Latest & greatest articles for children

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Top results for children

121. Tonsillectomy in Children

Tonsillectomy in Children SAGE Journals: Your gateway to world-class journal research MENU Sign In Institution Society Access Options You can be signed in via any or all of the methods shown below at the same time. My Profile Sign in here to access free tools such as favourites and alerts, or to access personal subscriptions Email (required) Password (required) Remember me I don't have a profile I am signed in as: With my free profile I can: Set up and register for List and Institution If you

2019 Infectious Diseases Society of America

122. Eslicarbazepine acetate (Zebinix) - as adjunctive therapy in adolescents and children aged above 6 years with partial-onset seizures

Eslicarbazepine acetate (Zebinix) - as adjunctive therapy in adolescents and children aged above 6 years with partial-onset seizures Published 11 February 2019 Product Update: eslicarbazepine acetate 200mg and 800mg tablets and oral suspension 50mg/mL (Zebinix ® ) SMC2087 Eisai Ltd 10 August 2018 (Issued 11 January 2019) The Scottish Medicines Consortium (SMC) has completed its assessment of the above product and advises NHS Boards and Area Drug and Therapeutic Committees (ADTCs) on its use (...) in NHS Scotland. The advice is summarised as follows: ADVICE: following an abbreviated submission eslicarbazepine acetate (Zebinix ® ) is accepted for restricted use within NHSScotland. Indication under review: as adjunctive therapy in adolescents and children aged above 6 years with partial-onset seizures with or without secondary generalisation. SMC restriction: patients with highly refractory epilepsy who have been heavily pre-treated and remain uncontrolled with existing anti-epileptic drugs. SMC

2019 Scottish Medicines Consortium

123. Clinically Diagnosing Pertussis-associated Cough in Adults and Children: CHEST Guideline and Expert Panel Report

Clinically Diagnosing Pertussis-associated Cough in Adults and Children: CHEST Guideline and Expert Panel Report The decision to treat a suspected case of pertussis with antibiotics is usually based on a clinical diagnosis rather than waiting for laboratory confirmation. The current guideline focuses on making the clinical diagnosis of pertussis-associated cough in adults and children.The American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) methodologic guidelines and the Grading of Recommendations (...) a low sensitivity (32.5% [95% CI, 24.5-41.6] and 29.8% [95% CI, 18.0-45.2]) but high specificity (77.7% [95% CI, 73.1-81.7] and 79.5% [95% CI, 69.4-86.9]). In children, after pre-specified meta-analysis exclusions, pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity were generated for only 1 clinical feature in children (0-18 years): posttussive vomiting. Posttussive vomiting in children was only moderately sensitive (60.0% [95% CI, 40.3-77.0]) and specific (66.0% [95% CI, 52.5-77.3]).In adults

2019 EvidenceUpdates

124. Effects of Daily Zinc, Daily Multiple Micronutrient Powder, or Therapeutic Zinc Supplementation for Diarrhea Prevention on Physical Growth, Anemia, and Micronutrient Status in Rural Laotian Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Effects of Daily Zinc, Daily Multiple Micronutrient Powder, or Therapeutic Zinc Supplementation for Diarrhea Prevention on Physical Growth, Anemia, and Micronutrient Status in Rural Laotian Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial To evaluate the optimal zinc supplementation strategy for improving growth and hematologic and micronutrient status in young Laotian children.In total, 3407 children aged 6-23 months were randomized to receive either daily preventive zinc tablets (7 mg/d), high-zinc (...) %, respectively. At endline, zinc deficiency in the preventive zinc (50.7%) and micronutrient powder (59.1%) groups were significantly lower than in the therapeutic zinc (79.2%) and control groups (78.6%; P < .001), with no impact on stunting (37.1%-41.3% across the groups, P = .37). The micronutrient powder reduced iron deficiency by 44%-55% compared with other groups (P < .001), with no overall impact on anemia (P = .14). Micronutrient powder tended to reduce anemia by 11%-16% among children who were anemic

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2019 EvidenceUpdates

125. Opioid Prescription Patterns for Children Following Laparoscopic Appendectomy

Opioid Prescription Patterns for Children Following Laparoscopic Appendectomy To describe variability in and consequences of opioid prescriptions following pediatric laparoscopic appendectomy.Postoperative opioid prescribing patterns may contribute to persistent opioid use in both adults and children.We included children <18 years enrolled as dependents in the Military Health System Data Repository who underwent uncomplicated laparoscopic appendectomy (2006-2014). For the primary outcome (...) of days of opioids prescribed, we evaluated associations with discharging service, standardized to the distribution of baseline covariates. Secondary outcomes included refill, Emergency Department (ED) visit for constipation, and ED visit for pain.Among 6732 children, 68% were prescribed opioids (range = 1-65 d, median = 4 d, IQR = 3-5 d). Patients discharged by general surgery services were prescribed 1.23 (95% CI = 1.06-1.42) excess days of opioids, compared with those discharged by pediatric

2019 EvidenceUpdates

126. Management of Stroke in Neonates and Children

Management of Stroke in Neonates and Children Management of Stroke in Neonates and Children: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association | Stroke Search Hello Guest! Login to your account Email Password Keep me logged in Search March 2019 February 2019 February 2019 January 2019 This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse this site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Free Access article Share on Jump to Free Access article , MD, MS, FAHA, Co (...) and to indicate gaps in current knowledge. This scientific statement is based on expert consensus considerations for clinical practice. Results— Annualized pediatric stroke incidence rates, including both neonatal and later childhood stroke and both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, range from 3 to 25 per 100 000 children in developed countries. Newborns have the highest risk ratio: 1 in 4000 live births. Stroke is a clinical syndrome. Delays in diagnosis are common in both perinatal and childhood stroke

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2019 American Heart Association

127. Tonsillectomy in Children

Tonsillectomy in Children Clinical Practice Guideline: Tonsillectomy in Children (Update) | American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery b Search form Toggle navigation Bundle includes SHL, Tubes, Bell's Palsy, AOE and Tonsillectomy Clinical Practice Guideline: Tonsillectomy in Children (Update) Clinical Practice Guideline: Tonsillectomy in Children (Update) This is more content. This guideline was published as a supplement in the February 2019 issue of Otolaryngology — Head (...) and Neck Surgery. This clinical practice guideline (CPG), which is intended for all clinicians in any setting who interact with children aged 1 to 18 years who may be candidates for tonsillectomy, is an update of, and replacement for, the prior CPG that was published in 2011. The purpose of this multidisciplinary CPG is to identify quality improvement opportunities in managing children under consideration for tonsillectomy and to create explicit and actionable recommendations to implement

2019 American Academy of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery

128. Effect of Intranasal Ketamine vs Fentanyl on Pain Reduction for Extremity Injuries in Children: The PRIME Randomized Clinical Trial

Effect of Intranasal Ketamine vs Fentanyl on Pain Reduction for Extremity Injuries in Children: The PRIME Randomized Clinical Trial Timely analgesia is critical for children with injuries presenting to the emergency department, yet pain control efforts are often inadequate. Intranasal administration of pain medications provides rapid analgesia with minimal discomfort. Opioids are historically used for significant pain from traumatic injuries but have concerning adverse effects. Intranasal (...) ketamine may provide an effective alternative.To determine whether intranasal ketamine is noninferior to intranasal fentanyl for pain reduction in children presenting with acute extremity injuries.The Pain Reduction With Intranasal Medications for Extremity Injuries (PRIME) trial was a double-blind, randomized, active-control, noninferiority trial in a pediatric, tertiary, level 1 trauma center. Participants were children aged 8 to 17 years presenting to the emergency department with moderate to severe

2019 EvidenceUpdates

129. Point-of-care procalcitonin testing for the assessment and treatment of sepsis in children

Point-of-care procalcitonin testing for the assessment and treatment of sepsis in children Page 1 of 6 TER009 June 2018 Topic Exploration Report Topic explorations are designed to provide a high-level briefing on new topics submitted for consideration by Health Technology Wales. The main objectives of this report are to: 1. Inform discussions on new topics received by HTW. 2. Determine the quantity and type of evidence available on a topic. 3. Assess the topic against HTW selection criteria (...) . Topic: Point-of-care procalcitonin testing for the assessment and treatment of sepsis in children Topic exploration report number: TER009 Referrer: Martin Edwards, Cardiff and Vale University Health Board Topic exploration undertaken by: Health Technology Wales Aim of Search Health Technology Wales researchers searched for evidence on the clinical and cost effectiveness of point-of-care procalcitonin testing in the assessment and treatment of sepsis in children. Summary of Findings The search

2019 Health Technology Wales

130. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for acute bronchiolitis in children. (PubMed)

Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for acute bronchiolitis in children. Acute bronchiolitis is one of the most frequent causes of emergency department visits and hospitalisation in children. There is no specific treatment for bronchiolitis except for supportive treatment, which includes ensuring adequate hydration and oxygen supplementation. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) aims to widen the lungs' peripheral airways, enabling deflation of overdistended lungs in bronchiolitis (...) . Increased airway pressure also prevents the collapse of poorly supported peripheral small airways during expiration. Observational studies report that CPAP is beneficial for children with acute bronchiolitis. This is an update of a review first published in 2015.To assess the efficacy and safety of CPAP compared to no CPAP or sham CPAP in infants and children up to three years of age with acute bronchiolitis.We conducted searches of CENTRAL (2017, Issue 12), which includes the Cochrane Acute Respiratory

2019 Cochrane

131. Cartoons are promising for reducing dental anxiety in children

Cartoons are promising for reducing dental anxiety in children Dental anxiety in children may be reduced through cartoons Discover Portal Discover Portal Cartoons are promising for reducing dental anxiety in children Published on 3 July 2018 doi: Cartoons delivered on laptops, projectors or 3D goggles with sound can help distract anxious children who fear dental procedures. Dental anxiety can prevent children from attending the dentist for care, and this type of distraction could offer a useful (...) tool to help them. This review looked at a range of audiovisual approaches tested in trials of healthy children receiving dental treatment under local anaesthetic. The children were assessed for physiological measures related to emotional state (such as pulse rate), anxiety and observed behaviour. Childhood dental anxiety is a common problem, and these distraction approaches sound promising, safe and relatively easy to implement. Share your views on the research. Why was this study needed

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

132. National tobacco control policies linked to improvements in children’s health

National tobacco control policies linked to improvements in children’s health National tobacco control policies linked to improvements in children’s health Discover Portal Discover Portal National tobacco control policies linked to improvements in children’s health Published on 17 January 2018 doi: National smoke-free legislation in advanced economies is linked to reduced rates of preterm birth, asthma hospitalisations and serious throat and chest infections in children. Comprehensive smoke (...) -free policies appear to be more effective than policies with only partial or selective introduction. Smoking increases health risks for the smoker and others through second-hand exposure. Although the number of people smoking in the UK is falling, eight million UK adults still smoke, and an estimated five million children are exposed to second-hand smoke. Children are vulnerable to smoke due to their small, developing lungs and immune systems. Evaluations of tobacco control policies have often

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

133. A school-based lifestyle intervention didn’t help children avoid unhealthy weight gain

A school-based lifestyle intervention didn’t help children avoid unhealthy weight gain A school-based lifestyle intervention didn’t help children avoid unhealthy weight gain Discover Portal Discover Portal A school-based lifestyle intervention didn’t help children avoid unhealthy weight gain Published on 13 February 2018 doi: The Healthy Lifestyle Programme delivered to 9-10-year-old school children did not reduce their weight over the course of two years. Around a third remained overweight (...) or obese, the same as in schools that followed the standard syllabus. This trial, funded by the NIHR, assigned schools across Devon to follow a lifestyle programme in Year five. The comprehensive curriculum included drama and activity workshops, personal goal setting and parental involvement. Children made better food choices, but this did not affect weight outcomes. It was almost certain the programme wouldn’t give value for money. Programmes addressing the wider school environment or delivered

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

134. Takeaways linked to increased cardiovascular risk factors and obesity in children

Takeaways linked to increased cardiovascular risk factors and obesity in children Takeaways linked to increased cardiovascular risk factors and obesity in children Discover Portal Discover Portal Takeaways linked to increased cardiovascular risk factors and obesity in children Published on 13 February 2018 doi: Children who eat takeaways once or more each week have more body fat and higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL) “bad” cholesterol levels than those who never or hardly ever eat them (...) . Their diets were also higher in fat and lower in protein and calcium. This cross-sectional study looked in depth at eating habits and risk markers for coronary heart disease, obesity and diabetes in 2,529 children in England. Though this type of study can only show an association between takeaways and risk markers, it is one of the first of its type, and the results do give cause for concern. Increasing numbers of people are eating takeaways in the UK. Local authorities and healthcare professionals

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

135. Inhaled anaesthesia with anti-sickness medication in children has the same risk of vomiting as intravenous anaesthesia

Inhaled anaesthesia with anti-sickness medication in children has the same risk of vomiting as intravenous anaesthesia Inhaled anaesthesia with anti-sickness medication in children has the same risk of vomiting as intravenous anaesthesia Discover Portal Discover Portal Inhaled anaesthesia with anti-sickness medication in children has the same risk of vomiting as intravenous anaesthesia Published on 27 February 2018 doi: Post-operative vomiting is common in children. One strategy is to use (...) an intravenous anaesthetic, which is known to cause lower rates of sickness than inhaled anaesthetics. There are disadvantages to this though, such as the need for injections before a child is asleep, slowing of the heart and difficulty in monitoring depth of the anaesthetic. This review of four trials included 558 children who had an operation to correct a squint. A third of children in each anaesthetic group had post-operative vomiting. There was no difference in time spent in the recovery room

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

136. Self-care support for children with long-term conditions may reduce emergency costs

Self-care support for children with long-term conditions may reduce emergency costs Self-care support for children with long-term conditions may reduce emergency costs Discover Portal Discover Portal Self-care support for children with long-term conditions may reduce emergency costs Published on 27 March 2018 doi: Helping children and parents to manage long-term conditions like asthma may reduce their need for emergency care, and is unlikely to reduce children’s quality of life. This NIHR (...) review found that structured professional help with self-care, including online support, provision of care plans, case management and face-to-face education, was linked to small increases in quality of life scores and fewer emergency department visits. However, there was no clear evidence that supported self-care reduced hospital admissions or overall costs. Most of the 97 studies reviewed included children with asthma (66 studies) or mental health conditions (18 studies). Not all were high-quality

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

137. Silk clothing for children does not reduce objective measures of eczema severity

Silk clothing for children does not reduce objective measures of eczema severity Silk clothing for children does not reduce objective measures of eczema severity Discover Portal Discover Portal Silk clothing for children does not reduce objective measures of eczema severity Published on 22 August 2017 doi: Six months of wearing special silk clothing had no effect on objective measures of child eczema severity, infection rates or medication use. Children and carers reported some small (...) moisturisers (emollients) and mild corticosteroids applied to the skin. People with severe eczema or who have serious “flare ups” may require more intensive treatments such as oral corticosteroids and regular use of bandages to protect the skin. Severe eczema can be distressing and the broken skin can get infected. Around 10% of children will experience eczema and parents or carers are often keen to manage symptoms to prevent the need for strong medications. One option is specialist silk clothing, which

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

138. Type 2 diabetes is becoming more common in children

Type 2 diabetes is becoming more common in children Type 2 diabetes is becoming more common in children Discover Portal Discover Portal Type 2 diabetes is becoming more common in children Published on 25 July 2017 doi: The number of children being diagnosed with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes is rising, but new cases of type 2 diabetes, the form associated with being overweight, has risen five-fold in about five years. New analysis in this NIHR-supported study suggest that type 2 diabetes now (...) accounts for up to a third of diabetes diagnoses in children. Amongst 100,000 school age children about six new cases of type 2 diabetes a year could be expected in the 1990s. This increased to about 33 new cases per year by the end of the next decade (2009 to 2013). Data was taken from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, a primary care database of electronic health records. Children who are obese have about a four times greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared with those of a normal

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

139. Online parental training may help to improve behaviour in children

Online parental training may help to improve behaviour in children Online parental training may help to improve behaviour in children Discover Portal Discover Portal Online parental training may help to improve behaviour in children Published on 1 August 2017 doi: Online parental training led to reasonable improvements in behaviour problems in children and young people, compared to no training. The findings of this review suggest that additional support and contact – such as “check-in” calls (...) minutes weekly support sessions by phone. All showed improvements in children’s behaviour compared to no treatment. Taken together the results are similar to those found with similar face to face delivery methods. Delivering parental training online may also be more efficient and enable commissioners and providers to deliver training to greater numbers of people. However, consideration should be given to how the support offered can ensure that participants get the most out of online training. Share

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

140. Fluoride varnish every six months helps protect children’s permanent teeth from decay

Fluoride varnish every six months helps protect children’s permanent teeth from decay Fluoride varnish every six months helps protect children’s permanent teeth from decay Discover Portal Discover Portal Fluoride varnish every six months helps protect children’s permanent teeth from decay Published on 1 August 2017 doi: Fluoride varnish and fissure sealant are equally good at preventing tooth decay on children’s first permanent back teeth when applied to six or seven year olds in South Wales (...) . Six applications of fluoride varnish were less expensive, by about £68 per child, for the NHS at 36 months compared to applying the more expensive fissure sealant. Children’s permanent back teeth are particularly vulnerable to decay when they first come through. The pitted biting surface can make these teeth difficult to keep clean to prevent decay. This NIHR-funded trial looked at two interventions to prevent decay: fluoride varnish applied six times every six months at school

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre