Latest & greatest articles for children

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Top results for children

101. Home Oxygen Therapy for Children

Home Oxygen Therapy for Children Home Oxygen Therapy for Children. An Official American Thoracic Society Clinical Practice Guideline | American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ');//--> Cookies Notification By browsing our website you agree to our use of , revised and . Search Menu Connect With Us Search in: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine > > Abstract Home Oxygen Therapy for Children. An Official American Thoracic Society Clinical Practice Guideline (...) Assembly on Pediatrics Show All... PubMed: Abstract Section: Background: Home oxygen therapy is often required in children with chronic respiratory conditions. This document provides an evidence-based clinical practice guideline on the implementation, monitoring, and discontinuation of home oxygen therapy for the pediatric population. Methods: A multidisciplinary panel identified pertinent questions regarding home oxygen therapy in children, conducted systematic reviews of the relevant literature

2019 American Thoracic Society

102. Seasonal malaria chemoprevention combined with community case management of malaria in children under 10 years of age, over 5 months, in south-east Senegal: A cluster-randomised trial

Seasonal malaria chemoprevention combined with community case management of malaria in children under 10 years of age, over 5 months, in south-east Senegal: A cluster-randomised trial Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) is recommended in the Sahel region of Africa for children under 5 years of age, for up to 4 months of the year. It may be appropriate to include older children, and to provide protection for more than 4 months. We evaluated the effectiveness of SMC using sulfadoxine (...) -pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine given over 5 months to children under 10 years of age in Saraya district in south-east Senegal in 2011.Twenty-four villages, including 2,301 children aged 3-59 months and 2,245 aged 5-9 years, were randomised to receive SMC with community case management (CCM) (SMC villages) or CCM alone (control villages). In all villages, community health workers (CHWs) were trained to treat malaria cases with artemisinin combination therapy after testing with a rapid diagnostic test (RDT

2019 EvidenceUpdates

103. Survival and Health Care Use After Feeding Tube Placement in Children With Neurologic Impairment

Survival and Health Care Use After Feeding Tube Placement in Children With Neurologic Impairment Children with neurologic impairment (NI) often undergo feeding tube placement for undernutrition or aspiration. We evaluated survival and acute health care use after tube placement in this population.This is a population-based exposure-crossover study for which we use linked administrative data from Ontario, Canada. We identified children aged 13 months to 17 years with a diagnosis of NI undergoing (...) % confidence interval [CI]: 85.2%-89.4%) and 5-year survival was 75.8% (95% CI: 72.8%-78.4%). The adjusted rate ratio comparing weekly rates of unplanned hospital days during the 2 years after versus before tube placement was 0.92 (95% CI: 0.57-1.48). Similarly, rates of reflux-related hospital days, emergency department visits, and outpatient visits were unchanged. Unplanned hospital days were stable within subgroups, although rates across subgroups varied.Mortality is high among children with NI after

2019 EvidenceUpdates

104. Training teachers in classroom management to improve mental health in primary school children: the STARS cluster RCT

Training teachers in classroom management to improve mental health in primary school children: the STARS cluster RCT Training teachers in classroom management to improve mental health in primary school children: the STARS cluster RCT Journals Library An error occurred retrieving content to display, please try again. >> >> >> Page Not Found Page not found (404) Sorry - the page you requested could not be found. Please choose a page from the navigation or try a website search above to find

2019 NIHR HTA programme

105. Comparative Efficacy of Artemether-Lumefantrine and Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Malaria in Ugandan Children

Comparative Efficacy of Artemether-Lumefantrine and Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Malaria in Ugandan Children In Uganda, artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PQ) showed excellent treatment efficacy for uncomplicated malaria in prior trials. Because the frequency of resistance to artemisinins and piperaquine is increasing in Southeast Asia and the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum polymorphisms associated with resistance has (...) changed, we reassessed treatment efficacies at 3 sites in Uganda.For this randomized, single-blinded clinical trial, children aged 6-59 months with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were assigned treatment with AL or DHA-PQ and followed for 42 days. Primary end points were risks of recurrent parasitemia, either unadjusted or adjusted to distinguish recrudescence from new infection. We assessed selection by study regimens of relevant P. falciparum genetic polymorphisms associated with drug resistance.Of

2019 EvidenceUpdates

106. WITHDRAWN: Interventions for treating obesity in children. (PubMed)

WITHDRAWN: Interventions for treating obesity in children. Child and adolescent obesity is increasingly prevalent, and can be associated with significant short- and long-term health consequences.To assess the efficacy of lifestyle, drug and surgical interventions for treating obesity in childhood.We searched CENTRAL on The Cochrane Library Issue 2 2008, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Science, DARE and NHS EED. Searches were undertaken from 1985 to May 2008. References were (...) checked. No language restrictions were applied.We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of lifestyle (i.e. dietary, physical activity and/or behavioural therapy), drug and surgical interventions for treating obesity in children (mean age under 18 years) with or without the support of family members, with a minimum of six months follow up (three months for actual drug therapy). Interventions that specifically dealt with the treatment of eating disorders or type 2 diabetes, or included

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2019 Cochrane

107. Viral gastroenteritis in children

Viral gastroenteritis in children Viral gastroenteritis in children - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Viral gastroenteritis in children Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: March 2019 Summary Associated with substantial morbidity in developed countries. Continues to be a cause of significant mortality in developing countries. Presents with vomiting and diarrhoea (with or without fever, nausea

2019 BMJ Best Practice

108. Different temperature thresholds for antipyretic intervention in critically ill children with fever due to infection: the FEVER feasibility RCT

Different temperature thresholds for antipyretic intervention in critically ill children with fever due to infection: the FEVER feasibility RCT Different temperature thresholds for antipyretic intervention in critically ill children with fever due to infection: the FEVER feasibility RCT Journals Library An error occurred retrieving content to display, please try again. >> >> >> Page Not Found Page not found (404) Sorry - the page you requested could not be found. Please choose a page from (...) , London, UK 2 Clinical Trials Unit, Intensive Care National Audit and Research Centre, London, UK 3 Department of Psychological Sciences, North West Hub for Trials Methodology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK 4 Paediatric Intensive Care Unit, Great North Children’s Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK 5 Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK 6 Patient/Parent Representative, London, UK 7 Institute of Child Health

2019 NIHR HTA programme

109. Effectiveness of school-based self-management interventions for asthma among children and adolescents: findings from a Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis

Effectiveness of school-based self-management interventions for asthma among children and adolescents: findings from a Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis The evidence that teaching self-management techniques to children and young people with asthma in schools is effective has not, to date, been the subject of systematic review.We conducted a systematic review of intervention studies. Studies were eligible if they employed a randomised parallel-group design and were published (...) in English from 1995 onwards. Participants included children with asthma aged 5-18 years who participated within their own school environment. Searches were conducted on the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register. Quantitative data were combined using random-effects meta-analyses.Thirty-three outcome evaluation studies were included. School-based interventions were effective in reducing the frequency of emergency department visits (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.92; studies=13), and moderately effective

2019 EvidenceUpdates

110. Cochlear implants for children and adults with severe to profound deafness

Cochlear implants for children and adults with severe to profound deafness Cochlear implants for children and adults Cochlear implants for children and adults with se with sev vere to profound deafness ere to profound deafness T echnology appraisal guidance Published: 7 March 2019 www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ta566 © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and-conditions#notice-of- rights).Y Y our responsibility our responsibility (...) equality of opportunity and to reduce health inequalities. Commissioners and providers have a responsibility to promote an environmentally sustainable health and care system and should assess and reduce the environmental impact of implementing NICE recommendations wherever possible. Cochlear implants for children and adults with severe to profound deafness (TA566) © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 2

2019 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Technology Appraisals

111. The use of ultrasound guidance for perioperative neuraxial and peripheral nerve blocks in children. (PubMed)

The use of ultrasound guidance for perioperative neuraxial and peripheral nerve blocks in children. The use of ultrasound guidance for regional anaesthesia has become popular over the past two decades. However, it is not recognized by all experts as an essential tool, perhaps because it is unclear whether ultrasound reduces the risk of severe neurological complications, and the cost of an ultrasound machine (USD 22,000) is substantially higher than the cost of other tools. This review (...) was published in 2016 and updated in 2019.To determine whether ultrasound guidance offers any clinical advantage when neuraxial and peripheral nerve blocks are performed in children in terms of decreasing failure rate or the rate of complications.We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and two trial registers up to March 2018 together with reference checking to identify additional studies and contacted study authors to obtain additional trial information.We included all parallel randomized controlled trials

2019 Cochrane

112. Effect of Epicutaneous Immunotherapy vs Placebo on Reaction to Peanut Protein Ingestion Among Children With Peanut Allergy: The PEPITES Randomized Clinical Trial. (PubMed)

Effect of Epicutaneous Immunotherapy vs Placebo on Reaction to Peanut Protein Ingestion Among Children With Peanut Allergy: The PEPITES Randomized Clinical Trial. There are currently no approved treatments for peanut allergy.To assess the efficacy and adverse events of epicutaneous immunotherapy with a peanut patch among peanut-allergic children.Phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at 31 sites in 5 countries between January 8, 2016, and August 18, 2017 (...) . Participants included peanut-allergic children (aged 4-11 years [n = 356] without a history of a severe anaphylactic reaction) developing objective symptoms during a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge at an eliciting dose of 300 mg or less of peanut protein.Daily treatment with peanut patch containing either 250 μg of peanut protein (n = 238) or placebo (n = 118) for 12 months.The primary outcome was the percentage difference in responders between the peanut patch and placebo patch based

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2019 JAMA

113. Parenteral versus oral iron therapy for adults and children with chronic kidney disease. (PubMed)

Parenteral versus oral iron therapy for adults and children with chronic kidney disease. The anaemia seen in chronic kidney disease (CKD) may be exacerbated by iron deficiency. Iron can be provided through different routes, with advantages and drawbacks of each route. It remains unclear whether the potential harms and additional costs of intravenous (IV) compared with oral iron are justified. This is an update of a review first published in 2012.To determine the benefits and harms of IV iron (...) supplementation compared with oral iron for anaemia in adults and children with CKD, including participants on dialysis, with kidney transplants and CKD not requiring dialysis.We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Register of Studies up to 7 December 2018 through contact with the Information Specialist using search terms relevant to this review. Studies in the Register are identified through searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE, conference proceedings, the International Clinical Trials Register

2019 Cochrane

114. Effectiveness of provision of animal-source foods for supporting optimal growth and development in children 6 to 59 months of age. (PubMed)

Effectiveness of provision of animal-source foods for supporting optimal growth and development in children 6 to 59 months of age. Adequate nutrients early in life promote cognitive development and are critical for proper growth and functioning. The effect of individual nutrients consumed through food is often not the same as consuming the same nutrients in supplementary form due to 'food synergy', the biological and chemical interrelations that occur between nutrients. Animal-source foods (...) , such as eggs, meat, fish, and dairy, are energy dense and contain multiple micronutrients and essential fatty acids with high bioavailability. The benefits of animal-source foods may include higher food synergy relative to fortified foods as well as decreasing dependence on external suppliers of fortified foods.To assess the effectiveness of animal-source foods compared to any other feeding interventions or no intervention in improving growth and developmental outcomes in children aged 6 to 59 months.We

2019 Cochrane

115. Efficacy of Armeo® Robotic Therapy Versus Conventional Therapy on Upper Limb Function in Children With Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy. (PubMed)

Efficacy of Armeo® Robotic Therapy Versus Conventional Therapy on Upper Limb Function in Children With Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of Armeo robotic therapy, compared with conventional therapy, on upper limb function in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy.Thirty children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy, with ages ranging from 6 to 8 yrs, were selected for this randomized controlled study and randomly assigned to two groups. The study group (n (...) Ashworth Scale scores for the study and control groups were 1.6 (0.3) and 2 (0.5), respectively. Postinterventional Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test total scores for the study and control groups were 84.6 (2.7) and 79.1 (2), respectively.Armeo robotic therapy is significantly more effective than conventional therapy in improving the upper limb quality of movement in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy.

2019 American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation

116. Ethosuximide, sodium valproate or lamotrigine for absence seizures in children and adolescents. (PubMed)

Ethosuximide, sodium valproate or lamotrigine for absence seizures in children and adolescents. This is an updated version of the Cochrane Review previously published in 2017.Absence seizures (AS) are brief epileptic seizures which present in childhood and adolescence. Depending on clinical features and electroencephalogram (EEG) findings they are divided into typical, atypical absences, and absences with special features. Typical absences are characterised by sudden loss of awareness (...) and an EEG typically shows generalised spike wave discharges at three cycles per second. Ethosuximide, valproate and lamotrigine are currently used to treat absence seizures. This review aims to determine the best choice of antiepileptic drug for children and adolescents with AS.To review the evidence for the effects of ethosuximide, valproate and lamotrigine as treatments for children and adolescents with absence seizures (AS), when compared with placebo or each other.For the latest update we searched

2019 Cochrane

117. Constipation in children

Constipation in children Constipation in children - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Constipation in children Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: February 2019 Summary Childhood constipation is typically characterised by infrequent bowel evacuations, large stools, and difficult or painful defecation. Symptoms may result from low fibre, poor nutrient, and/or insufficient water intake, which leads (...) to excessive hardening of the stool. This often starts as an acute problem but can progress to faecal impaction and chronic constipation. Particularly in young children, any cause of painful defecation may provoke active withholding. Withholding may worsen the constipation and lead to a vicious cycle. Duration of constipation and amount of stool burden may depend on capacity of the child's rectum, the degree of megarectum, and other factors including rectal sensory function. After faecal disimpaction

2019 BMJ Best Practice

118. Faecal incontinence in children

Faecal incontinence in children Faecal incontinence in children - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Faecal incontinence in children Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: February 2019 Summary Involuntary defecation at inappropriate times, occurring after the typical age of completed toilet training (generally 4 years). In most cases, caused by overflow soiling associated with chronic constipation (...) reviewers Assistant Professor Division of Pediatric Urology Monroe Carell Jr. Children's Hospital at Vanderbilt Nashville TN Disclosures JCT declares that he has no competing interests. Consultant Paediatrics Gastroenterologist Western Sussex Hospitals NHS Trust Chichester Honorary Consultant Paediatric Gastroenterologist Royal Alexandra Children's Hospital Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals Brighton UK Disclosures DCAC has received research grants, consultancy fees, and reimbursement

2019 BMJ Best Practice

119. The Impact of 3 Different Distraction Techniques on the Pain and Anxiety Levels of Children During Venipuncture: A Clinical Trial

The Impact of 3 Different Distraction Techniques on the Pain and Anxiety Levels of Children During Venipuncture: A Clinical Trial Invasive procedures are important causes of pain and anxiety during hospitalization. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of 3 different distraction methods on the pain and anxiety levels of children during venipuncture.This was a randomized controlled trial conducted with 180 children of 6 to 10 years of age; data were collected in the months of August (...) to November 2016. Participants were randomized in 4 groups; the children in group 1 watched cartoon movies (CM), the children in group 2 played video games (VG), the children in group 3 were distracted by their parents' verbal interactions (PI), whereas no distraction method was used on the children in group 4 (control group). The levels of anxiety and pain perception were evaluated independently based on the feedback from the children, the nurse observer, and the parents. The Children Fear Scale was used

2019 EvidenceUpdates

120. Children and young people exposed prenatally to alcohol

Children and young people exposed prenatally to alcohol Children and young people exposed prenatally to alcohol A national clinical guideline January 2019 SIGN156Key to evidence statements and recommendations Levels of evidence 1 ++ High-quality meta-analyses, systematic reviews of RCTs, or RCTs with a very low risk of bias 1 + Well-conducted meta-analyses, systematic reviews, or RCTs with a low risk of bias 1 - Meta-analyses, systematic reviews, or RCTs with a high risk of bias 2 ++ High (...) text Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN). Children and young people exposed prenatally to alcohol. Edinburgh: SIGN; 2019. (SIGN publication no. 156). [January 2019]. Available from URL: http://www.sign.ac.uk SIGN consents to the photocopying of this guideline for the purpose of implementation in NHSScotland. Children and young people exposed prenatally to alcohol A national clinical guideline January 2019 Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines NetworkContents 1 Introduction 1 1.1

2019 SIGN