Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

161. Systemic antibiotics for symptomatic apical periodontitis and acute apical abscess in adults. (Full text)

Systemic antibiotics for symptomatic apical periodontitis and acute apical abscess in adults. Dental pain can have a detrimental effect on quality of life. Symptomatic apical periodontitis and acute apical abscess are common causes of dental pain and arise from an inflamed or necrotic dental pulp, or infection of the pulpless root canal system. Clinical guidelines recommend that the first-line treatment for teeth with these conditions should be removal of the source of inflammation or infection (...) by local, operative measures, and that systemic antibiotics are currently only recommended for situations where there is evidence of spreading infection (cellulitis, lymph node involvement, diffuse swelling) or systemic involvement (fever, malaise). Despite this, there is evidence that dentists frequently prescribe antibiotics in the absence of these signs. There is concern that this could contribute to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacterial colonies within both the individual

2018 Cochrane PubMed

162. Five-Year Follow-up of Antibiotic Therapy for Uncomplicated Acute Appendicitis in the APPAC Randomized Clinical Trial. (Full text)

Five-Year Follow-up of Antibiotic Therapy for Uncomplicated Acute Appendicitis in the APPAC Randomized Clinical Trial. Short-term results support antibiotics as an alternative to surgery for treating uncomplicated acute appendicitis, but long-term outcomes are not known.To determine the late recurrence rate of appendicitis after antibiotic therapy for the treatment of uncomplicated acute appendicitis.Five-year observational follow-up of patients in the Appendicitis Acuta (APPAC) multicenter (...) randomized clinical trial comparing appendectomy with antibiotic therapy, in which 530 patients aged 18 to 60 years with computed tomography-confirmed uncomplicated acute appendicitis were randomized to undergo an appendectomy (n = 273) or receive antibiotic therapy (n = 257). The initial trial was conducted from November 2009 to June 2012 in Finland; last follow-up was September 6, 2017. This current analysis focused on assessing the 5-year outcomes for the group of patients treated with antibiotics

2018 JAMA PubMed

163. Antibiotics for treating scrub typhus. (Full text)

Antibiotics for treating scrub typhus. Scrub typhus, an important cause of acute fever in Asia, is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, an obligate intracellular bacterium. Antibiotics currently used to treat scrub typhus include tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, macrolides, and rifampicin.To assess and compare the effects of different antibiotic regimens for treatment of scrub typhus.We searched the following databases up to 8 January 2018: the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group specialized trials (...) register; CENTRAL, in the Cochrane Library (2018, Issue 1); MEDLINE; Embase; LILACS; and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT). We checked references and contacted study authors for additional data. We applied no language or date restrictions.Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs comparing antibiotic regimens in people with the diagnosis of scrub typhus based on clinical symptoms and compatible laboratory tests (excluding the Weil-Felix test).For this update, two review authors re

2018 Cochrane PubMed

164. Sensitivity and specificity of using trial-of-antibiotics versus sputum mycobacteriology for diagnosis of tuberculosis: protocol for a systematic literature review. (Full text)

Sensitivity and specificity of using trial-of-antibiotics versus sputum mycobacteriology for diagnosis of tuberculosis: protocol for a systematic literature review. Suboptimal diagnostics for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) drives use of 'trial-of-antibiotics (non-tuberculosis)' in an attempt to distinguish PTB patients from those with bacterial lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). The underlying assumption-that patients with LRTI will report 'response' to broad-spectrum antibiotics, while (...) those with PTB will not-has minimal evidence base for such a widely used intervention. Numerous potential causes of misclassification include bacterial super-infection of active PTB, placebo effect, and antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The main aim of this systematic review is to collate available evidence on the performance of trial-of-antibiotics as a diagnostic test and to explore the timing, interpretation, and decision-making process.We will search MEDLINE, Embase, and Global Health using

2018 Systematic Reviews PubMed

165. Resolution of fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli keratitis with a PROSE device for enhanced targeted antibiotic delivery (Full text)

Resolution of fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli keratitis with a PROSE device for enhanced targeted antibiotic delivery To report the resolution of a fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli keratitis with use of a prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface ecosystem (PROSE) device for enhanced targeted delivery of moxifloxiacin.A 62-year-old female presented with a 3-day history of pain, photophobia, and declining vision in left eye. The patient had a 2-year history of binocular (...) therapy. Frequent dosing to the PROSE reservoir is likely to increase fluoroquinolone bioavailability and may represent a valuable approach to overcome antibiotic resistance.

2018 American journal of ophthalmology case reports PubMed

166. Antibiotics for acute rhinosinusitis in adults. (PubMed)

Antibiotics for acute rhinosinusitis in adults. Acute rhinosinusitis is an acute infection of the nasal passages and paranasal sinuses that lasts less than four weeks. Diagnosis of acute rhinosinusitis is generally based on clinical signs and symptoms in ambulatory care settings. Technical investigations are not routinely performed, nor are they recommended in most countries. Some trials show a trend in favour of antibiotics, but the balance of benefit versus harm is unclear.We merged two (...) Cochrane Reviews for this update, which comprised different approaches with overlapping populations, resulting in different conclusions. For this review update, we maintained the distinction between populations diagnosed by clinical signs and symptoms, or imaging.To assess the effects of antibiotics versus placebo or no treatment in adults with acute rhinosinusitis in ambulatory care settings.We searched CENTRAL (2017, Issue 12), which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's

2018 Cochrane

167. Short-course versus long-course therapy of the same antibiotic for community-acquired pneumonia in adolescent and adult outpatients. (Full text)

Short-course versus long-course therapy of the same antibiotic for community-acquired pneumonia in adolescent and adult outpatients. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a lung infection that can be acquired during day-to-day activities in the community (not while receiving care in a hospital). Community-acquired pneumonia poses a significant public health burden in terms of mortality, morbidity, and costs. Shorter antibiotic courses for CAP may limit treatment costs and adverse effects (...) , but the optimal duration of antibiotic treatment is uncertain.To evaluate the efficacy and safety of short-course versus longer-course treatment with the same antibiotic at the same daily dosage for CAP in non-hospitalised adolescents and adults (outpatients). We planned to investigate non-inferiority of short-course versus longer-term course treatment for efficacy outcomes, and superiority of short-course treatment for safety outcomes.We searched CENTRAL, which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory

2018 Cochrane PubMed

168. Head-to-head trials of antibiotics for bronchiectasis. (PubMed)

Head-to-head trials of antibiotics for bronchiectasis. The diagnosis of bronchiectasis is defined by abnormal dilation of the airways related to a pathological mechanism of progressive airway destruction that is due to a 'vicious cycle' of recurrent bacterial infection, inflammatory mediator release, airway damage, and subsequent further infection. Antibiotics are the main treatment option for reducing bacterial burden in people with exacerbations of bronchiectasis and for longer-term (...) eradication, but their use is tempered against potential adverse effects and concerns regarding antibiotic resistance. The comparative effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and safety of different antibiotics have been highlighted as important issues, but currently little evidence is available to help resolve uncertainty on these questions.To evaluate the comparative effects of different antibiotics in the treatment of adults and children with bronchiectasis.We identified randomised controlled trials (RCTs

2018 Cochrane

169. Predicting Failure in Early Acute Prosthetic Joint Infection Treated With Debridement, Antibiotics, and Implant Retention: External Validation of the KLIC Score

Predicting Failure in Early Acute Prosthetic Joint Infection Treated With Debridement, Antibiotics, and Implant Retention: External Validation of the KLIC Score Debridement, antibiotics, and implant retention (DAIR) is a widely used treatment modality for early acute prosthetic joint infection (PJI). A preoperative risk score was previously designed for predicting DAIR failure, consisting of chronic renal failure (K), liver cirrhosis (L), index surgery (I), cemented prosthesis (C), and C

2018 EvidenceUpdates

170. Uropathogen Resistance and Antibiotic Prophylaxis: A Meta-analysis

Uropathogen Resistance and Antibiotic Prophylaxis: A Meta-analysis Limited data exist regarding uropathogen resistance in randomized controlled trials of urinary tract infection (UTI) prevention and antibiotic prophylaxis.To assess the effect of prophylaxis on developing a multidrug-resistant first recurrent UTI among children with vesicoureteral reflux.Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Specialized Register through May 25, 2017.Randomized controlled trials of patients ≤18 years of age (...) with a history of vesicoureteral reflux being treated with continuous antibiotic prophylaxis compared with no treatment or placebo with available antibiotic sensitivity profiles.Two independent observers abstracted data and assessed quality and validity per Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Adjusted meta-analyses were performed by using a mixed-effects logistic regression model.One thousand two hundred and ninety-nine patients contributed 224 UTIs. Patients

2018 EvidenceUpdates

171. Partial Oral versus Intravenous Antibiotic Treatment of Endocarditis. (PubMed)

Partial Oral versus Intravenous Antibiotic Treatment of Endocarditis. Patients with infective endocarditis on the left side of the heart are typically treated with intravenous antibiotic agents for up to 6 weeks. Whether a shift from intravenous to oral antibiotics once the patient is in stable condition would result in efficacy and safety similar to those with continued intravenous treatment is unknown.In a randomized, noninferiority, multicenter trial, we assigned 400 adults in stable (...) condition who had endocarditis on the left side of the heart caused by streptococcus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, or coagulase-negative staphylococci and who were being treated with intravenous antibiotics to continue intravenous treatment (199 patients) or to switch to oral antibiotic treatment (201 patients). In all patients, antibiotic treatment was administered intravenously for at least 10 days. If feasible, patients in the orally treated group were discharged to outpatient

2018 NEJM

172. Antibiotics

Antibiotics Top results for antibiotics - Trip Database or use your Google+ account Find evidence fast ALL of these words: Title only Anywhere in the document ANY of these words: Title only Anywhere in the document This EXACT phrase: Title only Anywhere in the document EXCLUDING words: Title only Anywhere in the document Timeframe: to: Combine searches by placing the search numbers in the top search box and pressing the search button. An example search might look like (#1 or #2) and (#3 or #4 (...) ) Loading history... Population: Intervention: Comparison: Outcome: Population: Intervention: Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence. If you

2018 Trip Latest and Greatest

173. Antibiotics for prolonged wet cough in children. (PubMed)

Antibiotics for prolonged wet cough in children. Cough is a frequent symptom presenting to doctors. The most common cause of childhood chronic (greater than fours weeks' duration) wet cough is protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) in some settings, although other more serious causes can also present this way. Timely and effective management of chronic wet or productive cough improves quality of life and clinical outcomes. Current international guidelines suggest a course of antibiotics (...) is the first treatment of choice in the absence of signs or symptoms specific to an alternative diagnosis. This review sought to clarify the current evidence to support this recommendation.To determine the efficacy of antibiotics in treating children with prolonged wet cough (excluding children with bronchiectasis or other known underlying respiratory illness) and to assess risk of harm due to adverse events.We undertook an updated search (from 2008 onwards) using the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised

2018 Cochrane

174. Trends in outpatient antibiotic use and prescribing practice among US older adults, 2011-15: observational study. (Full text)

Trends in outpatient antibiotic use and prescribing practice among US older adults, 2011-15: observational study. To identify temporal trends in outpatient antibiotic use and antibiotic prescribing practice among older adults in a high income country.Observational study using United States Medicare administrative claims in 2011-15.Medicare, a US national healthcare program for which 98% of older adults are eligible.4.5 million fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years old (...) and older.Overall rates of antibiotic prescription claims, rates of potentially appropriate and inappropriate prescribing, rates for each of the most frequently prescribed antibiotics, and rates of antibiotic claims associated with specific diagnoses. Trends in antibiotic use were estimated by multivariable regression adjusting for beneficiaries' demographic and clinical covariates.The number of antibiotic claims fell from 1364.7 to 1309.3 claims per 1000 beneficiaries per year in 2011-14 (adjusted reduction

2018 BMJ PubMed

175. Responses of the Human Gut Escherichia coli Population to Pathogen and Antibiotic Disturbances (Full text)

Responses of the Human Gut Escherichia coli Population to Pathogen and Antibiotic Disturbances Studies of Escherichia coli in the human gastrointestinal tract have focused on pathogens, such as diarrhea-causing enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), while overlooking the resident, nonpathogenic E. coli community. Relatively few genomes of nonpathogenic E. coli strains are available for comparative genomic analysis, and the ecology of these strains is poorly understood. This study examined (...) the diversity and dynamics of resident human gastrointestinal E. coli communities in the face of the ecological challenges presented by pathogen (ETEC) challenge, as well as of antibiotic treatment. Whole-genome sequences obtained from E. coli isolates from before, during, and after ETEC challenge were used in phylogenomic and comparative genomic analyses to examine the diversity of the resident E. coli communities, as well as the dynamics of the challenge strain, H10407, a well-studied ETEC strain

2018 mSystems PubMed

176. Vitamin D as an adjunct to antibiotics for the treatment of acute childhood pneumonia. (PubMed)

Vitamin D as an adjunct to antibiotics for the treatment of acute childhood pneumonia. Children with acute pneumonia may be vitamin D deficient. Clinical trials have found that prophylactic vitamin D supplementation decreases the risk of developing pneumonia in children. Data on the therapeutic effects of vitamin D in acute childhood pneumonia are limited.To evaluate the efficacy and safety of vitamin D supplementation as an adjunct to antibiotics for the treatment of acute childhood

2018 Cochrane

177. Probiotics to Prevent Clostridium difficile Infection in Patients Receiving Antibiotics. (Full text)

Probiotics to Prevent Clostridium difficile Infection in Patients Receiving Antibiotics. In adults and children prescribed antibiotics, is co-administration of a probiotic associated with a lower risk of symptomatic Clostridium difficile infection without an increase in adverse events?Moderate-quality evidence suggests that probiotics are associated with a lower risk of C difficile infection and very low-quality evidence suggests that probiotics are associated with fewer adverse events vs

2018 JAMA PubMed

178. Overuse of Antibiotics and the Rise of Superbugs: A Major Global Health Crisis

Overuse of Antibiotics and the Rise of Superbugs: A Major Global Health Crisis I not a bot. Resume. Are you not a robot? Click on the button to continue: I not a bot. Resume.

2018 MedicalVideos

179. Association Between Use of Acid-Suppressive Medications and Antibiotics During Infancy and Allergic Diseases in Early Childhood (Full text)

Association Between Use of Acid-Suppressive Medications and Antibiotics During Infancy and Allergic Diseases in Early Childhood Allergic diseases are prevalent in childhood. Early exposure to medications that can alter the microbiome, including acid-suppressive medications and antibiotics, may influence the likelihood of allergy.To determine whether there is an association between the use of acid-suppressive medications or antibiotics in the first 6 months of infancy and development of allergic (...) [49.9%] girls) included for analysis, 60 209 (7.6%) were prescribed an H2RA, 13 687 (1.7%) were prescribed a PPI, and 131 708 (16.6%) were prescribed an antibiotic during the first 6 months of life. Data for each child were available for a median of 4.6 years. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) in children prescribed H2RAs and PPIs, respectively, were 2.18 (95% CI, 2.04-2.33) and 2.59 (95% CI, 2.25-3.00) for food allergy, 1.70 (95% CI, 1.60-1.80) and 1.84 (95% CI, 1.56-2.17) for medication allergy, 1.51

2018 EvidenceUpdates PubMed

180. Characterization of Wild and Captive Baboon Gut Microbiota and Their Antibiotic Resistomes (Full text)

Characterization of Wild and Captive Baboon Gut Microbiota and Their Antibiotic Resistomes Environmental microbes have harbored the capacity for antibiotic production for millions of years, spanning the evolution of humans and other vertebrates. However, the industrial-scale use of antibiotics in clinical and agricultural practice over the past century has led to a substantial increase in exposure of these agents to human and environmental microbiota. This perturbation is predicted to alter (...) the ecology of microbial communities and to promote the evolution and transfer of antibiotic resistance (AR) genes. We studied wild and captive baboon populations to understand the effects of exposure to humans and human activities (e.g., antibiotic therapy) on the composition of the primate fecal microbiota and the antibiotic-resistant genes that it collectively harbors (the "resistome"). Using a culture-independent metagenomic approach, we identified functional antibiotic resistance genes in the gut

2018 mSystems PubMed