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Latest & greatest articles for aspirin
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Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) more commonly known as aspirin is a painkiller that has a wide range of uses. It is frequently used to treat fever, mild pain, tooth aches, headaches and muscle aches. Aspirin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and can be used in the management of conditions such as heart attack, arthritis, blood clots and stroke. Aspirin, has been used for thousands of years, initially extracted from the leaves of willow trees.
Aspirin works in much the same way as other NSAIDs but has additional properties, such as antiplatelet activity which can make it additionally useful. More recently aspirin has been linked with cancer prevention. But the potential benefits of aspirin need to be weighed against the potential side effects, which includes gastrointestinal bleeding and Reye’s syndrome. It should be noted that aspirin should not be used in people who are allergic to drugs such as ibuprofen or a more generalized intolerance to NSAIDs. It should also be used cautiously in asthmatics and/or those with bronchospasm associated with NSAID use.
Research evidence, clinical trials and guidelines on Aspirin
Randomised trial of intravenous streptokinase, oral aspirin, both, or neither among 17,187 cases of suspected acute myocardial infarction: ISIS-2. ISIS-2 (Second International Study of Infarct Survival) Collaborative Group. 17,187 patients entering 417 hospitals up to 24 hours (median 5 hours) after the onset of suspected acute myocardial infarction were randomised, with placebo control, between: (i) a 1-hour intravenous infusion of 1.5 MU of streptokinase; (ii) one month of 160 mg/day enteric (...) -coated aspirin; (iii) both active treatments; or (iv) neither. Streptokinase alone and aspirin alone each produced a highly significant reduction in 5-week vascular mortality: 791/8592 (9.2%) among patients allocated streptokinase infusion vs 1029/8595 (12.0%) among those allocated placebo infusion (odds reduction: 25% SD 4; 2p less than 0.00001); 804/8587 (9.4%) vascular deaths among patients allocated aspirin tablets vs 1016/8600 (11.8%) among those allocated placebo tablets (odds reduction: 23% SD
1988LancetControlled trial quality: predicted high
Aspirin and dipyridamole in the prevention of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. To examine the role of antiplatelet therapy in the prevention of arterial restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 376 patients. The active treatment consisted of an oral aspirin-dipyridamole combination (330 mg-75 mg) given three times daily, beginning 24 hours before PTCA. Eight hours (...) before PTCA, the oral dipyridamole was replaced with intravenous dipyridamole at a dosage of 10 mg per hour for 24 hours, and oral aspirin was continued. Sixteen hours after PTCA, the initial combination was reinstituted. Treatment was continued in patients with a successfully dilated vessel until follow-up angiography four to seven months after PTCA--or earlier, if symptoms dictated. Of 249 patients who underwent follow-up angiography, 37.7 percent of patients receiving the active drug had
Aspirin, heparin, or both to treat acute unstable angina. We tested the usefulness of aspirin (325 mg twice daily), heparin (1000 units per hour by intravenous infusion), and a combination of the two in the early management of acute unstable angina pectoris in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial involving 479 patients. The patients entered the study as soon as possible after hospital admission (at a mean [+/- SD] of 7.9 +/- 8.0 hours after the last episode of pain (...) ), and the study was ended after 6 +/- 3 days, when definitive therapy had been selected. Major end points--refractory angina, myocardial infarction, and death--occurred in 23, 12, and 1.7 percent of the 118 patients receiving placebo, respectively. Heparin was associated with a decrease in the occurrence of refractory angina (P = 0.002). The incidence of myocardial infarction was significantly reduced in the groups receiving aspirin (3 percent; P = 0.01), heparin (0.8 percent; P less than 0.001), and aspirin
Effects of ursodeoxycholic acid and aspirin on the formation of lithogenic bile and gallstones during loss of weight. We attempted to determine whether the administration of aspirin or ursodeoxycholic acid during loss of weight could prevent the development of lithogenic changes in bile and the formation of gallstones. Sixty-eight obese subjects without gallstones who were entered in a program (520 kcal per day) to lose weight were randomly assigned to receive ursodeoxycholic acid (1200 mg per (...) day), aspirin (1300 mg per day), or placebo in double-blind fashion for up to 16 weeks. At entry, at four weeks of treatment, and at three weeks after the completion of treatment, the subjects underwent ultrasonography to detect gallstones and duodenal drainage of bile to detect cholesterol crystals and to determine the bile saturation index and glycoprotein concentration. No gallstones or cholesterol crystals formed in the patients treated with ursodeoxycholic acid. Among the patients given
Low-dose aspirin prevents pregnancy-induced hypertension and pre-eclampsia in angiotensin-sensitive primigravidae. The possibility of preventing pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) and pre-eclampsia in primigravidae by suppressing production of thromboxane A2 with low-dose aspirin was investigated in a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. 46 normotensive women at 28 weeks' gestation, judged to be at risk of PIH or pre-eclampsia because of an increased blood-pressure response (...) to intravenously infused angiotensin II, were studied. 23 women received 60 mg aspirin daily, and the same number received matching placebo until delivery. In the placebo group PIH, pre-eclampsia, and eclampsia developed in 4, 7, and 1 cases, respectively, whereas only 2 women in the aspirin group had mild PIH. There were no adverse effects of treatment in mothers or infants. Low-dose aspirin may restore prostacyclin/thromboxane imbalance, previously suggested as an important aetiological factor in PIH and pre
Aspirin, sulfinpyrazone, or both in unstable angina. Results of a Canadian multicenter trial. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 555 patients with unstable angina who were hospitalized in coronary care units. Patients received one of four possible treatment regimens: aspirin (325 mg four times daily), sulfinpyrazone (200 mg four times daily), both, or neither. They were entered into the trial within eight days of hospitalization and were treated and followed (...) for up to two years (mean, 18 months). The incidence of cardiac death and nonfatal myocardial infarction, considered together, was 8.6 per cent in the groups given aspirin and 17.0 per cent in the other groups, representing a risk reduction with aspirin of 51 per cent (P = 0.008). The corresponding figures for either cardiac death alone or death from any cause were 3.0 per cent in the groups given aspirin and 11.7 per cent in the other groups, representing a risk reduction of 71 per cent (P = 0.004
Effect of dipyridamole and aspirin on late vein-graft patency after coronary bypass operations. To study the prevention of occlusion of aortocoronary-artery bypass grafts, we concluded a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial comparing long-term administration of dipyridamole (begun two days before operation) plus aspirin (begun seven hours after operation) with placebo in 407 patients. Results at one month showed a reduction in the rate of graft occlusion in patients receiving (...) dipyridamole and aspirin. At vein-graft angiography performed in 343 patients (84 per cent) 11 to 18 months (median, 12 months) after operation, 11 per cent of 478 vein-graft distal anastomoses were occluded in the treated group, and 25 per cent of 486 were occluded in the placebo group. The proportion of patients with one or more distal anastomoses occluded was 22 per cent of 171 patients in the treated group and 47 per cent of 172 in the placebo group. All grafts were patent within a month of operation
Improved aortocoronary bypass patency by low-dose aspirin (100 mg daily). Effects on platelet aggregation and thromboxane formation. Prevention of aortocoronary bypass occlusion by aspirin (ASA, 1 X 100 mg per day) was studied in a prospective double-blind trial of 83 patients. 60 (72%) were randomly allocated to ASA or placebo starting 24 h after operation. 90% of grafts in the ASA group and 68% in the placebo group were patent at four months. At least one anastomosis was occluded in 62 (...) % of the patients on placebo and in 27% of those on aspirin. Ventricular arrhythmias increased after surgery in more patients on placebo (12/18) than in patients on ASA (5/17). Platelet thromboxane formation on collagen tested before operation was significantly higher in patients in whom bypass occlusion developed (occlusion: 40 +/- 19, no occlusion: 25 +/- 13 ng/ml). A 100 mg dose of ASA per day effectively blocked platelet thromboxane formation and thromboxane-supported aggregation on collagen and was safe
Protective effects of aspirin against acute myocardial infarction and death in men with unstable angina. Results of a Veterans Administration Cooperative Study. We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial of aspirin treatment (324 mg in buffered solution daily) for 12 weeks in 1266 men with unstable angina (625 taking aspirin and 641 placebo). The principal end points were death and acute myocardial infarction diagnosed by the presence of creatine kinase MB (...) or pathologic Q-wave changes on electrocardiograms. The incidence of death or acute myocardial infarction was 51 per cent lower in the aspirin group than in the placebo group: 31 patients (5.0 per cent) as compared with 65 (10.1 per cent); P = 0.0005. Nonfatal acute myocardial infarction was 51 per cent lower in the aspirin group: 21 patients (3.4 per cent) as compared with 44 (6.9 per cent); P = 0.005. The reduction in mortality in the aspirin group was also 51 per cent--10 patients (1.6 per cent
Aspirin-sulfinpyrazone in prophylaxis of deep venous thrombosis in total hip replacement. In postoperative hip arthroplasty patients, treatment with aspirin and sulfinpyrazone resulted in a statistically significant reduction of venographically diagnosed thrombi in the proximal veins of the leg. This reduction was most apparent in thrombi that involved the iliac vein. When compared with their placebo-treated counterparts, female patients who received the active treatment experienced
A platelet-inhibitor-drug trial in coronary-artery bypass operations: benefit of perioperative dipyridamole and aspirin therapy on early postoperative vein-graft patency. To prevent occlusion of aortocoronary-artery-bypass grafts, we conducted a prospective, randomized-double-blind trial comparing dipyridamole (instituted two days before operation) plus aspirin (added seven hours after operation) with placebo in 407 patients. Vein-graft angiography was performed in 360 patients (88 per cent (...) was similar in the two groups. In this trial dipyridamole and aspirin were effective in preventing graft occlusion early after operation.
A controlled comparison of aspirin and oral anticoagulants in prevention of death after myocardial infarction. Although neither aspirin nor oral anticoagulants have been conclusively shown to reduce mortality in patients surviving myocardial infarction, both have been widely used for that purpose. In the present clinical trial we compared the effects of aspirin (0.5 g given three times a day) and oral-anticoagulant therapy. Of 6908 patients considered for entry, 1303 were randomized (...) to anticoagulant (652) or aspirin (651) an average of 11.4 days after the onset of myocardial infarction and were followed for 6 to 59 months (mean, 29 months). There were 65 deaths in the anticoagulant group and 72 in the aspirin group. The number of patients with reinfarctions was higher in the aspirin group (33 vs. 20). None of these differences were statistically significant. Almost twice as many patients were withdrawn from therapy in the aspirin group. There were 54 per cent more patients
Trial of dipyridamole-aspirin in recurring venous thrombosis. 38 patients (26 men) with recurring venous thromboembolism (RVTE) were enrolled in a prospective double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of dipyridamole (DPY), 100 mg a day, and aspirin (ASA), 1200 mg a day. Platelet survival (51Cr labelling of autologous platelets) was measured every 6 months for 18 months. 19 patients were randomised to treatment with DPY and ASA, and 1 had new venous thrombosis (after 15 months of treatment); 19
Aspirin and secondary mortality after myocardial infarction. A randomised controlled double-blind trial of aspirin in the prevention of death was conducted in 1682 patients (including 248 women) who had had a confirmed myocardial infarct (MI). 25% of the patients were admitted to the trial within 3 days of the infarction and 50% within 7 days. Aspirin, 300 mg three times daily, was given for 1 yr. Total mortality was 12.3% in patients given aspirin and 14.8% in those given placebo, a reduction (...) by aspirin of 17%, which was not statistically significant at p less than 0.05. The reduction in specific ischaemic-heart-disease (IHD) mortality was 22% and in total mortality plus IHD morbidity (readmission to hospital for MI in survivors) was 28%.
Clinical trials of intra-articular aspirin in rheumatoid arthritis. The effect of the intra-articular injection of acetylsalicylic acid in patients with rheumatoid arthritis was compared with that of hydrocortisone acetate and with that of saline in blind, controlled, clinical trials. All three preparations were effective in relieving pain and improving the range of motion, and no significant differences were demonstrated. The results suggest a need for the re-appraisal of the value of intra
Comparison of the effects of regular and enteric-coated aspirin on gastroduodenal mucosa of man. To determine whether the topical or systemic effects of aspirin are of greater importance in the production of gastroduodenal mucosal damage, the effects of regular and enteric-coated aspirin were compared in 9 healthy volunteers in a 2-week crossover endoscopic study. All subjects developed multiple gastric erosions while taking regular aspirin; 2 subjects developed one gastric erosion each while (...) taking enteric-coated aspirin. 5 subjects developed duodenal erosions while taking regular aspirin, whereas none developed an erosion while taking enteric-coated aspirin. Mean fasting salicylate levels were similar in the two groups. It is concluded that regular aspirin causes a greater amount of gastroduodenal mucosal damage than does enteric-coated aspirin despite similar serum-salicylate levels. This suggests that the topical effects of aspirin are of greater importance than the systemic effects
A randomized, controlled trial of aspirin in persons recovered from myocardial infarction. The Aspirin Myocardial Infarction Study (AMIS) was a National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute-sponsored, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial designed to test whether the regular administration of aspirin to men and women who had experienced at least one documented myocardial infarction (MI) would result in a significant reduction in total mortality over a three-year period (...) . Cause-specific mortality, nonfatal events, and side effects were also evaluated. Over a 13-month period, 4,524 persons between the ages of 30 and 69 years were randomized to either 1 g of aspirin per day (2,267 persons) or placebo (2,257 persons). High levels of patient compliance to study protocol were indicated by various measures. Total mortality during the entire follow-up period was 10.8% in the aspirin group and 9.7% in the placebo group. Three-year total mortality was 9.6% in the aspirin
Blockade of chlorpropamide alcohol flush by aspirin. The blocking effects of aspirin, chlorpheniramine, and cimetidine were tested against the flush provoked by alcohol in twenty-four chlorpropamide-treated patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Active preparations were compared in a double-blind manner with an indistinguishable placebo. Aspirin significantly decreased the number of patients who flushed. Five patients studied in detail all showed suppression of chlorpropamide (...) /alcohol flush by aspirin, with a mean facial temperature increase during the flush of 2.4 degrees C after pretreatment with placebo and an increase of 0.4 degrees C after pretreatment with aspirin.
Reduction by aspirin of intestinal fluid-loss in acute childhood gastroenteritis. Soluble aspirin was given by mouth in therapeutic doses in a double-blind trial to malnourished infants and young children with gastroenteritis and dehydration. Faecal fluid-losses were reduced and weight-grain was enhanced in the group given aspirin. These effects were statistically significant when compared with those obtained with a placebo preparation and in a group of patients given supportive therapy (...) but no specific drug treatment. The results suggest that aspirin may be useful in reducing intestinal fluid-loss in childhood gastroenteritis. Before the widespread use of aspirin can be recommended, its effects in patients not under hospital supervision must be determined.
Prevention of thrombosis in patients on hemodialysis by low-dose aspirin. Since platelet cyclo-oxygenase is much more sensitive to inactivation by aspirin than is the enzyme in the arterial wall and low doses of aspirin may prevent thrombosis by blocking thromboxane synthesis, we conducted a randomized, double-blind trial of aspirin (160 mg per day) vs. placebo in 44 patients on chronic hemodialysis. The study was continued until there were 24 patients with thrombi and both groups had been (...) under observation for a mean of nearly five months. Thrombi occurred in 18 of 25 (72 per cent) of patients given placebo and 16 of 19 (32 per cent) of those given aspirin (P less than 0.01). The incidence of thrombosis was reduced from 0.46 thrombi per patient month in the placebo group to 0.16 thrombi per patient month in the aspirin group (p less than 0.005). A dose of 160 mg of aspirin per day is an effective, nontoxic antithrombotic regimen in patients on hemodialysis.