Latest & greatest articles for children

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Top results for children

61. Probiotics for preventing acute otitis media in children. (PubMed)

Probiotics for preventing acute otitis media in children. Acute otitis media (AOM), or acute middle ear infection, is one of the most frequently occurring childhood diseases, and the most common reason given for prescribing antibiotics in this age group. Guidelines often recommend antibiotics as first-line treatment for severe AOM. However, antibiotics also lead to antibiotic resistance, so preventing episodes of AOM is an urgent priority.To assess the effects of probiotics to prevent (...) the occurrence and reduce the severity of acute otitis media in children.We searched CENTRAL, PubMed, Embase, and three other databases (October 2018), two trial registers (October 2018), and conducted a backwards and forwards citation analysis (August 2018). We did not apply any language, publication date, or publication status restrictions.Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of children (aged up to 18 years), comparing probiotics with placebo, usual care, or no probiotic.Two review authors independently

2019 Cochrane

62. Nutritional interventions for preventing stunting in children (birth to 59 months) living in urban slums in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). (PubMed)

Nutritional interventions for preventing stunting in children (birth to 59 months) living in urban slums in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Nutritional interventions to prevent stunting of infants and young children are most often applied in rural areas in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Few interventions are focused on urban slums. The literature needs a systematic assessment, as infants and children living in slums are at high risk of stunting. Urban slums are complex (...) environments in terms of biological, social, and political variables and the outcomes of nutritional interventions need to be assessed in relation to these variables. For the purposes of this review, we followed the UN-Habitat 2004 definitions for low-income informal settlements or slums as lacking one or more indicators of basic services or infrastructure.To assess the impact of nutritional interventions to reduce stunting in infants and children under five years old in urban slums from LMIC

2019 Cochrane

63. Burosumab versus conventional therapy in children with X-linked hypophosphataemia: a randomised, active-controlled, open-label, phase 3 trial. (PubMed)

Burosumab versus conventional therapy in children with X-linked hypophosphataemia: a randomised, active-controlled, open-label, phase 3 trial. X-linked hypophosphataemia in children is characterised by elevated serum concentrations of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), hypophosphataemia, rickets, lower extremity bowing, and growth impairment. We compared the efficacy and safety of continuing conventional therapy, consisting of oral phosphate and active vitamin D, versus switching to burosumab (...) , a fully human monoclonal antibody against FGF23, in paediatric X-linked hypophosphataemia.In this randomised, active-controlled, open-label, phase 3 trial at 16 clinical sites, we enrolled children with X-linked hypophosphataemia aged 1-12 years. Key eligibility criteria were a total Thacher rickets severity score of at least 2·0, fasting serum phosphorus lower than 0·97 mmol/L (3·0 mg/dL), confirmed PHEX (phosphate-regulating endopeptidase homolog, X-linked) mutation or variant of unknown

2019 Lancet

64. Inhaled corticosteroids in children with persistent asthma: effects of different drugs and delivery devices on growth. (PubMed)

Inhaled corticosteroids in children with persistent asthma: effects of different drugs and delivery devices on growth. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the most effective treatment for children with persistent asthma. Although treatment with ICS is generally considered to be safe in children, the potential adverse effects of these drugs on growth remains a matter of concern for parents and physicians.To assess the impact of different inhaled corticosteroid drugs and delivery devices (...) on the linear growth of children with persistent asthma.We searched the Cochrane Airways Trials Register, which is derived from systematic searches of bibliographic databases including CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, AMED and PsycINFO. We handsearched respiratory journals and meeting abstracts. We also conducted a search of ClinicalTrials.gov and manufacturers' clinical trial databases, or contacted the manufacturer, to search for potential relevant unpublished studies. The literature search was initially

2019 Cochrane

65. Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection Among Medicaid-Enrolled Children: 2009-2015

Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection Among Medicaid-Enrolled Children: 2009-2015 To examine the incidence, mortality, and health care use related to neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection.A retrospective longitudinal cohort study using a multistate Medicaid claims database. We identified neonates hospitalized with HSV infection from 2009 to 2015 by using discharge diagnosis codes and managed them for 6 months after discharge. Incidence rates were corrected for the imperfect

2019 EvidenceUpdates

66. Growth Monitoring for Children with Chronic Kidney Disease

Growth Monitoring for Children with Chronic Kidney Disease S Trace, E Cameron, C Inward, CP Burren, Feb 2019 Review date Feb 2022 Page 1 of 5 Bristol Royal Hospital for Children Growth Monitoring Guideline for Children with CKD Contents Page 1-2 Scope, Background, Rationale and Evidence base for guideline Page 2 Definition of Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Page 3 Notes on Growth Monitoring and Referral Page 4 Growth Monitoring Timetable Page 5 References The guideline scope extends (...) to both specialist renal units and shared care centres, including those where children are seen by non-specialist paediatricians. This guideline provides guidance on the monitoring of growth in children and young people with CKD. Where this monitoring indicates growth concerns, clinicians should manage and refer cases according to their local or regional paediatric endocrine referral pathways. Background: Growth retardation is well documented in children with CKD 1,2,3,4 , even in children with mild

2019 British Society for Paediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes

67. Can S100B Serum Biomarker Testing Reduce Head Computed Tomography Scanning in Children With Mild Traumatic Brain Injury?

Can S100B Serum Biomarker Testing Reduce Head Computed Tomography Scanning in Children With Mild Traumatic Brain Injury? Can S100B Serum Biomarker Testing Reduce Head Computed Tomography Scanning in Children With Mild Traumatic Brain Injury? - Annals of Emergency Medicine Email/Username: Password: Remember me Search Terms Search within Search Share this page Access provided by Volume 73, Issue 5, Pages 456–458 Can S100B Serum Biomarker Testing Reduce Head Computed Tomography Scanning (...) in Children With Mild Traumatic Brain Injury? x Steven K. Roumpf , MD (EBEM Commentator) IU Health Academic Health Center, Department of Emergency Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN x Julie L. Welch , MD (EBEM Commentator) Indiana Clinical and Translational Science Institute, Department of Emergency Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN DOI: | Publication History Published online: November 20, 2018 Expand all Collapse all Article Outline Take-Home

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2019 Annals of Emergency Medicine Systematic Review Snapshots

68. Emergency management of adrenal insufficiency in children: advocating for treatment options in outpatient and field settings

Emergency management of adrenal insufficiency in children: advocating for treatment options in outpatient and field settings Miller BS, et al. J Investig Med 2019;0:1–10. doi:10.1136/jim-2019-000999 1 Review Emergency management of adrenal insufficiency in children: advocating for treatment options in outpatient and field settings Bradley S Miller, 1 Sandra P Spencer, 2 Mitchell E Geffner, 3 Evgenia Gourgari, 4 Amit Lahoti, 5 Manmohan K Kamboj, 2 Takara L Stanley, 6 Naveen K Uli, 7 Brandy (...) A Wicklow, 8 Kyriakie Sarafoglou 1 To cite: Miller BS, Spencer SP , Geffner ME, et al. J Investig Med Epub ahead of print: [please include Day Month Year]. doi:10.1136/jim-2019- 000999 For numbered affiliations see end of article. Correspondence to Dr Bradley S Miller, Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Masonic Children’s Hospital, 2450 Riverside Ave, Minneapolis, MN 55454, USA; mille685@ umn. edu The work has been presented at Pediatric Academic Society Meeting 2018, ’Year In Review

2019 Pediatric Endocrine Society

69. Digital media: Promoting healthy screen use in school-aged children and adolescents

Digital media: Promoting healthy screen use in school-aged children and adolescents Digital media are integrated into the everyday lives of children and adolescents, with potential benefits and risks for learning, mental and physical health, and for social life. This statement examines the cognitive, psychosocial, and physical effects of digital media on school-aged children and adolescents, with a focus on family routines, context, and activities. Evidence-based guidance for clinicians (...) and families involves four principles: healthy management , meaningful screen use, positive modelling , and balanced, informed monitoring of screen time and behaviours.  Keywords: Adolescents; Children; Development; Digital media; Family; Health; Screen use

2019 Canadian Paediatric Society

70. Efficacy and Safety of Fast-Acting Insulin Aspart Compared With Insulin Aspart, Both in Combination With Insulin Degludec, in Children and Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes: The onset 7 Trial

Efficacy and Safety of Fast-Acting Insulin Aspart Compared With Insulin Aspart, Both in Combination With Insulin Degludec, in Children and Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes: The onset 7 Trial To confirm efficacy and safety of fast-acting insulin aspart (faster aspart) versus insulin aspart (IAsp), both with basal insulin degludec, in a pediatric population with type 1 diabetes.After a 12-week run-in, this treat-to-target, 26-week, multicenter trial randomized participants (1 to <18 years (...) insulin dose was 0.92 units/kg for mealtime faster aspart, 0.92 units/kg for postmeal faster aspart, and 0.88 units/kg for mealtime IAsp.In children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes, mealtime and postmeal faster aspart with insulin degludec provided effective glycemic control with no additional safety risks versus IAsp. Mealtime faster aspart provided superior HbA1c control compared with IAsp.© 2019 by the American Diabetes Association.

2019 EvidenceUpdates

71. Are Antibiotics Effective in the Treatment of Children With Prolonged Wet Cough?

Are Antibiotics Effective in the Treatment of Children With Prolonged Wet Cough? Are Antibiotics Effective in the Treatment of Children With Prolonged Wet Cough? - Annals of Emergency Medicine Email/Username: Password: Remember me Search Terms Search within Search Share this page Access provided by Volume 73, Issue 5, Pages 453–455 Are Antibiotics Effective in the Treatment of Children With Prolonged Wet Cough? x Brit Long , MD (EBEM Commentator) , x Michael D. April , MD, DPhil (EBEM (...) Commentator) Department of Emergency Medicine, San Antonio Uniformed Services Health Education Consortium, Fort Sam Houston, TX DOI: | Publication History Published online: November 13, 2018 Expand all Collapse all Article Outline Take-Home Message Antibiotics may improve clinical cure and reduce progression of illness in children with prolonged wet cough. Methods Data Sources Authors identified trials from the Cochrane Airways Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE OvidSP, and EMBASE OvidSP through September

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2019 Annals of Emergency Medicine Systematic Review Snapshots

72. Effect of Albuterol Premedication vs Placebo on the Occurrence of Respiratory Adverse Events in Children Undergoing Tonsillectomies: The REACT Randomized Clinical Trial

Effect of Albuterol Premedication vs Placebo on the Occurrence of Respiratory Adverse Events in Children Undergoing Tonsillectomies: The REACT Randomized Clinical Trial Tonsillectomy is a common pediatric procedure for the treatment of sleep-disordered breathing and chronic tonsillitis. Up to half of children having this procedure experience a perioperative respiratory adverse event.To determine whether inhaled albuterol sulfate (salbutamol sulfate) premedication decreases the risk (...) of perioperative respiratory adverse events in children undergoing anesthesia for tonsillectomy.A randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial (the Reducing Anesthetic Complications in Children Undergoing Tonsillectomies [REACT] trial) was conducted at Perth Children's Hospital (formerly Princess Margaret Hospital for Children), the only tertiary pediatric hospital in Western Australia. Participants included 484 children aged 0 to 8 years who were undergoing anesthesia for tonsillectomy. The study

2019 EvidenceUpdates

73. Health Care Support Workers Administering Inactivated Influenza, Shingles and Pneumococcal Vaccines for Adults and Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine (LAIV) for Children

Health Care Support Workers Administering Inactivated Influenza, Shingles and Pneumococcal Vaccines for Adults and Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine (LAIV) for Children CLINICAL PROFESSIONAL RESOURCE Health Care Support Workers Administering Inactivated Influenza, Shingles and Pneumococcal Vaccines for Adults and Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine (LAIV) for Children RCN guidance Version 3 revised 2019 This RCN document applies in England and Wales in line with the National Minimum Standards (...) (PHE 2015). These standards are not endorsed in Northern Ireland or Scotland although it is acknowledged that the principles may still provide useful guidance. This version replaces all previous RCN guidance to support HCSW and vaccination. HEALTH CARE SUPPORT WORKERS ADMINISTERING VACCINES FOR ADULTS AND CHILDREN 2 Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank those individuals, groups and organisations that have contributed to this Royal College of Nursing publication, particularly the support

2019 Royal College of Nursing

74. Fluticasone/formoterol (Flutiform) - the regular treatment of asthma in children aged 5 to 12 years

Fluticasone/formoterol (Flutiform) - the regular treatment of asthma in children aged 5 to 12 years 1 Published 10 June 2019 1 Product update SMC2178 fluticasone propionate/formoterol fumarate metered dose inhaler 50 microgram/5 microgram (flutiform®) Napp Pharmaceuticals Ltd 10 May 2019 The Scottish Medicines Consortium (SMC) has completed its assessment of the above product and advises NHS Boards and Area Drug and Therapeutic Committees (ADTCs) on its use in NHSScotland. The advice (...) is summarised as follows: ADVICE: following an abbreviated submission fluticasone propionate/formoterol fumarate (flutiform®) is accepted for use within NHSScotland. Indication under review: the regular treatment of asthma in children aged 5 to 12 years where the use of a combination product (an inhaled corticosteroid and a long-acting ß 2 agonist) is appropriate: • For patients not adequately controlled with inhaled corticosteroids and 'as required' inhaled short-acting ß 2 agonist. Or • For patients

2019 Scottish Medicines Consortium

75. Do Glucocorticoids Improve Symptoms and Reduce Return Visits or Admission Rates Among Children With Croup?

Do Glucocorticoids Improve Symptoms and Reduce Return Visits or Admission Rates Among Children With Croup? Do Glucocorticoids Improve Symptoms and Reduce Return Visits or Admission Rates Among Children With Croup? - Annals of Emergency Medicine Email/Username: Password: Remember me Search Terms Search within Search Share this page Access provided by Volume 73, Issue 5, Pages 459–461 Do Glucocorticoids Improve Symptoms and Reduce Return Visits or Admission Rates Among Children With Croup? x (...) Michael D. April , MD, DPhil (EBEM Commentator) , x Brit Long , MD (EBEM Commentator) Department of Emergency Medicine, San Antonio Uniformed Services Health Education Consortium, San Antonio, TX DOI: | Publication History Published online: December 07, 2018 Expand all Collapse all Article Outline Take-Home Message Compared with placebo, glucocorticoids improve symptoms of croup at 2 through 24 hours and reduce rates of return visits and admissions among children with croup. Methods Data Sources

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2019 Annals of Emergency Medicine Systematic Review Snapshots

76. Assessment of proadrenomedullin as diagnostic or prognostic biomarker of acute appendicitis in children with acute abdominal pain

Assessment of proadrenomedullin as diagnostic or prognostic biomarker of acute appendicitis in children with acute abdominal pain Acute appendicitis (AA) is one of the most frequent surgical pathologies in pediatrics.To investigate the utility of proadrenomedullin (pro-ADM) for the diagnosis of AA.Prospective, analytical, observational, and multicenter study conducted in 6 pediatric emergency departments. Children up to 18 years of age with suspected AA were included. Clinical, epidemiological (...) , and analytical data were collected.We studied 285 children with an average age of 9.5 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.1-9.9). AA was diagnosed in 103 children (36.1%), with complications in 10 of them (9.7%). The mean concentration of pro-ADM (nmol/L) was higher in children with AA (0.51 nmol/L, SD 0.16) than in children with acute abdominal pain (AAP) of another etiology (0.44 nmol/L, SD 0.14; p < 0.001). This difference was greater in complicated cases compared with uncomplicated AA (0.64 nmol/L, SD

2019 EvidenceUpdates

77. Treatment of Depression in Children: A Systematic Review

Treatment of Depression in Children: A Systematic Review Draft Comparative Effectiveness Review Number XX Treatment of Depression in Children: A Systematic Review Prepared for: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 5600 Fishers Lane Rockville, MD 20857 www.ahrq.gov This information is distributed solely for the purposes of predissemination peer review. It has not been formally disseminated by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ (...) with mixed depression diagnoses, CBT and family therapy may improve symptoms, response, or functional status. • For adolescents and children with MDD, CBT plus medications may help prevent relapse. • Evidence on children with MDD or mixed depression diagnoses is sparse. • We found insufficient evidence to judge harms associated with nonpharmacological interventions. For pharmacological interventions, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) as a class may improve response and functional status

2019 Effective Health Care Program (AHRQ)

78. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines for preventing acute otitis media in children. (PubMed)

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines for preventing acute otitis media in children. Prior to introducing pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs), Streptococcus pneumoniae was most commonly isolated from middle ear fluid of children with acute otitis media (AOM). Reducing nasopharyngeal colonisation of this bacterium by PCVs may lead to a decline in AOM. The effects of PCVs deserve ongoing monitoring since studies from the post-PCV era report a shift in causative otopathogens towards non-vaccine (...) serotypes and other bacteria. This updated Cochrane Review was first published in 2002 and updated in 2004, 2009, and 2014. The review title was changed (to include the population, i.e. children) for this update.To assess the effect of PCVs in preventing AOM in children up to 12 years of age.We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, LILACS, Web of Science, and trials registers (ClinicalTrials.gov and WHO ICTRP) to 29 March 2019.Randomised controlled trials of PCV versus placebo or control vaccine.We

2019 Cochrane

79. Interventions for promoting participation in shared decision-making for children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis. (PubMed)

Interventions for promoting participation in shared decision-making for children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis. Shared decision-making is important in child and adolescent healthcare because there is growing international recognition of children and young people's rights to be included in decisions that affect them. In order for young people to participate effectively in shared decision-making they need to develop the skills of engagement with healthcare professionals and confidence (...) in interacting with them. They also need to learn how to manage their condition and treatments on their own when they move into adulthood. Children and young people who participate in shared decision-making in healthcare are likely to be more informed, feel more prepared, and experience less anxiety about the unknown. Significant improvements in cystic fibrosis (CF) survival over recent decades, due to improved therapies and better management of care, means that young people with CF are routinely

2019 Cochrane

80. Association of Changes in Air Quality With Incident Asthma in Children in California, 1993-2014. (PubMed)

Association of Changes in Air Quality With Incident Asthma in Children in California, 1993-2014. Exposure to air pollutants is a well-established cause of asthma exacerbation in children; whether air pollutants play a role in the development of childhood asthma, however, remains uncertain.To examine whether decreasing regional air pollutants were associated with reduced incidence of childhood asthma.A multilevel longitudinal cohort drawn from 3 waves of the Southern California Children's Health (...) Study over a period of air pollution decline. Each cohort was followed up from 4th to 12th grade (8 years): 1993-2001, 1996-2004, and 2006-2014. Final follow-up for these data was June 2014. Population-based recruitment was from public elementary schools. A total of 4140 children with no history of asthma and residing in 1 of 9 Children's Health Study communities at baseline were included.Annual mean community-level ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter less than 10 μm (PM10) and less than

2019 JAMA