Latest & greatest articles for azithromycin

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Top results for azithromycin

61. Higher dosages of azithromycin are more effective in treatment of group A streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis

Higher dosages of azithromycin are more effective in treatment of group A streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.

2005 DARE.

62. Mass treatment with single-dose azithromycin for trachoma. (PubMed)

Mass treatment with single-dose azithromycin for trachoma. Trachoma, caused by repeated ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, is an important cause of blindness. Current recommended dosing intervals for mass azithromycin treatment for trachoma are based on a mathematical model.We collected conjunctival swabs for quantitative polymerase-chain-reaction assay of C. trachomatis before and 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after mass treatment with azithromycin in a Tanzanian community in which (...) trachoma was endemic. For ethical reasons, at 6, 12, and 18 months, we gave tetracycline eye ointment to residents who had clinically active trachoma.At baseline, 956 of 978 residents (97.8 percent) received either one oral dose of azithromycin or (if azithromycin was contraindicated) a course of tetracycline eye ointment. The prevalence of infection fell from 9.5 percent before mass treatment to 2.1 percent at 2 months and 0.1 percent at 24 months. The quantitative burden of ocular C. trachomatis

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2004 NEJM

63. Targeted mass treatment for syphilis with oral azithromycin. (PubMed)

Targeted mass treatment for syphilis with oral azithromycin. From mid 1997 to end of 1999, there was a sexually-transmitted infectious syphilis outbreak mainly in heterosexual people in British Columbia, Canada, that was concentrated in Vancouver. The rate across the province increased from less than 0.5 to 3.4 per 100000, and the rate in Vancouver reached 12.9 per 100000. We aimed to eliminate the syphillis outbreak by treating people at risk of infection. In 2000, a targeted mass treatment (...) programme provided azithromycin (1.8 g orally) to 4384 at-risk residents in this city. After the programme, syphilis frequency fell significantly for 6 months (p=0.016), but rose again in 2001. Results from curve fitting analyses showed that the number of cases in 2001 (177) was higher than expected (0.0001

2003 Lancet

64. Azithromycin for the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease events: the WIZARD study: a randomized controlled trial. (PubMed)

Azithromycin for the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease events: the WIZARD study: a randomized controlled trial. Several lines of evidence have implied an association between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and atherogenesis.To determine the effect of 12 weeks of antibiotic therapy on coronary heart disease events in patients with stable coronary artery disease and known C pneumoniae exposure.Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 7747 adults with previous myocardial infarction (...) that had occurred at least 6 weeks previously (median, 2.6 years) and a C pneumoniae IgG titer of 1:16 or more. Patients were recruited from 271 clinical practices in North America, Europe, Argentina, and India, from October 10, 1997, to July 22, 2001.The patients received either azithromycin (600 mg/d for 3 days during week 1, then 600 mg/wk during weeks 2-12; n = 3879) or placebo (n = 3868).The primary event was the first occurrence of death from any cause, nonfatal reinfarction, coronary

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2003 JAMA

65. Azithromycin in patients with cystic fibrosis chronically infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a randomized controlled trial. (PubMed)

Azithromycin in patients with cystic fibrosis chronically infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a randomized controlled trial. Treatment strategies for cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease include antibiotics, mucolytics, and anti-inflammatory therapies. Increasing evidence suggests that macrolide antibiotics might be beneficial in patients with CF.To determine if an association between azithromycin use and pulmonary function exists in patients with CF.A multicenter, randomized, double-blind (...) , and CF center.The active group (n = 87) received 250 mg (weight <40 kg) or 500 mg (weight > or =40 kg) of oral azithromycin 3 days a week for 168 days; placebo group (n = 98) received identically packaged tablets.Change in FEV1 from day 0 to completion of therapy at day 168 and determination of safety. Secondary outcomes included pulmonary exacerbations and weight gain.The azithromycin group had a mean 0.097-L (SD, 0.26) increase in FEV1 at day 168 compared with 0.003 L (SD, 0.23) in the placebo

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2003 JAMA

66. Effect of short-term treatment with azithromycin on recurrent ischaemic events in patients with acute coronary syndrome in the Azithromycin in Acute Coronary Syndrome (AZACS) trial: a randomised controlled trial. (PubMed)

Effect of short-term treatment with azithromycin on recurrent ischaemic events in patients with acute coronary syndrome in the Azithromycin in Acute Coronary Syndrome (AZACS) trial: a randomised controlled trial. There is serological and epidemiological evidence of an association between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and coronary artery disease. Results of previous smaller studies have indicated a reduction of recurrent ischaemic events in patients with acute coronary syndrome when given (...) macrolide antibiotics. We aimed to assess whether short-term treatment with the macrolide antibiotic azithromycin reduces recurrent ischaemic events in patients admitted for unstable angina or myocardial infarction.We assessed the effect of azithromycin in a multicentre, double-blind randomised trial in 1439 patients with unstable angina or acute myocardial infarction. Patients were randomly allocated to receive 500 mg azithromycin on the first day after randomisation, followed by 250 mg daily for 4

2003 Lancet

67. Pharmacoeconomic aspects of antibacterial therapy with azithromycin of community-acquired pneumonia in servicemen

Pharmacoeconomic aspects of antibacterial therapy with azithromycin of community-acquired pneumonia in servicemen Pharmacoeconomic aspects of antibacterial therapy with azithromycin of community-acquired pneumonia in servicemen Pharmacoeconomic aspects of antibacterial therapy with azithromycin of community-acquired pneumonia in servicemen Dzyublyk O Y, Mukhin O O, Simonov S S Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED (...) . Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology The use of oral azithromycin (Sumamed PLIVA, Croatia) in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) was examined. The drug regimen was 500 mg given orally once daily for 3 days. Type of intervention Treatment. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population The study

2003 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

68. Comparison of single-dose azithromycin and 12-dose, 3-day erythromycin for childhood cholera: a randomised, double-blind trial. (PubMed)

Comparison of single-dose azithromycin and 12-dose, 3-day erythromycin for childhood cholera: a randomised, double-blind trial. Cholera is a major public-health problem, with children most affected. However, effective single-dose antimicrobial regimens have been identified only for adults. Our aim was to compare the efficacy of azithromycin and erythromycin regimens in the treatment of children.We did a double-blind, randomised study of 128 severely dehydrated children (age 1-15 years (...) ) with cholera, treated at one of two treatment centres in Bangladesh in 1999. Children were assigned single-dose azithromycin (20 mg/kg bodyweight, maximum individual dose 1 g; n=65) or 12.5 mg/kg erythromycin (maximum dose 500 mg; n=63) every 6 h for 3 days. Patients stayed in hospital for 5 days. We measured fluid balance every 6 h, and obtained a rectal swab or stool sample for culture daily. Our primary outcome measures were clinical success of treatment-ie, cessation of watery diarrhoea within 48 h

2002 Lancet

69. Long term azithromycin in children with cystic fibrosis: a randomised, placebo-controlled crossover trial. (PubMed)

Long term azithromycin in children with cystic fibrosis: a randomised, placebo-controlled crossover trial. The macrolide antibiotic azithromycin has anti-inflammatory properties potentially beneficial in cystic fibrosis. Since findings of open pilot studies seemed to show clinical benefit, we undertook a formal trial.41 children with cystic fibrosis, aged 8-18 years, and with a median forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) of 61% (range 33-80%) participated in a 15-month randomised double-blind (...) , placebo-controlled crossover trial. They received either azithromycin (bodyweight < or =40 kg: 250 mg daily, >40 kg: 500 mg daily) or placebo for 6 months. After 2 months of washout, the treatments were crossed over. The primary outcome was median relative difference in FEV1 between azithromycin and placebo treatment periods. Sputum cultures, sputum interleukin 8 and neutrophil elastase, exercise testing, quality of life, antibiotic use, and pulmonary exacerbation rates were secondary outcome measures

2002 Lancet

70. Azithromycin for acute bronchitis: a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial. (PubMed)

Azithromycin for acute bronchitis: a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial. The value of azithromycin for treatment of acute bronchitis is unknown, even though this drug is commonly prescribed. We have investigated this question in a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial.Adults diagnosed with acute bronchitis, without evidence of underlying lung disease, were randomly assigned azithromycin (n=112) or vitamin C (n=108) for 5 days (total dose for each 1.5 g). All individuals were also (...) patients in the azithromycin group and 82 (89%) of 92 in the vitamin C group had returned to their usual activities by day 7 (difference 0.5% [-10% to 9%], p>0.9). There were no differences in the frequency of adverse effects; three patients in the vitamin C group discontinued the study medicine because of perceived adverse effects, compared with none in the azithromycin group. Most patients (81%) reported benefit from the albuterol inhaler.Azithromycin is no better than low-dose vitamin C for acute

2002 Lancet

71. Azithromycin versus doxycycline for genital chlamydial infections: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials

Azithromycin versus doxycycline for genital chlamydial infections: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials Azithromycin versus doxycycline for genital chlamydial infections: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials Azithromycin versus doxycycline for genital chlamydial infections: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials Lau C Y, Qureshi A K Authors' objectives To evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of azithromycin versus doxycycline for genital chlamydial infection. Searching (...) Studies published in English were retrieved from the following databases: MEDLINE and Pre-MEDLINE (from 1975 to August 2001), HealthSTAR (from 1975 to August 2001), EBM Reviews: Best Evidence (from September 1991 to January/February 2001), EBM Reviews: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (second quarter of 2001), and EBM Reviews: DARE (second quarter of 2001). The medical subject headings 'CT' and 'doxycycline' or 'CT' and 'azithromycin' were used as search terms. Bibliographies of computer

2002 DARE.

72. Cost-effectiveness of IV-to-oral switch therapy: azithromycin vs cefuroxime with or without erythromycin for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia

Cost-effectiveness of IV-to-oral switch therapy: azithromycin vs cefuroxime with or without erythromycin for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia Cost-effectiveness of IV-to-oral switch therapy: azithromycin vs cefuroxime with or without erythromycin for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia Cost-effectiveness of IV-to-oral switch therapy: azithromycin vs cefuroxime with or without erythromycin for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia Paladino J A, Gudgel L D, Forrest (...) A, Niederman M S Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Two alternative strategies for treating patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) were examined. One strategy was intravenous (IV) to oral azithromycin (AZI

2002 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

73. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on the comparative efficacy and safety of azithromycin against other antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections

Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on the comparative efficacy and safety of azithromycin against other antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on the comparative efficacy and safety of azithromycin against other antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on the comparative efficacy and safety of azithromycin against other antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections (...) Ioannidis J P, Contopoulos-Ioannidis D G, Chew P, Lau J Authors' objectives To compare azithromycin in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections with other antibiotics that are typically administered in longer courses. Searching MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched from 1990 to 21 March 2000 using the textword and MeSH term 'azithromycin'. The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register was also searched. Papers published in English, French, German or Spanish were eligible, as were those published in any

2001 DARE.

74. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on the comparative efficacy and safety of azithromycin against other antibiotics for lower respiratory tract infections

Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on the comparative efficacy and safety of azithromycin against other antibiotics for lower respiratory tract infections Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on the comparative efficacy and safety of azithromycin against other antibiotics for lower respiratory tract infections Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on the comparative efficacy and safety of azithromycin against other antibiotics for lower respiratory tract infections (...) Contopoulos-Ioannidis D G, Ioannidis J P, Chew P, Lau J Authors' objectives To carry out a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of azithromycin compared with other antibiotics, in the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections including acute bronchitis, acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis and community-acquired pneumonia. Searching MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for RCTs published from 1990 to 21 March 2000, using the textword and MeSH 'azithromycin'. The Cochrane Controlled

2001 DARE.

75. Azithromycin vs. clarithromycin and co-amoxiclav: clinical and economic comparison in the treatment of acute otitis media in children

Azithromycin vs. clarithromycin and co-amoxiclav: clinical and economic comparison in the treatment of acute otitis media in children Azithromycin vs. clarithromycin and co-amoxiclav: clinical and economic comparison in the treatment of acute otitis media in children Azithromycin vs. clarithromycin and co-amoxiclav: clinical and economic comparison in the treatment of acute otitis media in children Kawalski H, Blacha E, Kopacz M, Mos M, Cierpiol-Tracz E, Welniak M, Dudziak B, Bojda S, Kossowska (...) B, Gatniejewska E, Ligacz M Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology The use of azithromycin, clarithromycin and co-amoxiclav in the treatment of children with acute otitis media (AOM). Azithromycin was administered

2001 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

76. Atovaquone and azithromycin for the treatment of babesiosis. (PubMed)

Atovaquone and azithromycin for the treatment of babesiosis. Babesiosis is a tick-borne, malaria-like illness known to be enzootic in southern New England. A course of clindamycin and quinine is the standard treatment, but this regimen frequently causes adverse reactions and occasionally fails. A promising alternative treatment is atovaquone plus azithromycin.We conducted a prospective, nonblinded, randomized trial of the two regimens in 58 subjects with non-life-threatening babesiosis (...) on Nantucket, on Block Island, and in southern Connecticut. The subjects were assigned to receive either atovaquone (750 mg every 12 hours) and azithromycin (500 mg on day 1 and 250 mg per day thereafter) for seven days (40 subjects) or clindamycin (600 mg every 8 hours) and quinine (650 mg every 8 hours) for seven days (18 subjects).Adverse effects were reported by 15 percent of the subjects who received atovaquone and azithromycin, as compared with 72 percent of those who received clindamycin and quinine

2000 NEJM

77. Azithromycin in control of trachoma. (PubMed)

Azithromycin in control of trachoma. Trachoma is the leading cause of preventable blindness. Programmes to prevent blindness due to trachoma are based on community-wide treatment with topical tetracycline. We assessed the potential of community-wide azithromycin treatment for trachoma control.Pairs of villages in trachoma endemic areas of Egypt, The Gambia, and Tanzania were matched on trachoma rates in 1-10-year-old children. Villages were randomly assigned community-wide oral azithromycin (...) with no active disease were LCR positive. Village-wide LCR positivity ranged from 16.5% (Tanzania) to 43.6% (Egypt). Treatment compliance was over 90% except in the tetracycline treatment village in Egypt. Of the participants initially LCR positive, 866 (95%) of 924 who received at least one azithromycin dose and 482 (82%) of 587 who received 28 days or more topical tetracycline, were negative at follow-up. At 1 year, village-wide LCR positivity rates were substantially lower than at baseline with both

1999 Lancet

78. Efficacy of azithromycin in prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: a randomised trial. California Collaborative Treatment Group. (PubMed)

Efficacy of azithromycin in prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: a randomised trial. California Collaborative Treatment Group. Azithromycin in combination with sulphonamides is active against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in animals. We assessed the clinical efficacy of azithromycin for PCP prophylaxis in human beings.We identified HIV-1-infected patients with PCP during a prospective randomised trial comparing azithromycin, rifabutin, and the two drugs in combination (...) for prevention of disseminated Mycobacterim avium infection. Patients had CD4-cell counts less than 100/microL at entry and received PCP prophylaxis according to the standard practice of their clinician. Analysis was by intention to treat.Patients receiving azithromycin, either alone (n=233) or in combination with rifabutin (n=224), had a 45% lower risk of developing PCP than those receiving rifabutin alone (n=236; p=0.008). Compared with rifabutin alone, hazard ratio for azithromycin was 0.54 (95% CI 0.32

1999 Lancet

79. Cost-effectiveness of azithromycin for preventing Mycobacterium avium complex infection in HIV-positive patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy

Cost-effectiveness of azithromycin for preventing Mycobacterium avium complex infection in HIV-positive patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy Cost-effectiveness of azithromycin for preventing Mycobacterium avium complex infection in HIV-positive patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy Cost-effectiveness of azithromycin for preventing Mycobacterium avium complex infection in HIV-positive patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy Sendi P (...) P, Craig B A, Meier G, Pfluger D, Gafni A, Opravil M, Battegay M, Bucher H C Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection prophylaxis with azithromycin (1,200 mg per week) in HIV

1999 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

80. Prophylaxis against disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex with weekly azithromycin, daily rifabutin, or both. California Collaborative Treatment Group. (PubMed)

Prophylaxis against disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex with weekly azithromycin, daily rifabutin, or both. California Collaborative Treatment Group. Azithromycin is active in treating Mycobacterium avium complex disease, but it has not been evaluated as primary prophylaxis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Because the drug is concentrated in macrophages and has a long half-life in tissue, there is a rationale for once-weekly dosing.We compared three (...) prophylactic regimens in a multicenter, double-blind, randomized trial involving 693 HIV-infected patients with fewer than 100 CD4 cells per cubic millimeter. The patients were assigned to receive rifabutin (300 mg daily), azithromycin (1200 mg weekly), or both drugs. They were monitored monthly with blood cultures for M. avium complex.In an intention-to-treat analysis, the incidence of disseminated M. avium complex infection at one year was 15.3 percent with rifabutin, 7.6 percent with azithromycin

1996 NEJM