Latest & greatest articles for bronchiolitis

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Bronchiolitis

Bronchiolitis is mainly caused by the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The virus travels down to the bronchioles in the lungs causing them to become inflamed making it difficult to breath.

Almost every child will be infected with RSV by the time they reach two years. Adults can also contract the virus, typically during winter months.

In mild cases bronchiolitis will clear up without treatment. The virus that causes bronchiolitis travels through tiny droplets of liquid and can be passed through the air or contracted by touching infected surfaces.

Symptoms include: Sore throat, dry cough, blocked nose and aches and pains throughout the body.

Although there is no cure for chronic bronchiolitis research and clinical studies on bronchiolitis suggest that some lifestyle changes can ease symptoms: avoid smoking, eat a healthy diet and maintain regular exercise. In extreme cases steroids can be prescribed to help minimise inflammation.

Read more on medications used to treat bronchiolitis and the causes of the virus.

Top results for bronchiolitis

61. Nebulised hypertonic saline solution for acute bronchiolitis in infants. (Full text)

Nebulised hypertonic saline solution for acute bronchiolitis in infants. Airway oedema and mucus plugging are the predominant pathological features in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis. Nebulised hypertonic saline solution may reduce these pathological changes and decrease airway obstruction.To assess the effects of nebulised hypertonic (≥ 3%) saline solution in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis.We searched CENTRAL 2013, Issue 4, OLDMEDLINE (1951 to 1965), MEDLINE (1966 to April week (...) meta-analyses using the Cochrane statistical package RevMan 5.2. We used the random-effects model for meta-analyses. We used mean difference (MD) and risk ratio (RR) as effect size metrics.We included 11 trials involving 1090 infants with mild to moderate acute viral bronchiolitis (500 inpatients, five trials; 65 outpatients, one trial; and 525 emergency department patients, four trials). All but one of the included trials were of high quality with a low risk of bias. A total of 560 patients

2013 Cochrane PubMed

62. Nebulized hypertonic saline treatment for infants with bronchiolitis

Nebulized hypertonic saline treatment for infants with bronchiolitis Nebulized hypertonic saline treatment for infants with bronchiolitis Nebulized hypertonic saline treatment for infants with bronchiolitis Mitchell MD, Schast AP, Umscheid CA Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Mitchell MD, Schast AP, Umscheid CA. Nebulized hypertonic saline (...) treatment for infants with bronchiolitis. Philadelphia: Center for Evidence-based Practice (CEP). 2013 Final publication URL Indexing Status Subject indexing assigned by CRD MeSH Administration, Inhalation; Bronchiolitiss; Infant; Nebulizers and Vaporizers; Saline Solution, Hypertonic Language Published English Country of organisation United States English summary An English language summary is available. Address for correspondence Center for Evidence-based Practice, University of Pennsylvania Health

2013 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

63. Oxygen saturation discharge thresholds for infants admitted with bronchiolitis

Oxygen saturation discharge thresholds for infants admitted with bronchiolitis Oxygen saturation discharge thresholds for infants admitted with bronchiolitis Oxygen saturation discharge thresholds for infants admitted with bronchiolitis Mitchell MD, Schast AP, Umscheid CA Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Mitchell MD, Schast AP, Umscheid CA. Oxygen (...) saturation discharge thresholds for infants admitted with bronchiolitis. Philadelphia: Center for Evidence-based Practice (CEP). 2013 Final publication URL Indexing Status Subject indexing assigned by CRD MeSH Bronchiolitiss; Infant; Oximetry; Oxygen Language Published English Country of organisation United States English summary An English language summary is available. Address for correspondence Center for Evidence-based Practice, University of Pennsylvania Health System, 3535 Market St. Suite 50

2013 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

64. Nutrition during hospitalization for pediatric bronchiolitis

Nutrition during hospitalization for pediatric bronchiolitis Nutrition during hospitalization for pediatric bronchiolitis Nutrition during hospitalization for pediatric bronchiolitis Lavenberg JG, Umscheid CA Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Lavenberg JG, Umscheid CA. Nutrition during hospitalization for pediatric bronchiolitis. Philadelphia

2013 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

65. Racemic adrenaline and inhalation strategies in acute bronchiolitis. (Full text)

Racemic adrenaline and inhalation strategies in acute bronchiolitis. Acute bronchiolitis in infants frequently results in hospitalization, but there is no established consensus on inhalation therapy--either the type of medication or the frequency of administration--that may be of value. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of inhaled racemic adrenaline as compared with inhaled saline and the strategy for frequency of inhalation (on demand vs. fixed schedule) in infants hospitalized with acute (...) bronchiolitis.In this eight-center, randomized, double-blind trial with a 2-by-2 factorial design, we compared inhaled racemic adrenaline with inhaled saline and on-demand inhalation with fixed-schedule inhalation (up to every 2 hours) in infants (<12 months of age) with moderate-to-severe acute bronchiolitis. An overall clinical score of 4 or higher (on a scale of 0 to 10, with higher scores indicating more severe illness) was required for study inclusion. Any use of oxygen therapy, nasogastric-tube feeding

2013 NEJM PubMed

66. Increase in use of non-invasive ventilation for infants with severe bronchiolitis is associated with decline in intubation rates over a decade

Increase in use of non-invasive ventilation for infants with severe bronchiolitis is associated with decline in intubation rates over a decade PEDSCCM.org Criteria abstracted from series in Review Posted: founded 1995 Questions or comments?

2013 PedsCCM Evidence-Based Journal Club

67. Racemic adrenaline and inhalation strategies in acute bronchiolitis. (Full text)

Racemic adrenaline and inhalation strategies in acute bronchiolitis. Acute bronchiolitis in infants frequently results in hospitalization, but there is no established consensus on inhalation therapy--either the type of medication or the frequency of administration--that may be of value. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of inhaled racemic adrenaline as compared with inhaled saline and the strategy for frequency of inhalation (on demand vs. fixed schedule) in infants hospitalized with acute (...) bronchiolitis.In this eight-center, randomized, double-blind trial with a 2-by-2 factorial design, we compared inhaled racemic adrenaline with inhaled saline and on-demand inhalation with fixed-schedule inhalation (up to every 2 hours) in infants (<12 months of age) with moderate-to-severe acute bronchiolitis. An overall clinical score of 4 or higher (on a scale of 0 to 10, with higher scores indicating more severe illness) was required for study inclusion. Any use of oxygen therapy, nasogastric-tube feeding

2013 NEJM PubMed

68. Antibiotics for persistent cough or wheeze following acute bronchiolitis in children. (Full text)

Antibiotics for persistent cough or wheeze following acute bronchiolitis in children. Bronchiolitis is a common acute respiratory infectious condition, with a high prevalence worldwide. It is a clinically diagnosed syndrome, manifested by tachypnoea (rapid breathing), with crackles or wheeze in young children. In the acute phase of bronchiolitis (< 14 days), antibiotics have only been recommended when a secondary bacterial infection is suspected. Although bronchiolitis is usually a self (...) -limiting condition, a number of children have persistent respiratory symptoms such as cough and wheezing in post-acute bronchiolitis, and they present or re-present to secondary care.To determine the effectiveness of antibiotics compared to a control (no treatment or placebo) for persistent respiratory symptoms (within six months), following acute bronchiolitis.The following databases were searched, The Cochrane Airways Group Register of Trials, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL

2012 Cochrane PubMed

69. Azithromycin Therapy in Hospitalized Infants with Acute Bronchiolitis is Not Associated with Better Clinical Outcomes: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, and Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial (PubMed)

Azithromycin Therapy in Hospitalized Infants with Acute Bronchiolitis is Not Associated with Better Clinical Outcomes: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, and Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial To test the hypothesis that azithromycin reduces the length of hospitalization and oxygen requirement in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis (AB).We performed a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial in southern Brazil, from 2009 to 2011. Infants (<12 months of age) hospitalized with AB were

2012 EvidenceUpdates

70. Hospitalisation for bronchiolitis in infants is more common after elective caesarean delivery (PubMed)

Hospitalisation for bronchiolitis in infants is more common after elective caesarean delivery The authors previously reported an increased risk of hospitalisation for acute lower respiratory infection up to age 2 years in children delivered by elective caesarean section. In view of increasing rates of elective caesarean delivery, this association warranted further investigation.To examine associations between the number of hospital admissions for bronchiolitis and pneumonia and elective (...) caesarean delivery.Retrospective population-based data linkage cohort study of 212 068 non-Aboriginal singleton births of 37-42 weeks gestation.Negative binomial regression was used to examine associations between mode of delivery and hospitalisations for both bronchiolitis and pneumonia in children aged <12 months and 12-23 months. Models were adjusted for obstetric and known risk factors.16% of children were delivered by elective caesarean section (n=33 421). In adjusted analysis, compared

2012 EvidenceUpdates

71. Helium-oxygen therapy for infants with bronchiolitis: a randomized controlled trial

Helium-oxygen therapy for infants with bronchiolitis: a randomized controlled trial PEDSCCM.org Criteria abstracted from series in Review Posted: founded 1995 Questions or comments?

2012 PedsCCM Evidence-Based Journal Club

72. Do Febrile Infants Aged 60 to 90 Days With Bronchiolitis Require a Septic Evaluation?

Do Febrile Infants Aged 60 to 90 Days With Bronchiolitis Require a Septic Evaluation? SystematicReviewSnapshot TAKE-HOME MESSAGE Febrile infants younger than 90 days and with bronchiolitis have very low rates of serious bacterial infection. METHODS DATA SOURCE The authors searched the Na- tional Library of Medicine Medline database (to December 2010). In addition, the bibliographies of these studies were searched for studies not otherwise identi?ed. STUDY SELECTION Studies were selected (...) if they re- ported the incidence of site-spe- ci?c, concomitant serious bacterial infection in the setting of fever and clinical bronchiolitis or documented respiratory syncytial virus infection. Studies also had to report the type of culture collected and contain age-speci?c data for infants younger than 60 to 90 days. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS The authors extracted the event rates for bacteremia, meningitis, and urinary tract infection. Urinary tract infections were diagnosed by urine culture. Two

2012 Annals of Emergency Medicine Systematic Review Snapshots

73. n Infants Younger Than 24 Months Old and With Bronchiolitis, Does Nebulized Epinephrine Improve Clinical Status?

n Infants Younger Than 24 Months Old and With Bronchiolitis, Does Nebulized Epinephrine Improve Clinical Status? SystematicReviewSnapshot TAKE-HOME MESSAGE Nebulized epinephrine decreases the risk of hospitalization of infants younger than 24 months and with bronchiolitis when presenting within the ?rst 24 hours of illness. METHODS DATA SOURCE The authors searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Regis- ter of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Scopus, PubMed, Lilacs, Iran MedEx, the Cochrane (...) Library, and Global Health, inclu- sive through September 2010; key references from included articles were reviewed. STUDY SELECTION The studies included were ran- domized controlled trials involv- ing children younger than 24 months, with bronchiolitis (de- ?ned as a ?rst episode of wheezing, respiratory distress, and clinical evidence of respira- tory infection), and receiving nebulized epinephrine compared with placebo or other therapy. Critically ill and arti?cially venti- lated patients were

2012 Annals of Emergency Medicine Systematic Review Snapshots

74. Systematic review and meta-analysis: Epinephrine for acute bronchiolitis, but not steroids alone, reduces hospital admissions

Systematic review and meta-analysis: Epinephrine for acute bronchiolitis, but not steroids alone, reduces hospital admissions Epinephrine for acute bronchiolitis, but not steroids alone, reduces hospital admissions | BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine We use cookies to improve our service and to tailor our content and advertising to you. You can manage your cookie settings via your browser at any time. To learn more about how we use cookies, please see our . Log in using your username and password (...) For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? Search for this keyword Search for this keyword Main menu Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? You are here Epinephrine for acute bronchiolitis, but not steroids alone, reduces hospital admissions Article Text Therapeutics Systematic review and meta-analysis Epinephrine for acute

2012 Evidence-Based Medicine (Requires free registration)

75. Non-invasive ventilation as primary ventilatory support for infants with severe bronchiolitis

Non-invasive ventilation as primary ventilatory support for infants with severe bronchiolitis PEDSCCM.org Criteria abstracted from series in Review Posted: founded 1995 Questions or comments?

2011 PedsCCM Evidence-Based Journal Club

76. Constrictive bronchiolitis in soldiers returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. (Full text)

Constrictive bronchiolitis in soldiers returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. In this descriptive case series, 80 soldiers from Fort Campbell, Kentucky, with inhalational exposures during service in Iraq and Afghanistan were evaluated for dyspnea on exertion that prevented them from meeting the U.S. Army's standards for physical fitness.The soldiers underwent extensive evaluation of their medical and exposure history, physical examination, pulmonary-function testing, and high-resolution computed (...) samples were abnormal, with 38 soldiers having changes that were diagnostic of constrictive bronchiolitis. In the remaining 11 soldiers, diagnoses other than constrictive bronchiolitis that could explain the presenting dyspnea were established. All soldiers with constrictive bronchiolitis had normal results on chest radiography, but about one quarter were found to have mosaic air trapping or centrilobular nodules on chest CT. The results of pulmonary-function and cardiopulmonary-exercise testing were

2011 NEJM PubMed

77. Inhaled Epinephrine, Steroids for Bronchiolitis

Inhaled Epinephrine, Steroids for Bronchiolitis Inhaled Epinephrine, Steroids for Bronchiolitis – TheNNTTheNNT Inhaled Epinephrine with or without Steroids for Bronchiolitis 15 for admission In Summary, for those who received the epinephrine with/without the steroids: Benefits in NNT 94.1% saw no benefit 5.9% were helped (epinephrine alone) by preventing hospital admission (day 1) 1 in 17 were helped (epinephrine alone) (hospitalization prevented, day 1) Harms in NNT None were harmed (...) by medication side effects None were harmed (medication side effects) View As: NNT % Source: Efficacy Endpoints: Admission Rate (Day 1) Harm Endpoints: None Narrative: Bronchiolitis, a viral respiratory infection in the first 2 years of life (most commonly caused by respiratory syncytial virus) often leads to significant use of healthcare resources. Optimal management strategies remain unclear, including pharmacotherapy for wheezing and shortness of breath. This Cochrane review identified and assessed six

2011 theNNT

78. Steroids and bronchodilators for acute bronchiolitis in the first two years of life: systematic review and meta-analysis

Steroids and bronchodilators for acute bronchiolitis in the first two years of life: systematic review and meta-analysis Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.

2011 DARE.

79. Nebulized Hypertonic Saline for Bronchiolitis

Nebulized Hypertonic Saline for Bronchiolitis Nebulized Hypertonic Saline for Bronchiolitis – TheNNTTheNNT Nebulized Hypertonic Saline for Bronchiolitis in Infants 1 less hospital day IMPORTANT! In Summary, for those who received the nebulized hypertonic saline: Benefits in NNT Hospitalized infants were helped by a 1-day decrease in their hospital stay Harms in NNT None were harmed View As: NNT % Source: Efficacy Endpoints: Duration of Hospital Stay, Decrease in Clinical Severity Scores (...) , Decrease in Admission Rates Harm Endpoints: Tachycardia, Hypertension, Pallor, Tremor, Nausea, and Vomiting Narrative: Acute bronchiolitis is the one of the most common respiratory infections in infants. It affects the lower respiratory tract and is usually caused by a virus, with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) being the most common pathogen. It is estimated that nearly all infants are infected with RSV and that between 1 and 2% of these develop symptoms severe enough to warrant admission. While

2011 theNNT

80. Palivizumab for immunoprophylaxis of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis in high-risk infants and young children: systematic review and additional economic modelling of subgroup analyses

Palivizumab for immunoprophylaxis of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis in high-risk infants and young children: systematic review and additional economic modelling of subgroup analyses Palivizumab for immunoprophylaxis of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis in high-risk infants and young children: systematic review and additional economic modelling of subgroup analyses Journals Library An error has occurred in processing the XML document An error occurred retrieving

2011 NIHR HTA programme