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Latest & greatest articles for bronchiolitis
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Bronchiolitis is mainly caused by the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The virus travels down to the bronchioles in the lungs causing them to become inflamed making it difficult to breath.
Almost every child will be infected with RSV by the time they reach two years. Adults can also contract the virus, typically during winter months.
In mild cases bronchiolitis will clear up without treatment. The virus that causes bronchiolitis travels through tiny droplets of liquid and can be passed through the air or contracted by touching infected surfaces.
Symptoms include: Sore throat, dry cough, blocked nose and aches and pains throughout the body.
Although there is no cure for chronic bronchiolitis research and clinical studies on bronchiolitis suggest that some lifestyle changes can ease symptoms: avoid smoking, eat a healthy diet and maintain regular exercise. In extreme cases steroids can be prescribed to help minimise inflammation.
Read more on medications used to treat bronchiolitis and the causes of the virus.
Is nasogastric fluid therapy a safe alternative to the i.v. route in infants with bronchiolitis? BestBets: Is nasogastric fluid therapy a safe alternative to the i.v. route in infants with bronchiolitis? Is nasogastric fluid therapy a safe alternative to the i.v. route in infants with bronchiolitis? Report By: Neil Kennedy - SpR Paediatrics Search checked by Nuala Flanagan - SpR Paediatrics Institution: Royal Belfast Hospital for Sick Children Date Submitted: 7th September 2004 Date Completed (...) : 10th March 2005 Last Modified: 10th March 2005 Status: Green (complete) Three Part Question In [infants with bronchiolitis who need maintenance or replacement fluid therapy] is [administration of fluid by NG tube compared to IV infusion] [cause more respiratory difficulty or electrolyte disturbance] Clinical Scenario It is mid-December. As a paediatric SHO working a busy evening shift in a district general hospital, you are called to re-site the iv cannula of an infant with bronchiolitis
Are methylxanthines effective in preventing or reducing apnoeic spells in infants with bronchiolitis? BestBets: Are methylxanthines effective in preventing or reducing apnoeic spells in infants with bronchiolitis? Are methylxanthines effective in preventing or reducing apnoeic spells in infants with bronchiolitis? Report By: Pavanasam Ramesh, Martin Samuels - Staff Grade and Consultant Paediatrician respectively Search checked by Bob Phillips - Section Editor Archimedes, Archives of Disease (...) in Childhood Institution: University Hospital of North Staffordshire Date Submitted: 10th March 2005 Date Completed: 10th March 2005 Last Modified: 10th March 2005 Status: Green (complete) Three Part Question In [infants with bronchiolitis] does [caffeine] [reduce or prevent apnoeas]? Clinical Scenario A 2-week-old infant, born at 36 weeks gestation was admitted to the paediatric ward in November with a 24h history of runny nose, cough and episodes of shallow breathing and apnoeas. This was thought
Interleukin 9 production in the lungs of infants with severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis is the most prevalent acute wheezing disorder in infants and is associated with recurrent wheeze and asthma in childhood. Interleukin 9, a type 2 cytokine has been proposed as a key cytokine in susceptibility to asthma. We aimed to investigate whether interleukin 9 was produced in the lungs of infants with severe RSV disease and if found, from (...) which cells it originated.We did 150 non-bronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavages during the course of ventilation in 24 term infants and 21 preterm infants ventilated for RSV bronchiolitis. We also did 10 bronchoalveolar lavages on the day of intubation in 10 control infants ventilated for non-respiratory causes. We measured pulmonary interleukin 9 mRNA and protein in samples from all groups. We used immunostaining to identify the cells that produce interleukin 9.Interleukin 9 mRNA expression, which
Efficacy of interventions for bronchiolitis in critically ill infants: a systematic review and meta-analysis Efficacy of interventions for bronchiolitis in critically ill infants: a systematic review and meta-analysis Efficacy of interventions for bronchiolitis in critically ill infants: a systematic review and meta-analysis Davison C, Ventre K M, Luchetti M, Randolph A G CRD summary This review assessed treatments for critically ill infants with bronchiolitis. The authors concluded (...) that, currently, no treatment has been shown to be clearly effective, although surfactant appears promising and corticosteroids or ribavarin may be of benefit. There were some limitations to the review but, overall, the authors' cautious conclusions reflect the evidence. Authors' objectives To assess the efficacy of medical treatments for critically ill infants with bronchiolitis. Searching PubMed was searched from inception to October 2003 for studies reported in any language; the search terms were reported
A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of nebulized epinephrine in infants with acute bronchiolitis. The treatment of infants with bronchiolitis is largely supportive. The role of bronchodilators is controversial. Most studies of the use of bronchodilators have enrolled small numbers of subjects and have examined only short-term outcomes, such as clinical scores.We conducted a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial comparing nebulized single-isomer epinephrine (...) with placebo in 194 infants admitted to four hospitals in Queens-land, Australia, with a clinical diagnosis of bronchiolitis. Three 4-ml doses of 1 percent nebulized epinephrine or three 4-ml doses of normal saline were administered at four-hour intervals after hospital admission. Observations were made at admission and just before, 30 minutes after, and 60 minutes after each dose. The primary outcome measures were the length of the hospital stay and the time until the infant was ready for discharge
Management of bronchiolitis in infants and children Management of bronchiolitis in infants and children Management of bronchiolitis in infants and children Viswanathan M, King V, Bordley C Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Viswanathan M, King V, Bordley C. Management of bronchiolitis in infants and children. Rockville (...) : Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 69. 2003 Authors' objectives This systematic review seeks to clarify the existing knowledge base for the management of bronchiolitis and offers directions for future research. Specifically, the review addresses the effectiveness of appropriate diagnostic tools, the effectiveness of pharmaceutical therapies for treating bronchiolitis, the role of prophylactic therapy for prevention of bronchiolitis
Management of bronchiolitis in infants and children Management of bronchiolitis in infants and children Management of bronchiolitis in infants and children Vishwanathan M, King V J, Bordley C, Honeycutt A A, Wittenborn J, Jackman A M, Sutton S F, Lohr K N CRD summary This review assessed the management (diagnosis, treatment, prophylaxis) of bronchiolitis in infants and children. The authors concluded that there is insufficient evidence to recommend any of the treatment assessed over good (...) supportive care. The authors' conclusions are consistent with the evidence reviewed, and are likely to be robust. Authors' objectives To assess the effectiveness of diagnostic tools, pharmaceutical therapies and prophylactic therapies, and the cost-effectiveness of prophylactic treatment, in the management of bronchiolitis in infants and children. This abstract focused upon the diagnosis and treatment of existing bronchiolitis in infants and children. Searching MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library and HEED were
A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial of Nebulized Epinephrine in Infants with Acute Bronchiolitis. PEDSCCM.org Criteria abstracted from series in Review Posted: founded 1995 Questions or comments?
Clinical bronchiolitis obliterans in workers at a microwave-popcorn plant. In May 2000, eight persons who had formerly worked at a microwave-popcorn production plant were reported to have severe bronchiolitis obliterans. No recognized cause was identified in the plant. Therefore, we medically evaluated current employees and assessed their occupational exposures.Questionnaire responses and spirometric findings in participating workers were compared with data from the third National Health (...) . There was a strong relation between the quartile of estimated cumulative exposure to diacetyl and the frequency and extent of airway obstruction.The excess rates of lung disease and lung-function abnormalities and the relation between exposure and outcomes in this working population indicate that they probably had occupational bronchiolitis obliterans caused by the inhalation of volatile butter-flavoring ingredients.Copyright 2002 Massachusetts Medical Society
A randomized, controlled trial of the effectiveness of nebulized therapy with epinephrine compared with albuterol and saline in infants hospitalized for acute viral bronchiolitis PEDSCCM.org Criteria abstracted from series in Review Posted: founded 1995 Questions or comments?
Place des bronchodilatateurs dans le traitement de la bronchiolite aigue du nourrisson [Role of bronchodilators in the treatment of acute infant bronchiolitis] Place des bronchodilatateurs dans le traitement de la bronchiolite aigue du nourrisson [Role of bronchodilators in the treatment of acute infant bronchiolitis] Place des bronchodilatateurs dans le traitement de la bronchiolite aigue du nourrisson [Role of bronchodilators in the treatment of acute infant bronchiolitis] Fily A Authors (...) ' objectives To synthesise the evidence on the efficacy of various types of bronchodilators for the treatment of acute bronchiolitis in infants. Searching MEDLINE, HealthSTAR, EMBASE, Pascal and the Cochrane Library were all searched using the keywords 'bronchodilators', 'bronchiolitis' and 'childhood'. Only articles published between 1975 and 2000 in English or French were retained. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review The studies needed to be comparative, prospective
Bronchodilators for bronchiolitis. Bronchiolitis is an acute, highly communicable lower respiratory tract infection. Bronchodilators are commonly used in the management of bronchiolitis in North America, but not in the United Kingdom. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of bronchodilators for bronchiolitis.We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Reference Update, reference lists of articles, and the files of two of the authors up to June 1998.Randomised trials comparing bronchodilators
Sustaining the implementation of an evidence-based guideline for bronchiolitis Sustaining the implementation of an evidence-based guideline for bronchiolitis Sustaining the implementation of an evidence-based guideline for bronchiolitis Perlstein P H, Kotagal U R, Schoettker P J, Atherton H D, Farrell M K, Gerhardt W E, Alfaro M P Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary (...) of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology The use of evidence-based guidelines in the treatment of children with bronchiolitis for a period of more than one year. Type of intervention Treatment. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population The study considered infants 1 year old or younger, who were admitted to the hospital with a first-time episode of typical
Systemic corticosteroids in infant bronchiolitis: a meta-analysis Systemic corticosteroids in infant bronchiolitis: a meta-analysis Systemic corticosteroids in infant bronchiolitis: a meta-analysis Garrison M M, Christakis D A, Harvey E, Cummings P, Davis R L Authors' objectives To determine whether corticosteroids are efficacious in treating bronchiolitis in hospitalised infants. Searching The following sources were searched: MEDLINE from 1966 to January 1999, the Cochrane Controlled Trials (...) Register (as of January 1999), and EMBASE from January 1990 to January 1999. The search terms included 'bronchiolitis', 'respiratory syncytial viruses', 'adrenal cortex hormones', 'corticosteroid', 'glucocorticoid', 'antiinflammatory agents' and 'steroidal'. The bibliographies of review articles and all selected articles were examined. No language restrictions were reported. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Randomised placebo-controlled studies. The studies had
Ribavirin in ventilated respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial. PEDSCCM.org Criteria abstracted from series in Review Posted: founded 1995 Questions or comments?