compare the safety and efficacy of different classes of antibiotics (continuous, intermittent or pulsed) for prophylaxis of exacerbations in patients with COPD.We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Trials Register and bibliographies of relevant studies. The latest literature search was conducted on 6 February 2019.Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were selected that compared one prophylactic antibiotic with another in patients with COPD.We used

2019 Cochrane

32. The Collaborative Assessment, OTCA12, on “C-reactive protein point-of-care testing (CRP POCT) to guide antibiotic prescribing in primary care settings for acute respiratory tract infections (RTIs)

The Collaborative Assessment, OTCA12, on “C-reactive protein point-of-care testing (CRP POCT) to guide antibiotic prescribing in primary care settings for acute respiratory tract infections (RTIs) Dec2015 © EUnetHTA, 2015. Reproduction is authorised provided EUnetHTA is explicitly acknowledged 1 EUnetHTA Joint Action 3 WP4 Version 1.4, +31 January 2019] Rapid assessment of other technologies using the HTA Core Model ® for Rapid Relative Effectiveness Assessment C-REACTIVE PROTEIN POINT-OF-CARE (...) TESTING (CRP POCT) TO GUIDE ANTIBIOTIC PRESCRIBING IN PRIMARY CARE SETTINGS FOR ACUTE RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS (RTIS) Project ID: OTCA012 C-reactive protein point-of-care testing to guide antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections in primary care EUnetHTA Joint Action 3 WP4 2 DOCUMENT HISTORY AND CONTRIBUTORS Version Date Description V1.0 26/10/2018 First draft. V1.1 03/12/2018 Input from co-author has been processed. V1.2 03/12/2018 Input from dedicated reviewers has been

2019 EUnetHTA

33. Two weeks versus four weeks of antibiotic therapy after surgical drainage for native joint bacterial arthritis: a prospective, randomised, non-inferiority trial

Two weeks versus four weeks of antibiotic therapy after surgical drainage for native joint bacterial arthritis: a prospective, randomised, non-inferiority trial The optimal duration of postsurgical antibiotic therapy for adult native joint bacterial arthritis remains unknown.We conducted a prospective, unblinded, randomised, non-inferiority study comparing either 2 or 4 weeks of antibiotic therapy after surgical drainage of native joint bacterial arthritis in adults. Excluded were implant (...) -related infections, episodes without surgical lavage and episodes with a follow-up of less than 2 months.We enrolled 154 cases: 77 in the 4-week arm and 77 in the 2-week arm. Median length of intravenous antibiotic treatment was 1 and 2 days, respectively. The median number of surgical lavages was 1 in both arms. Recurrence of infection was noted in three patients (2%): 1 in the 2-week arm (99% cure rate) and 2 in the 4-week arm (97% cure rate). There was no difference in the number of adverse events

2019 EvidenceUpdates

34. HTA of C-reactive protein point-of-care testing to guide antibiotic prescribing

HTA of C-reactive protein point-of-care testing to guide antibiotic prescribing Health Technology Assessment (HTA) of CRP POCT Health Information and Quality Authority i Health Technology Assessment of C-reactive protein point-of-care testing to guide antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections in primary care settings April 2019 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) of CRP POCT Health Information and Quality Authority ii Health Technology Assessment (HTA) of CRP POCT Health (...) a range of health services, in conjunction with the Department of Health and the HSE. Health Technology Assessment (HTA) of CRP POCT Health Information and Quality Authority iv Foreword Antimicrobial resistance occurs when bacteria adapt in response to the use of medicines. When bacteria become antibiotic resistant, infections become more difficult to manage and treat. Antimicrobial resistance is a significant threat to public health, and widely acknowledged to be associated with the excessive

2019 Health Information and Quality Authority

35. Probiotics for the prevention of pediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhea. (PubMed)

Probiotics for the prevention of pediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Antibiotics alter the microbial balance commonly resulting in antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). Probiotics may prevent AAD via providing gut barrier, restoration of the gut microflora, and other potential mechanisms of action.The primary objectives were to assess the efficacy and safety of probiotics (any specified strain or dose) used for the prevention of AAD in children.MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, CINAHL (...) , and the Web of Science (inception to 28 May 2018) were searched along with registers including the ISRCTN and Clinicaltrials.gov. We also searched the NICE Evidence Services database as well as reference lists from relevant articles.Randomized, parallel, controlled trials in children (0 to 18 years) receiving antibiotics, that compare probiotics to placebo, active alternative prophylaxis, or no treatment and measure the incidence of diarrhea secondary to antibiotic use were considered for inclusion.Study

2019 Cochrane

36. Community-based antibiotic delivery for possible serious bacterial infections in neonates in low- and middle-income countries. (PubMed)

Community-based antibiotic delivery for possible serious bacterial infections in neonates in low- and middle-income countries. The recommended management for neonates with a possible serious bacterial infection (PSBI) is hospitalisation and treatment with intravenous antibiotics, such as ampicillin plus gentamicin. However, hospitalisation is often not feasible for neonates in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Therefore, alternative options for the management of neonatal PSBI in LMICs (...) needs to be evaluated.To assess the effects of community-based antibiotics for neonatal PSBI in LMICs on neonatal mortality and to assess whether the effects of community-based antibiotics for neonatal PSBI differ according to the antibiotic regimen administered.We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2018, Issue 3), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 16 April 2018), Embase (1980 to 16 April 2018), and CINAHL (1982

2019 Cochrane

37. Long-term antibiotics for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection in children. (PubMed)

Long-term antibiotics for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection in children. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is common in children. Symptoms include fever, lethargy, anorexia, and vomiting. UTI is caused by Escherichia coli in over 80% of cases and treatment is a course of antibiotics. Due to acute illness caused by UTI and the risk of pyelonephritis-induced permanent kidney damage, many children are given long-term (several months to 2 years) antibiotics aimed at preventing recurrence (...) . This is the third update of a review first published in 2001 and updated in 2006, and 2011.To assess whether long-term antibiotic prophylaxis was more effective than placebo/no treatment in preventing recurrence of UTI in children, and if so which antibiotic in clinical use was the most effective. We also assessed the harms of long-term antibiotic treatment.We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Register of Studies up to 30 July 2018 through contact with the Cochrane Information Specialist using search

2019 Cochrane

38. Electronically delivered interventions to reduce antibiotic prescribing for respiratory infections in primary care: cluster RCT using electronic health records and cohort study

Electronically delivered interventions to reduce antibiotic prescribing for respiratory infections in primary care: cluster RCT using electronic health records and cohort study Electronically delivered interventions to reduce antibiotic prescribing for respiratory infections in primary care: cluster RCT using electronic health records and cohort study Journals Library An error occurred retrieving content to display, please try again. >> >> >> Page Not Found Page not found (404) Sorry - the page (...) you requested could not be found. Please choose a page from the navigation or try a website search above to find the information you need. >> >> >> >> Issue {{metadata .Issue }} Toolkit 1)"> 0)"> 1)"> {{metadata.Title}} {{metadata.Headline}} This electronically delivered intervention reduced general practice antibiotic prescribing for respiratory infections. {{author}} {{($index , , , , , , , , , , , , & . Martin C Gulliford 1, 2, * , Dorota Juszczyk 1, 2 , A Toby Prevost 1, 2, 3 , Jamie Soames 4

2019 NIHR HTA programme

39. Is There a Difference in Infection Risk Between Single and Multiple Doses of Prophylactic Antibiotics? A Meta-analysis

Is There a Difference in Infection Risk Between Single and Multiple Doses of Prophylactic Antibiotics? A Meta-analysis The prevention of surgical site infection guidelines issued by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently recommended that only a single dose of preoperative antibiotics be administered to patients undergoing clean-contaminated procedures based on data from a variety of surgical disciplines. For orthopaedic procedures, where postoperative infections can have (...) significant consequences, the existing evidence for this recommendation is widely debated.Is there a difference in postoperative infection risk when utilizing a single dose of preoperative antibiotics compared with multiple doses of perioperative antibiotics for orthopaedic procedures where implants are placed?MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and Cochrane were systematically reviewed for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of a single dose of preoperative antibiotics compared with pre- and postoperative

2019 EvidenceUpdates

40. Effect of prolonged antibiotic treatment on cognition in patients with Lyme borreliosis

Effect of prolonged antibiotic treatment on cognition in patients with Lyme borreliosis To investigate whether longer-term antibiotic treatment improves cognitive performance in patients with persistent symptoms attributed to Lyme borreliosis.Data were collected during the Persistent Lyme Empiric Antibiotic Study Europe (PLEASE) trial, a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Study participants passed performance-validity testing (measure for detecting suboptimal effort) and had persistent (...) treatment with ceftriaxone followed by a 12-week regimen of doxycycline or clarithromycin/hydroxychloroquine did not lead to better cognitive performance compared to a 2-week regimen of ceftriaxone in patients with Lyme disease-attributed persistent symptoms.NCT01207739.This study provides Class II evidence that longer-term antibiotics in patients with borreliosis-attributed persistent symptoms does not increase cognitive performance compared to shorter-term antibiotics.Copyright © 2019 The Author(s

2019 EvidenceUpdates