Latest & greatest articles for cancer

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Top results for cancer

101. Radiation Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer

Radiation Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer Practical Radiation Oncology Email/Username: Password: Remember me Search Terms Search within Search Share this page: To read this article in full, please review your options for gaining access at the bottom of the page. Access this article on Visit ScienceDirect to see if you have access via your institution. Article Tools (100 minimum order) Article Related Video Article Related Audio Related Articles Searching for related articles.. Copyright © 2019

2019 American Society for Radiation Oncology

102. Is Outpatient Treatment for Low-Risk Febrile Neutropenic Cancer Patients Associated With Increased Treatment Failure or Mortality?

Is Outpatient Treatment for Low-Risk Febrile Neutropenic Cancer Patients Associated With Increased Treatment Failure or Mortality? Is Outpatient Treatment for Low-Risk Febrile Neutropenic Cancer Patients Associated With Increased Treatment Failure or Mortality? - Annals of Emergency Medicine Email/Username: Password: Remember me Search Terms Search within Search Share this page To read this article in full, please review your options for gaining access at the bottom of the page. Article (...) in Press Is Outpatient Treatment for Low-Risk Febrile Neutropenic Cancer Patients Associated With Increased Treatment Failure or Mortality? x Rachel E. Bridwell , MD (EBEM Commentator) , x Michael D. April , MD, DPhil (EBEM Commentator) , x Brit Long , MD (EBEM Commentator) Department of Emergency Medicine, San Antonio Uniformed Services Health Education Consortium, Fort Sam Houston, TX DOI: Publication History Published online: July 17, 2019 To view the full text, please login as a subscribed user

2019 Annals of Emergency Medicine Systematic Review Snapshots

103. Encorafenib, Binimetinib, and Cetuximab in <i>BRAF</i> V600E-Mutated Colorectal Cancer. (PubMed)

Encorafenib, Binimetinib, and Cetuximab in BRAF V600E-Mutated Colorectal Cancer. Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer with the BRAF V600E mutation have a poor prognosis, with a median overall survival of 4 to 6 months after failure of initial therapy. Inhibition of BRAF alone has limited activity because of pathway reactivation through epidermal growth factor receptor signaling.In this open-label, phase 3 trial, we enrolled 665 patients with BRAF V600E-mutated metastatic colorectal (...) cancer who had had disease progression after one or two previous regimens. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive encorafenib, binimetinib, and cetuximab (triplet-therapy group); encorafenib and cetuximab (doublet-therapy group); or the investigators' choice of either cetuximab and irinotecan or cetuximab and FOLFIRI (folinic acid, fluorouracil, and irinotecan) (control group). The primary end points were overall survival and objective response rate in the triplet-therapy group

2019 NEJM

104. Cabazitaxel versus Abiraterone or Enzalutamide in Metastatic Prostate Cancer. (PubMed)

Cabazitaxel versus Abiraterone or Enzalutamide in Metastatic Prostate Cancer. The efficacy and safety of cabazitaxel, as compared with an androgen-signaling-targeted inhibitor (abiraterone or enzalutamide), in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who were previously treated with docetaxel and had progression within 12 months while receiving the alternative inhibitor (abiraterone or enzalutamide) are unclear.We randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, patients who had (...) with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who had been previously treated with docetaxel and the alternative androgen-signaling-targeted agent (abiraterone or enzalutamide). (Funded by Sanofi; CARD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02485691.).Copyright © 2019 Massachusetts Medical Society.

2019 NEJM

105. Type and timing of menopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer risk: individual participant meta-analysis of the worldwide epidemiological evidence. (PubMed)

Type and timing of menopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer risk: individual participant meta-analysis of the worldwide epidemiological evidence. Published findings on breast cancer risk associated with different types of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) are inconsistent, with limited information on long-term effects. We bring together the epidemiological evidence, published and unpublished, on these associations, and review the relevant randomised evidence.Principal analyses used (...) never users.During prospective follow-up, 108 647 postmenopausal women developed breast cancer at mean age 65 years (SD 7); 55 575 (51%) had used MHT. Among women with complete information, mean MHT duration was 10 years (SD 6) in current users and 7 years (SD 6) in past users, and mean age was 50 years (SD 5) at menopause and 50 years (SD 6) at starting MHT. Every MHT type, except vaginal oestrogens, was associated with excess breast cancer risks, which increased steadily with duration of use

2019 Lancet

106. Nivolumab plus Ipilimumab in Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer. (PubMed)

Nivolumab plus Ipilimumab in Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer. In an early-phase study involving patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the response rate was better with nivolumab plus ipilimumab than with nivolumab monotherapy, particularly among patients with tumors that expressed programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1). Data are needed to assess the long-term benefit of nivolumab plus ipilimumab in patients with NSCLC.In this open-label, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned

2019 NEJM

107. Niraparib in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Advanced Ovarian Cancer. (PubMed)

Niraparib in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Advanced Ovarian Cancer. Niraparib, an inhibitor of poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase (PARP), has been associated with significantly increased progression-free survival among patients with recurrent ovarian cancer after platinum-based chemotherapy, regardless of the presence or absence of BRCA mutations. The efficacy of niraparib in patients with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer after a response to first-line platinum-based (...) chemotherapy is unknown.In this randomized, double-blind, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned patients with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer in a 2:1 ratio to receive niraparib or placebo once daily after a response to platinum-based chemotherapy. The primary end point was progression-free survival in patients who had tumors with homologous-recombination deficiency and in those in the overall population, as determined on hierarchical testing. A prespecified interim analysis for overall survival

2019 NEJM

108. Veliparib with First-Line Chemotherapy and as Maintenance Therapy in Ovarian Cancer. (PubMed)

Veliparib with First-Line Chemotherapy and as Maintenance Therapy in Ovarian Cancer. Data are limited regarding the use of poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, such as veliparib, in combination with chemotherapy followed by maintenance as initial treatment in patients with high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma.In an international, phase 3, placebo-controlled trial, we assessed the efficacy of veliparib added to first-line induction chemotherapy with carboplatin

2019 NEJM

109. Whole body MRI is effective for identifying metastatic disease in colorectal cancer patients. (PubMed)

Whole body MRI is effective for identifying metastatic disease in colorectal cancer patients. The studyTaylor S, Mallett S, Beare S et al. Diagnostic accuracy of whole-body MRI versus standard imaging pathways for metastatic disease in newly diagnosed colorectal cancer: the prospective Streamline C trial. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019;4:529-37.This project was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment Programme (project number 10/68/01).To read the full NIHR Signal, go to https (...) ://discover.dc.nihr.ac.uk/content/signal-000797/identifying-metastatic-disease-in-colorectal-cancer-with-whole-body-mri.Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

2019 BMJ

110. Prophylactic antibiotics to prevent surgical site infection after breast cancer surgery. (PubMed)

Prophylactic antibiotics to prevent surgical site infection after breast cancer surgery. Surgery has been used as part of breast cancer treatment for centuries; however any surgical procedure has the potential risk of infection. Infection rates for surgical treatment of breast cancer are documented at between 3% and 15%, higher than average for a clean surgical procedure. Pre- and perioperative antibiotics have been found to be useful in lowering infection rates in other surgical groups, yet (...) there is no consensus on the use of prophylactic antibiotics for breast cancer surgery. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2005 and last updated in 2014.To determine the effects of prophylactic (pre- or perioperative) antibiotics on the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) after breast cancer surgery.For this fourth update, in August 2018 we searched the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); Ovid MEDLINE (including In-Process

2019 Cochrane

111. Risk of prostate cancer for men fathering through assisted reproduction: nationwide population based register study. (PubMed)

Risk of prostate cancer for men fathering through assisted reproduction: nationwide population based register study. To compare the risk and severity of prostate cancer between men achieving fatherhood by assisted reproduction and men conceiving naturally.National register based cohort study.Sweden from January 1994 to December 2014.1 181 490 children born alive in Sweden during 1994-2014 to the same number of fathers. Fathers were grouped according to fertility status by mode of conception: 20 (...)  618 by in vitro fertilisation (IVF), 14 882 by intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and 1 145 990 by natural conception.Prostate cancer diagnosis, age of onset, and androgen deprivation therapy (serving as proxy for advanced or metastatic malignancy).Among men achieving fatherhood by IVF, by ICSI, and by non-assisted means, 77 (0.37%), 63 (0.42%), and 3244 (0.28%), respectively, were diagnosed as having prostate cancer. Mean age at onset was 55.9, 55.1, and 57.1 years, respectively. Men who

2019 BMJ

112. Medium and long-term risks of specific cardiovascular diseases in survivors of 20 adult cancers: a population-based cohort study using multiple linked UK electronic health records databases. (PubMed)

Medium and long-term risks of specific cardiovascular diseases in survivors of 20 adult cancers: a population-based cohort study using multiple linked UK electronic health records databases. The past few decades have seen substantial improvements in cancer survival, but concerns exist about long-term cardiovascular disease risk in survivors. Evidence is scarce on the risks of specific cardiovascular diseases in survivors of a wide range of cancers to inform prevention and management (...) . In this study, we used large-scale electronic health records data from multiple linked UK databases to address these evidence gaps.For this population-based cohort study, we used linked primary care, hospital, and cancer registry data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink to identify cohorts of survivors of the 20 most common cancers who were 18 years or older and alive 12 months after diagnosis and controls without history of cancer, matched for age, sex, and general practice. We compared risks

2019 Lancet

113. Design characteristics, risk of bias, and reporting of randomised controlled trials supporting approvals of cancer drugs by European Medicines Agency, 2014-16: cross sectional analysis. (PubMed)

Design characteristics, risk of bias, and reporting of randomised controlled trials supporting approvals of cancer drugs by European Medicines Agency, 2014-16: cross sectional analysis. To examine the design characteristics, risk of bias, and reporting adequacy of pivotal randomised controlled trials of cancer drugs approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA).Cross sectional analysis.European regulatory documents, clinical trial registry records, protocols, journal publications (...) , and supplementary appendices.Pivotal randomised controlled trials of new cancer drugs approved by the EMA between 2014 and 2016.Study design characteristics (randomisation, comparators, and endpoints); risk of bias using the revised Cochrane tool (bias arising from the randomisation process, deviations from intended interventions, missing outcome data, measurement of the outcome, and selection of the reported result); and reporting adequacy (completeness and consistency of information in trial protocols

2019 BMJ

114. Effects of <i>Helicobacter pylori</i> treatment and vitamin and garlic supplementation on gastric cancer incidence and mortality: follow-up of a randomized intervention trial. (PubMed)

Effects of Helicobacter pylori treatment and vitamin and garlic supplementation on gastric cancer incidence and mortality: follow-up of a randomized intervention trial. To assess the effects of Helicobacter pylori treatment, vitamin supplementation, and garlic supplementation in the prevention of gastric cancer.Blinded randomized placebo controlled trial.Linqu County, Shandong province, China.3365 residents of a high risk region for gastric cancer. 2258 participants seropositive (...) outcomes were cumulative incidence of gastric cancer identified through scheduled gastroscopies and active clinical follow-up through 2017, and deaths due to gastric cancer ascertained from death certificates and hospital records. Secondary outcomes were associations with other cause specific deaths, including cancers or cardiovascular disease.151 incident cases of gastric cancer and 94 deaths from gastric cancer were identified during 1995-2017. A protective effect of H pylori treatment on gastric

2019 BMJ

115. Follow-up strategies for patients treated for non-metastatic colorectal cancer. (PubMed)

Follow-up strategies for patients treated for non-metastatic colorectal cancer. This is the fourth update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2002 and last updated in 2016.It is common clinical practice to follow patients with colorectal cancer for several years following their curative surgery or adjuvant therapy, or both. Despite this widespread practice, there is considerable controversy about how often patients should be seen, what tests should be performed, and whether these varying (...) strategies have any significant impact on patient outcomes.To assess the effect of follow-up programmes (follow-up versus no follow-up, follow-up strategies of varying intensity, and follow-up in different healthcare settings) on overall survival for patients with colorectal cancer treated with curative intent. Secondary objectives are to assess relapse-free survival, salvage surgery, interval recurrences, quality of life, and the harms and costs of surveillance and investigations.For this update, on 5

2019 Cochrane

116. Hypofractionation for clinically localized prostate cancer. (PubMed)

Hypofractionation for clinically localized prostate cancer. Using hypofractionation (fewer, larger doses of daily radiation) to treat localized prostate cancer may improve convenience and resource use. For hypofractionation to be feasible, it must be at least as effective for cancer-related outcomes and have comparable toxicity and quality of life outcomes as conventionally fractionated radiation therapy.To assess the effects of hypofractionated external beam radiation therapy compared (...) result in little or no difference in prostate cancer-specific survival [PC-SS] (HR 1.00, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.39; studies = 8, participants = 7946; median follow-up 72 months; low-certainty evidence). For men in the intermediate-risk group undergoing conventional fractionation this corresponds to 976 per 1000 men alive after 6 years and 0 more (44 fewer to 18 more) alive per 1000 men undergoing hypofractionation.We are uncertain about the effect of hypofractionation on late radiation therapy

2019 Cochrane

117. Medication Use for the Risk Reduction of Primary Breast Cancer in Women: Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. (PubMed)

Medication Use for the Risk Reduction of Primary Breast Cancer in Women: Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Medications to reduce risk of breast cancer are effective for women at increased risk but also cause adverse effects.To update the 2013 US Preventive Services Task Force systematic review on medications to reduce risk of primary (first diagnosis) invasive breast cancer in women.Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (...) and Database of Systematic Reviews, EMBASE, and MEDLINE (January 1, 2013, to February 1, 2019); manual review of reference lists.Discriminatory accuracy studies of breast cancer risk assessment methods; randomized clinical trials of tamoxifen, raloxifene, and aromatase inhibitors for primary breast cancer prevention; studies of medication adverse effects.Investigators abstracted data on methods, participant characteristics, eligibility criteria, outcome ascertainment, and follow-up. Results of individual

2019 JAMA

118. Medication Use to Reduce Risk of Breast Cancer: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. (PubMed)

Medication Use to Reduce Risk of Breast Cancer: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Breast cancer is the most common nonskin cancer among women in the United States and the second leading cause of cancer death. The median age at diagnosis is 62 years, and an estimated 1 in 8 women will develop breast cancer at some point in their lifetime. African American women are more likely to die of breast cancer compared with women of other races.To update the 2013 US Preventive (...) Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on medications for risk reduction of primary breast cancer.The USPSTF reviewed evidence on the accuracy of risk assessment methods to identify women who could benefit from risk-reducing medications for breast cancer, as well as evidence on the effectiveness, adverse effects, and subgroup variations of these medications. The USPSTF reviewed evidence from randomized trials, observational studies, and diagnostic accuracy studies of risk stratification models

2019 JAMA

119. Taxanes for adjuvant treatment of early breast cancer. (PubMed)

Taxanes for adjuvant treatment of early breast cancer. Adjuvant chemotherapy improves survival in premenopausal and postmenopausal women with early breast cancer. Taxanes are highly active chemotherapy agents used in metastatic breast cancer. Review authors examined their role in early breast cancer. This review is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2007.To assess the effects of taxane-containing adjuvant chemotherapy regimens for treatment of women with operable early breast (...) cancer.For this review update, we searched the Specialised Register of the Cochrane Breast Cancer Group, MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL (2018, Issue 6), the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), and ClinicalTrials.gov on 16 July 2018, using key words such as 'early breast cancer' and 'taxanes'. We screened reference lists of other related literature reviews and articles, contacted trial authors, and applied no language restrictions.Randomised trials comparing taxane-containing regimens

2019 Cochrane

120. Dacomitinib (Vizimpro) - non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

Dacomitinib (Vizimpro) - non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) 1 Published 9 September 2019 1 SMC2184 dacomitinib 15mg, 30mg and 45mg film-coated tablets (Vizimpro®) Pfizer Ltd 9 August 2019 The Scottish Medicines Consortium (SMC) has completed its assessment of the above product and advises NHS Boards and Area Drug and Therapeutic Committees (ADTCs) on its use in NHSScotland. The advice is summarised as follows: ADVICE: following a full submission assessed under the end of life and orphan (...) medicine process dacomitinib (Vizimpro ® ) is accepted for use within NHSScotland. Indication under review: as monotherapy, for the first-line treatment of adult patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-activating mutations. In an open-label, randomised, phase III study, dacomitinib significantly improved progression-free survival compared with another EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor in adults with locally advanced

2019 Scottish Medicines Consortium