Latest & greatest articles for babies

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Top results for babies

181. A systematic review of randomised controlled trials evaluating the effect of mother/baby skin-to-skin care on successful breast feeding

A systematic review of randomised controlled trials evaluating the effect of mother/baby skin-to-skin care on successful breast feeding A systematic review of randomised controlled trials evaluating the effect of mother/baby skin-to-skin care on successful breast feeding A systematic review of randomised controlled trials evaluating the effect of mother/baby skin-to-skin care on successful breast feeding Carfoot S, Williamson P R, Dickson R CRD summary This review concluded that methodological (...) limitations within the identified studies prohibited firm conclusions being reached on the effect of early maternal/baby skin-to-skin contact on the duration of breast-feeding, timing of first breast-feed, or baby physiological factors. This was a well-conducted systematic review and the conclusions seem reliable. Authors' objectives To assess the effectiveness of early skin-to-skin contact between mother and baby on the initiation and duration of breast-feeding in healthy full-term babies. Searching

2003 DARE.

182. Do women with pre-eclampsia, and their babies, benefit from magnesium sulphate? The Magpie Trial: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. (PubMed)

Do women with pre-eclampsia, and their babies, benefit from magnesium sulphate? The Magpie Trial: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Anticonvulsants are used for pre-eclampsia in the belief they prevent eclamptic convulsions, and so improve outcome. Evidence supported magnesium sulphate as the drug to evaluate.Eligible women (n=10141) had not given birth or were 24 h or less postpartum; blood pressure of 140/90 mm Hg or more, and proteinuria of 1+ (30 mg/dL) or more; and there was clinical (...) uncertainty about magnesium sulphate. Women were randomised in 33 countries to either magnesium sulphate (n=5071) or placebo (n=5070). Primary outcomes were eclampsia and, for women randomised before delivery, death of the baby. Follow up was until discharge from hospital after delivery. Analyses were by intention to treat.Follow-up data were available for 10,110 (99.7%) women, 9992 (99%) of whom received the allocated treatment. 1201 of 4999 (24%) women given magnesium sulphate reported side-effects

2002 Lancet

183. Effect on rates of breast feeding of training for the baby friendly hospital initiative. (PubMed)

Effect on rates of breast feeding of training for the baby friendly hospital initiative. Breastfeeding rates and related hospital practices need improvement in Italy and elsewhere. Training of staff is necessary, but its effectiveness needs assessment.Eight hospitals in different regions of Italy.Controlled, non-randomised study. Data collected in three phases. Training after the first phase in group 1 hospitals and after the second phase in group 2.Training of trainers and subsequent training (...) of health workers with a slightly adapted version of the 18 hour Unicef course on breastfeeding management and promotion.Hospital practices, knowledge of 571 health workers, and breastfeeding rates at discharge, three, and six months in 2669 mother and baby pairs.After training hospitals improved their compliance with the "ten steps to successful breast feeding," from an average of 2.4 steps at phase one to 7.7 at phase three. Knowledge scores of health professionals increased from 0.41 to 0.72 in group

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2001 BMJ

184. Breastfeeding: it is worth trying with the second baby. (PubMed)

Breastfeeding: it is worth trying with the second baby. Mothers who experience breastfeeding difficulties with their first babies and give up breastfeeding are less likely to breastfeed subsequent babies than mothers who do not experience such difficulties. We carried out a longitudinal study of 22 mothers in which milk output was measured at 1 week and 4 weeks after giving birth to their first and second babies. Significantly more breast milk was produced at 1 week for the second lactation (...) (an increase of 31% [95% CI 11-51%]) and the net increase was greatest for those with the lowest milk output on the first occasion (90% [30-149%]). They spent less time feeding their second baby (a decrease of 20% [-34 to -5%]). This increased efficiency of milk transfer was also evident at 4 weeks. Health professionals should encourage women to breastfeed all their children, whatever their experience with their first child.

2001 Lancet

185. Elective caesarean section versus expectant management for delivery of the small baby. (PubMed)

Elective caesarean section versus expectant management for delivery of the small baby. Elective caesarean delivery for women in labour with a small or immature baby might reduce the chances of fetal or neonatal death, but it might also increase the risk of maternal morbidity.To assess the effects of a policy of elective caesarean delivery versus expectant management for small babies.The Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register was searched. Date of last search: December 2000 (...) .Randomised trials comparing a policy of elective caesarean delivery versus expectant management with recourse to caesarean section.One reviewer assessed eligibility and trial quality, and both contributed to the update.Six studies involving 122 women were included. All trials reported recruiting difficulties. Babies in the elective group were less likely to have respiratory distress syndrome (odds ratio (OR) 0.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.18 to 1.06) although they were more likely to have a low

2001 Cochrane

186. Labor epidurals improve outcomes for babies of mothers at high risk for unscheduled Cesarean section

Labor epidurals improve outcomes for babies of mothers at high risk for unscheduled Cesarean section Labor epidurals improve outcomes for babies of mothers at high risk for unscheduled Cesarean section Labor epidurals improve outcomes for babies of mothers at high risk for unscheduled Cesarean section Stuart K A, Krakauer H, Schone E, Lin M, Cheng E, Meyer G S Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract (...) 518 mother-baby pairs. Study design This was a historical cross-sectional study. The centres where the intervention took place were not reported. The women were not followed after the epidural placement was performed. Analysis of effectiveness All of the patients included in the initial study sample were considered in the effectiveness study. The outcomes used in the analysis were the probability values of unscheduled Caesarean section, vaginal delivery, and spinal or general or epidural/spinal

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2001 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

187. Randomised controlled trial of effect of Baby Check on use of health services in first 6 months of life. (PubMed)

Randomised controlled trial of effect of Baby Check on use of health services in first 6 months of life. To evaluate the effect of Baby Check, an illness scoring system for babies of 6 months or less, on parents' use of health services for their baby.Randomised controlled trial.13 general practices in Glasgow.997 newly delivered mothers, randomised to receive either Baby Check and Play It Safe, an accident prevention leaflet (n=497), or Play It Safe alone (control group, n=500).Data (...) on consultations and referrals extracted from general practice notes after 6 months.At the time of recruitment, maternal characteristics were similar for both groups (mean maternal age 29 years; deprivation categories 6 and 1 in both groups; 424 (45%) mothers were primiparous). At 6 months, general practice notes were available for 467 (94%) of the Baby Check group and 468 (94%) of the control group. The number of general practitioner consultations did not differ between the groups: median number

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1999 BMJ

188. Randomised trial of early diet in preterm babies and later intelligence quotient. (PubMed)

Randomised trial of early diet in preterm babies and later intelligence quotient. To determine whether perinatal nutrition influences cognitive function at 7 1/2 - 8 years in children born preterm.Randomised, blinded nutritional intervention trial. Blinded follow up at 7 1/2 - 8 years.Intervention phase in two neonatal units; follow up in a clinic or school setting.424 preterm infants who weighed under 1850 g at birth; 360 of those who survived were tested at 7 1/2 - 8 years.Standard infant

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1998 BMJ

189. Screening of newborn babies for familial ureteric reflux. (PubMed)

Screening of newborn babies for familial ureteric reflux. Vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) is not usually diagnosed until it is complicated by urinary infection. Prevention probably requires diagnosis in a newborn baby before urinary infection occurs because the peak incidence for infection is in early infancy. VUR is a familial disorder. We sought to find out whether an at-risk group of newborn babies could be identified on the basis of the parents' family history.Over a 3-year period, pregnant (...) women attending the antenatal clinics of three hospitals in the northeast of England were screened for evidence of urinary-tract disease in themselves or their families with a view to eliciting a history of VUR. When a woman, her partner, or a member of either family had a definite (by cystography records) or probable positive history, we recruited the mother to our study. Renal ultrasonography and cystography were done on the newborn babies soon after delivery, and a dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA

1997 Lancet

190. Randomised trial of prophylactic early fresh-frozen plasma or gelatin or glucose in preterm babies: outcome at 2 years. Northern Neonatal Nursing Initiative Trial Group. (PubMed)

Randomised trial of prophylactic early fresh-frozen plasma or gelatin or glucose in preterm babies: outcome at 2 years. Northern Neonatal Nursing Initiative Trial Group. Preterm babies are at risk of haemorrhagic and ischaemic brain injury. One controlled trial suggested that prophylactic fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) may reduce that risk but did not clarify whether the reduction in periventricular haemorrhage seen on ultrasonography was due to a haemostatic effect or stabilisation of intravascular (...) volume by FFP. We undertook a trial of 776 babies of gestational age at birth less than 32 weeks to look at the short-term and long-term outcome after early prophylactic FFP.The defined primary trial outcome was survival without identifiable major disability 2 years after birth. The babies were randomly allocated, within 2 h of birth, 20 mL/kg FFP followed by a further 10 mL/kg after 24 h; or the same volumes of a gelatin-based plasma substitute; or maintenance infusion of glucose (control

1996 Lancet

191. Placebo-controlled trial of midazolam sedation in mechanically ventilated newborn babies. (PubMed)

Placebo-controlled trial of midazolam sedation in mechanically ventilated newborn babies. Although midazolam is used for sedation of mechanically ventilated newborn babies, this treatment has not been evaluated in a randomised trial. We have done a prospective placebo-controlled study of the effects of midazolam on haemodynamic variables and sedation as judged by a five-item behaviour score. 46 newborn babies on mechanical ventilation for respiratory distress syndrome were randomly assigned (...) effective sedation in newborn babies on mechanical ventilation, with positive effects on haemodynamic variables. The course of the respiratory distress syndrome was not influenced by this treatment. Midazolam was given over only a few days and the limited effects on heart rate and blood pressure that we report should not encourage long-term administration.

1994 Lancet

192. Does the newborn baby find the nipple by smell? (PubMed)

Does the newborn baby find the nipple by smell? We studied the involvement of naturally occurring odours in guiding the baby to the nipple. One breast of each participating mother was washed immediately after delivery. The newborn infant was placed prone between the breasts. Of 30 infants, 22 spontaneously selected the unwashed breast. The washing procedure had no effect on breast temperature. We concluded that the infants responded to olfactory differences between the washed and unwashed

1994 Lancet

193. Randomised double-blind controlled trial of effect of morphine on catecholamine concentrations in ventilated pre-term babies. (PubMed)

Randomised double-blind controlled trial of effect of morphine on catecholamine concentrations in ventilated pre-term babies. A sick premature baby who requires intensive care will undergo many uncomfortable procedures. It is now accepted that such babies perceive pain and need adequate analgesia, but little is known about the effects of sedation in these patients. We investigated the use of morphine to provide analgesia and sedation for ventilated preterm babies in a randomised, double-blind (...) , placebo-controlled trial. 41 mechanically ventilated babies who had been treated with surfactant (Curosurf) for hyaline membrane disease were randomly assigned morphine in 5% dextrose (100 micrograms/kg per h for 2 h followed by 25 micrograms/kg per h continuous infusion) or 5% dextrose (placebo). Plasma catecholamine concentrations were measured 1 h after the first dose of surfactant and 24 h later. Blood pressure was measured at study entry and after 6 h. The morphine and placebo groups showed

1993 Lancet

194. Early diet in preterm babies and developmental status at 18 months. (PubMed)

Early diet in preterm babies and developmental status at 18 months. 424 preterm infants were randomly assigned a standard "term" formula or a nutrient-enriched "preterm" formula as sole diets (trial A) or as supplements to mother's own expressed milk (trial B) for a median of 4 weeks postnatally. 18 months post term, blind evaluation of 377 survivors showed that those previously fed preterm rather than term formula had major developmental advantages, more so in motor than mental function

1990 Lancet

195. Do changes in pattern of breast usage alter the baby's nutrient intake? (PubMed)

Do changes in pattern of breast usage alter the baby's nutrient intake? Twelve mother/baby pairs took part in a study of the difference in effect of two patterns of breast feeding--either feeding at one breast or at two breasts during a feed. Baseline measures were taken at 4 weeks, and the test patterns of feeding were followed for a week each, in random order. The two patterns of feeding led to differences in milk volume intake and mean feed fat concentration, but not in the baby's net fat (...) intake per 24 h. The results indicate that the breast-fed baby can regulate his fat intake quickly and thus mothers should be encouraged to practice "baby-led" feeding.

1990 Lancet

196. A randomized, controlled trial of very early prophylactic ligation of the ductus arteriosus in babies who weighed 1000 g or less at birth. (PubMed)

A randomized, controlled trial of very early prophylactic ligation of the ductus arteriosus in babies who weighed 1000 g or less at birth. We speculated that prophylactic ligation of the ductus arteriosus would reduce mortality and morbidity in very-low-birth-weight infants. To test this hypothesis, we randomly assigned 84 babies who weighed 1000 g or less at birth and required supplemental oxygen either to receive standard treatment (n = 44) or to undergo prophylactic surgical ligation (...) of the ductus arteriosus on the day of birth (n = 40). The ductus was ligated in babies in the control group only if the shunt was hemodynamically important. All the babies were followed for one year. The incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis was reduced in the group that underwent prophylactic ligation (3 of 40 [8 percent]) as compared with the control group (13 of 44 [30 percent]; P = 0.002). The frequency of death, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity, and intraventricular hemorrhage

1989 NEJM

197. Vitamin E supplementation reduces frequency of periventricular haemorrhage in very preterm babies. (PubMed)

Vitamin E supplementation reduces frequency of periventricular haemorrhage in very preterm babies. 231 babies, born at less than or equal to 32 weeks' gestation were enrolled in a randomised, controlled trial to assess the efficacy of vitamin E (dl-alpha-tocopherol acetate) in the prevention of periventricular haemorrhage. Daily supplementation with 20 mg/kg vitamin E intramuscularly during the first 3 days of life was associated with a rise in plasma vitamin E concentration and a reduction (...) in hydrogen peroxide haemolysis of red blood cells in vitro. Among babies without haemorrhage on entry to the trial (n = 210), supplemented babies had a lower frequency of intraventricular haemorrhage than controls (8.8% v 34.3%; p less than 0.005) and a lower combined frequency of intraventricular and parenchymal haemorrhage (10.8% v 40.7%; p less than 0.0001) on the final ultrasound brain scan. This protective effect was observed in both inborn and referred babies but was stronger in the former

1987 Lancet

198. Randomised trial of fentanyl anaesthesia in preterm babies undergoing surgery: effects on the stress response. (PubMed)

Randomised trial of fentanyl anaesthesia in preterm babies undergoing surgery: effects on the stress response. In a randomised controlled trial, preterm babies undergoing ligation of a patent ductus arteriosus were given nitrous oxide and d-tubocurarine, with (n = 8) or without (n = 8) the addition of fentanyl (10 micrograms/kg intravenously) to the anaesthetic regimen. Major hormonal responses to surgery, as indicated by changes in plasma adrenaline, noradrenaline, glucagon, aldosterone (...) . The findings indicate that preterm babies mount a substantial stress response to surgery under anaesthesia with nitrous oxide and curare and that prevention of this response by fentanyl anaesthesia may be associated with an improved postoperative outcome.

1987 Lancet

199. Randomised trial of fentanyl anaesthesia in preterm babies undergoing surgery: effects on the stress response. (PubMed)

Randomised trial of fentanyl anaesthesia in preterm babies undergoing surgery: effects on the stress response. In a randomised controlled trial, preterm babies undergoing ligation of a patent ductus arteriosus were given nitrous oxide and d-tubocurarine, with (n = 8) or without (n = 8) the addition of fentanyl (10 micrograms/kg intravenously) to the anaesthetic regimen. Major hormonal responses to surgery, as indicated by changes in plasma adrenaline, noradrenaline, glucagon, aldosterone (...) . The findings indicate that preterm babies mount a substantial stress response to surgery under anaesthesia with nitrous oxide and curare and that prevention of this response by fentanyl anaesthesia may be associated with an improved postoperative outcome.

1987 Lancet

200. Hepatitis B immunisation with a reduced number of doses in newborn babies and children. (PubMed)

Hepatitis B immunisation with a reduced number of doses in newborn babies and children. 74 healthy babies born to mothers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) were randomly divided at birth to receive either HB immunoglobulin and 2 doses of HB vaccine 2 months apart, or HB immunoglobulin and 3 doses of HB vaccine 1 month apart. 80 healthy babies born to HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HB core (c) negative mothers were randomly divided at birth to receive either 2 doses of vaccine 2 months (...) apart or 3 doses 1 month apart. The seroconversion rates and the geometric means of anti-HBs titres were lower in both groups of babies given 2 doses of vaccine than in the groups given 3 doses. 60 pairs of children at risk, aged 1 to 12 years and HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc negative, were randomly divided to receive either the 2-dose regimen or the 3-dose regimen. The seroconversion rates and the geometric means of anti-HBs titres were satisfactory in both groups.

1985 Lancet