Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

61. Giving immediate antibiotics reduces deaths from sepsis

Giving immediate antibiotics reduces deaths from sepsis Giving immediate antibiotics reduces deaths from sepsis Discover Portal Discover Portal Giving immediate antibiotics reduces deaths from sepsis Published on 18 April 2017 doi: Giving immediate antibiotics (defined as within one hour) when people present to emergency departments with suspected sepsis reduces their risk of dying by a third compared with later administration. This meta-analysis of observational data from 23,596 people (...) in emergency department settings confirmed that giving antibiotics within one hour was linked to a lower risk of in-hospital mortality compared with giving antibiotics later. This adds weight to recommendations from NICE and other organisations that antibiotics should be administered straight away in people with suspected sepsis. However, in practice up to a third of people in the UK do not receive antibiotics within the hour. NHS England and the UK Sepsis Trust have recently launched a campaign

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

62. Antibiotics by injection into the eye can prevent severe infection following cataract surgery

Antibiotics by injection into the eye can prevent severe infection following cataract surgery Antibiotics by injection into the eye can prevent severe infection following cataract surgery Discover Portal Discover Portal Antibiotics by injection into the eye can prevent severe infection following cataract surgery Published on 11 April 2017 doi: Injecting the antibiotics vancomycin or moxifloxacin into the eyeball after eye surgery can reduce the risk of developing severe infection inside the eye (...) (endophthalmitis) compared to other routes. Cefuroxime is currently the antibiotic of choice for this in the UK, but researchers wanted to see if drugs with lower rates of resistance might also be effective. A of 34 studies, mostly observational studies with nine randomised controlled trials (RCTs), explored the effects of different types of antibiotic regimens on the risk of endophthalmitis in people who had received eye surgery. There were no randomised trials of vancomycin or moxifloxacin injections

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

63. Adding the extra antibiotic rifampicin did not improve cure rates after sepsis

Adding the extra antibiotic rifampicin did not improve cure rates after sepsis Adding the extra antibiotic rifampicin did not improve cure rates after sepsis Discover Portal Discover Portal Adding the extra antibiotic rifampicin did not improve cure rates after sepsis Published on 17 April 2018 doi: Adding the antibiotic rifampicin did not improve cure rates or reduce deaths for people with bacterial blood infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus . It increased the risk of adverse reactions (...) requiring a change in treatment and the chances of drug interactions. This NIHR-funded trial is the largest to date on adding rifampicin to standard antibiotic therapy. The study included 770 people in 29 UK hospitals. Half were assigned to 14 days of treatment with rifampicin on top of their existing antibiotic regime. Rifampicin could be either oral or intravenous. Share your views on the research. Why was this study needed? Blood stream infections with S. aureus are life-threatening and one

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

64. Prescribing anti-inflammatories for urine infection reduces antibiotic use but increases complication risk

Prescribing anti-inflammatories for urine infection reduces antibiotic use but increases complication risk Anti-inflammatories for urine infection reduces antibiotic use but increases complication risk Discover Portal Discover Portal Prescribing anti-inflammatories for urine infection reduces antibiotic use but increases complication risk Published on 5 June 2018 doi: Urinary tract infection symptoms resolved by three days for 80% of women given antibiotics compared with 54% given anti (...) -inflammatories. Anti-inflammatories reduced antibiotic use, but 5% of women developed more severe infection of the kidneys. Urinary infections are the second most common reason for prescribing antibiotics in general practice, after respiratory infection. As such, this use may be contributing to increasing antibiotic resistance. This Swiss trial provided an important head-to-head comparison of antibiotic treatment with the anti-inflammatory diclofenac in 253 women. The findings don’t indicate that a switch

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

65. Central lines coated with antibiotics reduce bloodstream infections in children

Central lines coated with antibiotics reduce bloodstream infections in children Central lines coated with antibiotics reduce bloodstream infections in children Discover Portal Discover Portal Central lines coated with antibiotics reduce bloodstream infections in children Published on 10 May 2016 doi: Children in intensive care had lower rates of infection when using antibiotic coated central lines (also called central venous catheters) compared to standard central lines or those coated (...) with heparin – an anti-clotting agent. Antibiotic or heparin coated central lines have long been used in adults to reduce catheter-associated bloodstream infections, but evidence for benefits in children was lacking. This NIHR funded trial provides evidence that use of antibiotic coated central lines could reduce bloodstream infections in paediatric intensive care units. The researchers say cost-effectiveness, based on six-month hospital resource data, will be reported elsewhere. Tis evidence is needed

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

66. Antibiotics are not necessary for preventing infections following simple hand surgery

Antibiotics are not necessary for preventing infections following simple hand surgery Antibiotics are not necessary for preventing infections following simple hand surgery Discover Portal Discover Portal Antibiotics are not necessary for preventing infections following simple hand surgery Published on 24 May 2016 doi: Antibiotics did not significantly reduce the number of infections in people with clean wounds who had simple hand surgery, this review found. NICE guidance, published in 2008 (...) , recommends that antibiotics are not prescribed for uncomplicated surgery where the wound is clean. The findings of this review support this recommendation. This work also fits with NICE 2015 guidance on antimicrobial stewardship, providing information to improve antibiotic prescribing decisions. Many of the studies included in this review may have suffered from bias, so the results should be viewed with some caution. Share your views on the research. Why was this study needed? Infection following surgery

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

67. Antibiotics for eczema that looks infected may be unnecessary in some cases

Antibiotics for eczema that looks infected may be unnecessary in some cases Antibiotics for eczema that looks infected may be unnecessary in some cases Discover Portal Discover Portal Antibiotics for eczema that looks infected may be unnecessary in some cases Published on 26 July 2016 doi: This trial found that when treating childhood eczema that clinically looked suspicious of moderate infection, adding antibiotic tablets or creams to the usual treatment of oils, lotions, creams (...) and corticosteroids was not clearly beneficial. When eczema becomes infected, NICE recommends using antibiotics that are applied to the skin for small-scale infections and oral antibiotics for the treatment of widespread infection. Reducing the use of ineffective treatments reduce harm to patients and could also reduce the development of antimicrobial resistance so it is important to know how strong the evidence is that supports the use of antibiotics when eczema looks as if it might be infected. There are some

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

68. Education targeted at both parents and GPs reduces antibiotic prescribing for children

Education targeted at both parents and GPs reduces antibiotic prescribing for children Education targeted at both parents and GPs reduces antibiotic prescribing for children Discover Portal Discover Portal Education targeted at both parents and GPs reduces antibiotic prescribing for children Published on 30 August 2016 doi: Interventions aimed at improving communication between GPs and parents could reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescribing for childhood upper respiratory infections (...) , such as the common cold. Inappropriate use of antibiotics has contributed to antibiotic resistance, resulting in impossible or difficult to treat infections. Parents, as well as GPs, influence the decision to prescribe antibiotics. Educational interventions that target both groups appear to be more effective at reducing prescriptions than those focussing on either group on their own. This information came from a systematic review of 12 studies conducted in high-income countries, one in the UK. It could be used

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

69. Daily low-dose antibiotics halve urinary tract infections in people who self-catheterise

Daily low-dose antibiotics halve urinary tract infections in people who self-catheterise Daily low-dose antibiotics halve urinary tract infections in people who self-catheterise Discover Portal Discover Portal Daily low-dose antibiotics halve urinary tract infections in people who self-catheterise Published on 14 August 2018 doi: People who perform clean intermittent self-catheterisation can reduce symptomatic urinary tract infections from two per year to one by taking daily low-dose (...) antibiotics. This NIHR-funded trial randomised 404 adults in the UK who perform the procedure for a variety of reasons to either daily oral low-dose antibiotics or no prophylaxis. All had a recent history of urinary tract infection. Although prophylactic antibiotics halved infection rates, it increased antimicrobial resistance compared with the control group who took short courses of antibiotics for each infection. This has implications for the individual and wider population. As overall reported health

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

70. Tools for GPs can help reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescribing

Tools for GPs can help reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescribing Tools for GPs can help reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescribing Discover Portal Discover Portal Tools for GPs can help reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescribing Published on 30 October 2018 doi: Interventions to reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory tract infections are most effective when they provide a negotiation tool to support patient interaction. These interventions are more likely to be rejected (...) if they are perceived as interfering with individual clinical judgment or damaging patient relationships. Upper respiratory tract infections often resolve themselves within a few days, without the need for antibiotics, yet antibiotics are often prescribed. This systematic review of qualitative studies explored what primary care professionals who prescribe thought about interventions designed to reduce antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory infections. These findings indicate that a successful implementation

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

71. Probiotics can prevent bacterial diarrhoea in hospital patients receiving antibiotics

Probiotics can prevent bacterial diarrhoea in hospital patients receiving antibiotics Probiotics to prevent diarrhoea caused by C. difficile Discover Portal Discover Portal Probiotics can prevent bacterial diarrhoea in hospital patients receiving antibiotics Published on 1 May 2018 doi: Giving probiotics to people taking antibiotics reduces the chance of them developing diarrhoea caused by Clostridium difficile ( C. difficile ) bacteria by 60%. One case of Clostridium-associated diarrhoea (...) was prevented for every 42 people receiving probiotics. They appear to work best for patients at more than 5% risk of Clostridium infection. When antibiotics disturb healthy gut bacteria, Clostridium bacteria may multiply to toxic levels, causing diarrhoea and serious intestinal complications. Probiotics can be found in dietary supplements or yoghurts but are increasingly sold as capsules and contain live bacteria or yeast that may counteract these effects. This updated Cochrane review pooled 39 trials

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

72. Antibiotics may be an alternative first-line treatment for uncomplicated appendicitis

Antibiotics may be an alternative first-line treatment for uncomplicated appendicitis Antibiotics may be an alternative first-line treatment for uncomplicated appendicitis Discover Portal Discover Portal Antibiotics may be an alternative first-line treatment for uncomplicated appendicitis Published on 22 January 2019 doi: Appendicectomy surgery could potentially be avoided for around 60% of adults with uncomplicated appendicitis if they receive antibiotics first. Adults in Finland (...) with appendicitis were randomised to have appendicectomy or a course of antibiotics. In 6 out of 10 the appendicitis settled and did not return over the five years they were followed. Of those who did go on to need surgery most did so in the first year. If the findings from the study could be applied to the UK, it is estimated that up to 24,000 appendicectomies might be avoided in England each year. In the UK, appendicitis is usually managed by appendicectomy, so shifting to antibiotic therapy as a first choice

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

73. Antibiotics for treating urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in men and non-pregnant women. (PubMed)

Antibiotics for treating urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in men and non-pregnant women. The genital infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) globally. The infection is mainly asymptomatic in women, thus it can produce infertility and chronic pelvic pain. In men infection is mainly symptomatic, but can evolve to prostatitis. Clinical practice guidelines for CT urogenital infections do not give any specific recommendation about (...) which antibiotic use as first option OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of antibiotic treatment for CT genital infection in men and non-pregnant women.The Cochrane Sexually Transmitted Infections' (STI) Information Specialist developed the electronic searches in electronic databases (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and LILACS), and trials registers. We searched studies published from inception to June 2018.We included parallel, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of men, and sexually-active, non

2019 Cochrane

74. Adverse events in people taking macrolide antibiotics versus placebo for any indication. (PubMed)

Adverse events in people taking macrolide antibiotics versus placebo for any indication. Macrolide antibiotics (macrolides) are among the most commonly prescribed antibiotics worldwide and are used for a wide range of infections. However, macrolides also expose people to the risk of adverse events. The current understanding of adverse events is mostly derived from observational studies, which are subject to bias because it is hard to distinguish events caused by antibiotics from events caused (...) by the diseases being treated. Because adverse events are treatment-specific, rather than disease-specific, it is possible to increase the number of adverse events available for analysis by combining randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of the same treatment across different diseases.To quantify the incidences of reported adverse events in people taking macrolide antibiotics compared to placebo for any indication.We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), which includes

2019 Cochrane

75. Appropriateness of outpatient antibiotic prescribing among privately insured US patients: ICD-10-CM based cross sectional study. (PubMed)

Appropriateness of outpatient antibiotic prescribing among privately insured US patients: ICD-10-CM based cross sectional study. To assess the appropriateness of outpatient antibiotic prescribing for privately insured children and non-elderly adults in the US using a comprehensive classification scheme of diagnosis codes in ICD-10-CM (international classification of diseases-clinical modification, 10th revision), which replaced ICD-9-CM in the US on 1 October 2015.Cross sectional (...) study.MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters database, 2016.19.2 million enrollees aged 0-64 years.A classification scheme was developed that determined whether each of the 91 738 ICD-10-CM diagnosis codes "always," "sometimes," or "never" justified antibiotics. For each antibiotic prescription fill, this scheme was used to classify all diagnosis codes in claims during a look back period that began three days before antibiotic prescription fills and ended on the day fills occurred. The main outcome

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2019 BMJ

76. Early discontinuation of antibiotics for febrile neutropenia versus continuation until neutropenia resolution in people with cancer. (PubMed)

Early discontinuation of antibiotics for febrile neutropenia versus continuation until neutropenia resolution in people with cancer. People with cancer with febrile neutropenia are at risk of severe infections and mortality and are thus treated empirically with broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. However, the recommended duration of antibiotic therapy differs across guidelines.To assess the safety of protocol-guided discontinuation of antibiotics regardless of neutrophil count, compared (...) to continuation of antibiotics until neutropenia resolution in people with cancer with fever and neutropenia, in terms of mortality and morbidity. To assess the emergence of resistant bacteria in people with cancer treated with short courses of antibiotic therapy compared with people with cancer treated until resolution of neutropenia.We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2018, Issue 10) in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS up to 1 October 2018. We searched

2019 Cochrane

77. COPD exacerbation: no systematic use of antibiotics

COPD exacerbation: no systematic use of antibiotics Prescrire IN ENGLISH - Spotlight ''COPD exacerbation: no systematic use of antibiotics'', 1 January 2019 {1} {1} {1} | | > > > COPD exacerbation: no systematic use of antibiotics Spotlight Every month, the subjects in Prescrire’s Spotlight. 100 most recent :  |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |  Spotlight COPD exacerbation: no systematic use of antibiotics For episodes (...) of moderate aggravation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), it is preferable to prescribe antibiotics as a first-line treatment only when the suspicion of bacterial infection is reinforced by an increase in sputum purulence. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are subject to exacerbations of their disease, i.e. episodes of prolonged aggravation. The known causes are mainly viral and bacterial infections. Some exacerbations justify hospitalisation: severe

2019 Prescrire

78. The Role of Oral Antibiotic Preparation in Elective Colorectal Surgery: A Meta-analysis

The Role of Oral Antibiotic Preparation in Elective Colorectal Surgery: A Meta-analysis To compare the impact of the use of oral antibiotics (OAB) with or without mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) on outcome in elective colorectal surgery.Meta-analyses have demonstrated that MBP does not impact upon postoperative morbidity or mortality, and as such it should not be prescribed routinely. However, recent evidence from large retrospective cohort and database studies has suggested that there may

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2019 EvidenceUpdates

79. Antibiotic prophylaxis for urinary catheter manipulation following arthroplasty: a systematic review

Antibiotic prophylaxis for urinary catheter manipulation following arthroplasty: a systematic review Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files

2019 PROSPERO

80. The impact of antibiotic-mediated alterations of the intestinal microbiome on outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: systematic review and meta-analysis

The impact of antibiotic-mediated alterations of the intestinal microbiome on outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: systematic review and meta-analysis Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability

2019 PROSPERO