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Latest & greatest articles for colorectal cancer
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Interaction between Host MicroRNAs and the Gut Microbiota in ColorectalCancer Although variation in gut microbiome composition has been linked with colorectalcancer (CRC), the factors that mediate the interactions between CRC tumors and the microbiome are poorly understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to regulate CRC progression and are associated with patient survival outcomes. In addition, recent studies suggested that host miRNAs can also regulate bacterial growth and influence (...) studies have found an association between colorectalcancer (CRC) and the gut microbiota. One potential mechanism by which the microbiota can influence host physiology is through affecting gene expression in host cells. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA molecules that can regulate gene expression and have important roles in cancer development. Here, we investigated the link between the gut microbiota and the expression of miRNA in CRC. We found that dozens of miRNAs are differentially
Optimising the use of cetuximab in the continuum of care for patients with metastatic colorectalcancer The anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody cetuximab in combination with chemotherapy is a standard of care in the first-line treatment of RAS wild-type (wt) metastatic colorectalcancer (mCRC) and has demonstrated efficacy in later lines. Progressive disease (PD) occurs when tumours develop resistance to a therapy, although controversy remains about whether PD
Effect of public reporting of surgeons' outcomes on patient selection, "gaming," and mortality in colorectalcancer surgery in England: population based cohort study. To determine the effect of surgeon specific outcome reporting in colorectalcancer surgery on risk averse clinical practice, "gaming" of clinical data, and 90 day postoperative mortality.National cohort study.English National Health Service hospital trusts.111 431 patients diagnosed as having colorectalcancer from 1 April 2011 (...) to 31 March 2015 included in the National Bowel Cancer Audit.Public reporting of surgeon specific 90 day mortality in elective colorectalcancer surgery in England introduced in June 2013.Proportion of patients with colorectalcancer who had an elective major resection, predicted 90 day mortality based on characteristics of patients and tumours, and observed 90 day mortality adjusted for differences in characteristics of patients and tumours, comparing patients who had surgery between April 2011
Comparison of prognostic models to predict the occurrence of colorectalcancer in asymptomatic individuals: a systematic literature review and external validation in the EPIC and UK Biobank prospective cohort studies To systematically identify and validate published colorectalcancer risk prediction models that do not require invasive testing in two large population-based prospective cohorts.Models were identified through an update of a published systematic review and validated in the European (...) Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and the UK Biobank. The performance of the models to predict the occurrence of colorectalcancer within 5 or 10 years after study enrolment was assessed by discrimination (C-statistic) and calibration (plots of observed vs predicted probability).The systematic review and its update identified 16 models from 8 publications (8 colorectal, 5 colon and 3 rectal). The number of participants included in each model validation ranged from 41 587 to 396
ColorectalCancer Screening Revised 2018 ACR Appropriateness Criteria ® 1 ColorectalCancer Screening American College of Radiology ACR Appropriateness Criteria ® ColorectalCancer Screening Variant 1: Colorectalcancer screening. Average-risk individual. Age greater than or equal to 50 years. Initial screening, then follow-up every 5 years after initial negative screen. Procedure Appropriateness Category Relative Radiation Level CT colonography Usually Appropriate ??? X-ray barium enema double (...) -contrast May Be Appropriate ??? MR colonography May Be Appropriate O X-ray barium enema single-contrast Usually Not Appropriate ??? Variant 2: Colorectalcancer screening. Moderate-risk individual. First-degree family history of cancer or adenoma. Initial screening, then follow-up every 5 years after initial negative screen. Procedure Appropriateness Category Relative Radiation Level CT colonography Usually Appropriate ??? X-ray barium enema double-contrast May Be Appropriate ??? MR colonography May
Targeting parallel bypass signaling to combat adaptive resistance to BRAF inhibition in colorectalcancer 29854868 2018 11 14 2331-4737 5 3-4 2018 Mar Oncoscience Oncoscience Targeting parallel bypass signaling to combat adaptive resistance to BRAF inhibition in colorectalcancer. 57-58 10.18632/oncoscience.401 Gao Chenxi C Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, UPMC Hillman Cancer Center, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA. Hu Jing J Department (...) of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, UPMC Hillman Cancer Center, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA. eng Editorial 2018 04 29 United States Oncoscience 101636666 2331-4737 BRAF CRC FAK resistance the Wnt/b-catenin pathway CONFLICTS OF INTEREST The authors declare no potential conflicts of interest. 2018 04 16 2018 04 16 2018 6 2 6 0 2018 6 2 6 0 2018 6 2 6 1 epublish 29854868 10.18632/oncoscience.401 401 PMC5978442 Sci Signal. 2012 Jan 10;5(206):ra3 22234612 Proc Natl Acad
Combination drug development in BRAF mutant colorectalcancer 29854866 2018 11 14 2331-4737 5 3-4 2018 Mar Oncoscience Oncoscience Combination drug development in BRAF mutant colorectalcancer. 51-53 10.18632/oncoscience.399 Lam Michael M Department of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics (Phase I Clinical Trials Program), and the Department of Thoracic/Head and Neck Medical Oncology; Khalifa Institute for Personalized Cancer Therapy;The Institute for Applied Cancer Science, The University (...) of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics (Phase I Clinical Trials Program), and the Department of Thoracic/Head and Neck Medical Oncology; Khalifa Institute for Personalized Cancer Therapy;The Institute for Applied Cancer Science, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Unit 455, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. eng Editorial 2018 04 29 United States Oncoscience 101636666 2331-4737 BRAF mutant colorectalcancer ERK MEK combinations resistance CONFLICTS OF INTEREST The authors declare
Association of baseline absolute neutrophil counts and survival in patients with metastatic colorectalcancer treated with second-line antiangiogenic therapies: exploratory analyses of the RAISE trial and validation in an electronic medical record data se In the RAISE trial, ramucirumab+leucovorin/fluorouracil/irinotecan (FOLFIRI) improved the median overall survival (mOS) of patients with previously treated metastatic colorectalcancer versus patients treated with placebo+FOLFIRI but had
Long-Term Effectiveness of Sigmoidoscopy Screening on ColorectalCancer Incidence and Mortality in Women and Men: A Randomized Trial. The long-term effects of sigmoidoscopy screening on colorectalcancer (CRC) incidence and mortality in women and men are unclear.To determine the effectiveness of flexible sigmoidoscopy screening after 15 years of follow-up in women and men.Randomized controlled trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00119912).Oslo and Telemark County, Norway.Adults aged 50 to 64 years (...) in women.Norwegian government and Norwegian Cancer Society.
New-Onset Cardiovascular Morbidity in Older Adults With Stage I to III ColorectalCancer Purpose We sought to determine the long-term risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD)-stroke and myocardial infarction-and congestive heart failure (CHF) in older patients with colorectalcancer, as well as to understand the roles that preexisting comorbidities and cancer therapy play in increasing this risk. Patients and Methods We evaluated individuals from the SEER-Medicare database with incident stage I (...) to III colorectalcancer at age older than 65 years between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2011 (n = 72,408) and compared these patients with a matched cohort of Medicare patients without cancer (n = 72,408). Results Median age at diagnosis of colorectalcancer was 78 years (range, 66 years to 106 years), and median follow-up was 8 years since diagnosis. The 10-year cumulative incidence of new-onset CVD and CHF were 57.4% and 54.5% compared with 22% and 18% for control, respectively ( P < .001
Factors That Contribute to Differences in Survival of Black vs White Patients With ColorectalCancer Previous studies reported that black vs white disparities in survival among elderly patients with colorectalcancer (CRC) were because of differences in tumor characteristics (tumor stage, grade, nodal status, and comorbidity) rather than differences in treatment. We sought to determine the contribution of differences in insurance, comorbidities, tumor characteristics, and treatment receipt (...) to disparities in black vs white patients with CRC 18-64 years old.We used data from the National Cancer Database, a hospital-based cancer registry database sponsored by the American College of Surgeons and the American Cancer Society, on non-Hispanic black (black) and non-Hispanic white (white) patients, 18-64 years old, diagnosed from 2004 through 2012 with single or first primary invasive stage I-IV CRC. Each black patient was matched, based on demographic, insurance, comorbidity, tumor, and treatment
Bevacizumab Maintenance Versus No Maintenance During Chemotherapy-Free Intervals in Metastatic ColorectalCancer: A Randomized Phase III Trial (PRODIGE 9) Purpose Conflicting results are reported for maintenance treatment with bevacizumab during chemotherapy-free intervals (CFI) in metastatic colorectalcancer after induction chemotherapy. Patients and Methods In this open-label, phase III, randomized controlled trial, we compared the tumor control duration (TCD) observed with bevacizumab
Computed Tomography Colonography vs Colonoscopy for ColorectalCancer Surveillance After Surgery Recommendations for surveillance after curative surgery for colorectalcancer (CRC) include a 1-year post-resection abdominal-pelvic computed tomography (CT) scan and optical colonoscopy (OC). CT colonography (CTC), when used in CRC screening, effectively identifies colorectal polyps ≥10 mm and cancers. We performed a prospective study to determine whether CTC, concurrent with CT, could substitute (...) for OC in CRC surveillance.Our study enrolled 231 patients with resected stage 0-III CRC, identified at 5 tertiary care academic centers. Approximately 1 year after surgery, participants underwent outpatient CTC plus CT, followed by same-day OC. CTC results were revealed after endoscopic visualization of sequential colonic segments, which were re-examined for discordant findings. The primary outcome was performance of CTC in the detection of colorectal adenomas and cancers using endoscopy
Cystic Fibrosis ColorectalCancer Screening Consensus Recommendations Cystic Fibrosis ColorectalCancer Screening Consensus Recommendations - Gastroenterology Email/Username: Password: Remember me Search AGA Journals Search Terms Search within Search Volume 154, Issue 3, Pages 736–745.e14 Cystic Fibrosis ColorectalCancer Screening Consensus Recommendations x Denis Hadjiliadis Affiliations Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Correspondence Reprint (...) Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy 5 , x Albert B. Lowenfels Affiliations New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York 6 on behalf of the x Cystic Fibrosis ColorectalCancer Screening Task Force x Amy Leigh Braid x Amy Leigh Braid , x Joanne Cullina x Joanne Cullina , x Anne Daggett x Anne Daggett , x Aliza Fink x Aliza Fink , x Andrea Gini x Andrea Gini , x Denis Hadjiliadis x Denis Hadjiliadis , x Paul F. Harron x Paul F. Harron , x Sarah Hempstead x Sarah Hempstead , x Alexander Khoruts x Alexander
ColonFlag for identifying people at risk of colorectalcancer ColonFlag for identifying people at risk of ColonFlag for identifying people at risk of colorectalcancercolorectalcancer Medtech innovation briefing Published: 12 April 2018 nice.org.uk/guidance/mib142 pathways Summary Summary The technology technology described in this briefing is ColonFlag. It uses routinely available datasets to help identify people who are at high risk of developing colorectalcancer. The inno innovativ vative (...) aspects e aspects are that ColonFlag uses so-called big data and machine learning methods. The intended place in ther place in therap apy y would be as an addition to current investigations, such as faecal immunochemical tests, to help identify people who may need referral for suspected colorectalcancer. The main points from the e main points from the evidence vidence summarised in this briefing are from 4 observational studies including nearly 3.5 million patient records. They show that ColonFlag
Effect of a Digital Health Intervention on Receipt of ColorectalCancer Screening in Vulnerable Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Screening for colorectalcancer (CRC) reduces mortality, yet more than one third of age-eligible Americans are unscreened.To examine the effect of a digital health intervention, Mobile Patient Technology for Health-CRC (mPATH-CRC), on rates of CRC screening.Randomized clinical trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02088333).6 community-based primary care practices (...) to be screened within 6 months, discussed screening with their provider, and had a screening test ordered. Half of mPATH-CRC participants (53%; 118 of 223) "self-ordered" a test via the program.Participants were English speakers in a single health care system.A digital health intervention that allows patients to self-order tests can increase CRC screening. Future research should identify methods for implementing similar interventions in clinical care.National Cancer Institute.
Colonoscopy and ColorectalCancer Mortality in the Veterans Affairs Health Care System: A Case-Control Study. Colonoscopy is widely used in the Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system for colorectalcancer (CRC) prevention, but its effect on CRC mortality is unknown.To determine whether colonoscopy is associated with decreased CRC mortality in veterans and whether its effect differs by anatomical location of CRC.Case-control study.VA-Medicare administrative data.Case patients were veterans (...) to colonoscopy was determined from 1997 to 6 months before CRC diagnosis in case patients and to a corresponding date in control patients. Subgroup analysis was performed for patients who had undergone screening colonoscopy.A total of 4964 case patients and 19 856 control patients were identified. Case patients were significantly less likely to have undergone any colonoscopy (OR, 0.39 [95% CI, 0.35 to 0.43]). Colonoscopy was associated with reduced mortality for left-sided cancer (OR, 0.28 [CI, 0.24 to 0.32
Improving Internal Medicine Residentsâ€™ ColorectalCancer Screening Knowledge Using a Smartphone App: Pilot Study Colorectalcancer (CRC) is the third most common type of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. About one in three adults in the United States is not getting the CRC screening as recommended. Internal medicine residents are deficient in CRC screening knowledge.The objective of our study was to assess the improvement in internal medicine residents (...) ' CRC screening knowledge via a pilot approach using a smartphone app.We designed a questionnaire based on the CRC screening guidelines of the American Cancer Society, American College of Gastroenterology, and US Preventive Services Task Force. We emailed the questionnaire via a SurveyMonkey link to all the residents of an internal medicine department to assess their knowledge of CRC screening guidelines. Then we designed an educational intervention in the form of a smartphone app containing all
The Application of Gene Expression Profiling in Predictions of Occult Lymph Node Metastasis in ColorectalCancer Patients A key factor in determining the likely outcome for a patient with colorectalcancer is whether or not the tumour has metastasised to the lymph nodes-information which is also important in assessing any possibilities of lymph node resection so as to improve survival. In this review we perform a wide-range assessment of literature relating to recent developments in gene (...) expression profiling (GEP) of the primary tumour, to determine their utility in assessing node status. A set of characteristic genes seems to be involved in the prediction of lymph node metastasis (LNM) in colorectal patients. Hence, GEP is applicable in personalised/individualised/tailored therapies and provides insights into developing novel therapeutic targets. Not only is GEP useful in prediction of LNM, but it also allows classification based on differences such as sample size, target gene