Latest & greatest articles for folic acid

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Top results for folic acid

81. Homocysteine lowering with folic acid and B vitamins in vascular disease. (PubMed)

Homocysteine lowering with folic acid and B vitamins in vascular disease. In observational studies, lower homocysteine levels are associated with lower rates of coronary heart disease and stroke. Folic acid and vitamins B6 and B12 lower homocysteine levels. We assessed whether supplementation reduced the risk of major cardiovascular events in patients with vascular disease.We randomly assigned 5522 patients 55 years of age or older who had vascular disease or diabetes to daily treatment either (...) with the combination of 2.5 mg of folic acid, 50 mg of vitamin B6, and 1 mg of vitamin B12 or with placebo for an average of five years. The primary outcome was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, and stroke.Mean plasma homocysteine levels decreased by 2.4 micromol per liter (0.3 mg per liter) in the active-treatment group and increased by 0.8 micromol per liter (0.1 mg per liter) in the placebo group. Primary outcome events occurred in 519 patients (18.8 percent) assigned

2006 NEJM

82. Effect of folic acid supplementation on risk of cardiovascular diseases: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. (PubMed)

Effect of folic acid supplementation on risk of cardiovascular diseases: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Epidemiologic studies have suggested that folate intake decreases risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, the results of randomized controlled trials on dietary supplementation with folic acid to date have been inconsistent.To evaluate the effects of folic acid supplementation on risk of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality in randomized controlled trials among (...) persons with preexisting cardiovascular or renal disease.Studies were retrieved by searching MEDLINE (January 1966-July 2006) using the Medical Subject Headings cardiovascular disease, coronary disease, coronary thrombosis, myocardial ischemia, coronary stenosis, coronary restenosis, cerebrovascular accident, randomized controlled trial, clinical trials, homofolic acid, and folic acid, and the text words folic acid and folate. Bibliographies of all retrieved articles were also searched, and experts

2006 JAMA

83. Effect of folic acid supplementation on risk of cardiovascular diseases: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Effect of folic acid supplementation on risk of cardiovascular diseases: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.

2006 DARE.

84. Impact of misclassification of in vitro fertilisation in studies of folic acid and twinning: modelling using population based Swedish vital records. (PubMed)

Impact of misclassification of in vitro fertilisation in studies of folic acid and twinning: modelling using population based Swedish vital records. To determine whether failure to adequately adjust for a reported 40% misclassification of use of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) as reported in a Swedish study could have led to a false finding that folic acid increases dizygotic twinning.Modelling with population based data.Swedish vital records for 1995-9.Rates of twinning calculated according (...) to whether women used IVF to become pregnant. Estimated unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios of the association between use of folic acid and twinning by use of IVF.In 1995-9, Swedish women who used IVF had an almost 20 times the chance of having twins than women who did not use IVF (rate ratio 19.7, 95% confidence interval 18.7 to 20.6). In the absence of a true effect of folic acid, the use of a 40% misclassified surrogate variable to adjust for use of IVF would have resulted in a false finding

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2005 BMJ

85. International retrospective cohort study of neural tube defects in relation to folic acid recommendations: are the recommendations working? (PubMed)

International retrospective cohort study of neural tube defects in relation to folic acid recommendations: are the recommendations working? To evaluate the effectiveness of policies and recommendations on folic acid aimed at reducing the occurrence of neural tube defects.Retrospective cohort study of births monitored by birth defect registries.13 birth defects registries monitoring rates of neural tube defects from 1988 to 1998 in Norway, Finland, Northern Netherlands, England and Wales (...) applicable).The issuing of recommendations on folic acid was followed by no detectable improvement in the trends of incidence of neural tube defects.Recommendations alone did not seem to influence trends in neural tube defects up to six years after the confirmation of the effectiveness of folic acid in clinical trials. New cases of neural tube defects preventable by folic acid continue to accumulate. A reasonable strategy would be to quickly integrate food fortification with fuller implementation

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2005 BMJ

86. Folic acid supplements during early pregnancy and likelihood of multiple births: a population-based cohort study. (PubMed)

Folic acid supplements during early pregnancy and likelihood of multiple births: a population-based cohort study. Folic acid supplements are recommended for women of childbearing age to prevent neural tube defects in their offspring. Results of some studies, however, suggest an increase in multiple births associated with use of vitamin supplements that contain folic acid during pregnancy. Our aim was to assess this association.We used data from a population-based cohort study from which we (...) assessed the occurrence of multiple births in women (n=242015) who had participated in a campaign to prevent neural tube defects with folic acid supplements (400 microg per day) in China. Folic acid use was ascertained before pregnancy outcome was known. We studied the relation between multiple births and any use of folic acid pills before or during early pregnancy; additionally, we investigated mechanisms by which folic acid could potentially affect the occurrence of multiple births by examining pill

2003 Lancet

87. Importance of both folic acid and vitamin B12 in reduction of risk of vascular disease. (PubMed)

Importance of both folic acid and vitamin B12 in reduction of risk of vascular disease. Fortification of food with folic acid to prevent neural-tube defects in babies also lowers plasma total homocysteine, which is a risk factor for vascular disease. We investigated the effect of folate and vitamin B12 on homocysteine concentrations. 30 men and 23 women received sequential supplementation with increasing doses of folic acid. After supplementation, the usual dependency of homocysteine on folate (...) diminished, and vitamin B12 became the main determinant of plasma homocysteine concentration. This finding suggests that a fortification policy based on folic acid and vitamin B12, rather than folic acid alone, is likely to be much more effective at lowering of homocysteine concentrations, with potential benefits for reduction of risk of vascular disease.

2002 Lancet

88. Effect of homocysteine-lowering therapy with folic acid, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 on clinical outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention: the Swiss Heart study: a randomized controlled trial. (PubMed)

Effect of homocysteine-lowering therapy with folic acid, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 on clinical outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention: the Swiss Heart study: a randomized controlled trial. Plasma homocysteine level has been recognized as an important cardiovascular risk factor that predicts adverse cardiac events in patients with established coronary atherosclerosis and influences restenosis rate after percutaneous coronary intervention.To evaluate the effect of homocysteine (...) -lowering therapy on clinical outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention.Randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial involving 553 patients referred to the University Hospital in Bern, Switzerland, from May 1998 to April 1999 and enrolled after successful angioplasty of at least 1 significant coronary stenosis (> or = 50%).Participants were randomly assigned to receive a combination of folic acid (1 mg/d), vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin, 400 micro g/d), and vitamin B6 (pyridoxine hydrochloride

2002 JAMA

89. Quantifying the effect of folic acid. (PubMed)

Quantifying the effect of folic acid. Folic acid is known to prevent neural-tube defects (NTDs) but the size of the effect for a given dose is unclear. We aimed to quantify such an effect.We used published data from 13 studies of folic acid supplementation on serum folate concentrations and results from a large cohort study of the risk of NTDs according to serum folate, to measure the preventive effect of specified increases in intake of folic acid.Serum folate concentrations increase by 0.94 (...) ng/mL (95% CI 0.77-1.10) for every 0.1 mg/day increase in folic acid intake in women aged 20-35 years, and about double that in people aged 40-65. Every doubling of serum folate concentration roughly halves the risk of an NTD. These two effects can be combined to predict the reduction in risk according to intake of extra folic acid and background serum folate concentration. Such results predict that the preventive effect is greater in women with low serum folate than in those with higher

2001 Lancet

90. Folic acid supplements during pregnancy and risk of miscarriage. (PubMed)

Folic acid supplements during pregnancy and risk of miscarriage. Although taking supplements that contain 400 microg of folic acid before and during early pregnancy reduces a woman's risk for having a baby with a neural-tube defect (NTD), the effects of such supplements on other pregnancy outcomes remain unclear. We examined whether the use of such supplements affects the occurrence of miscarriage.Participants were women in China who had taken part in a recent folic acid campaign to prevent (...) NTDs and who had registered in this campaign before they became pregnant for the first time. We examined the risk for miscarriage among women who had confirmed pregnancies and who had or had not taken pills containing only 400 microg of folic acid before and during early pregnancy.The overall rate of miscarriage was 9.1% (2155/23806). The rates of miscarriage among women who had and had not taken folic acid pills before and during the first trimester were 9.0% and 9.3%, respectively (risk ratio

2001 Lancet

91. Folic acid and folinic acid for reducing side effects in patients receiving methotrexate for rheumatoid arthritis. (PubMed)

Folic acid and folinic acid for reducing side effects in patients receiving methotrexate for rheumatoid arthritis. To assess the effects of folic acid and folinic acid in reducing the mucosal and gastrointestinal (GI) and haematologic side effects of low-dose of Methotrexate (MTX) in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and to determine whether or not folate supplementation alters MTX efficacy.We searched the Cochrane Controlled Clinical Trial's Register (CCTR), the Cochrane Musculoskeletal (...) criteria. The total sample included 307 patients, of which 147 were treated with folate supplementation, 80 patients with folinic acid and 67 patients with folic acid. A 79% reduction in mucosal and GI side effects was observed for folic acid [OR = 0.21 (95% CI 0.10 to 0.44)]. For folinic acid, a clinically but non-statistically significant reduction of 43% was found [OR = 0. 57 (95% CI 0.28 to 1.15)]. No major differences were observed between low and high doses of folic or folinic acid. Haematologic

2000 Cochrane

92. Effect of homocysteine-lowering treatment with folic acid plus vitamin B6 on progression of subclinical atherosclerosis: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. (PubMed)

Effect of homocysteine-lowering treatment with folic acid plus vitamin B6 on progression of subclinical atherosclerosis: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. A high plasma homocysteine concentration is associated with increased risk of atherothrombotic disease. We investigated the effects of homocysteine-lowering treatment (folic acid plus vitamin B6) on markers of subclinical atherosclerosis among healthy siblings of patients with premature atherothrombotic disease.We did a randomised (...) , placebo-controlled trial among 158 healthy siblings of 167 patients with premature atherothrombotic disease. 80 were assigned placebo and 78 were assigned 5 mg folic acid and 250 mg vitamin B6 daily for 2 years. The primary endpoint was the development or progression of subclinical atherosclerosis as estimated from exercise electrocardiography, the ankle-brachial pressure index, and carotid and femoral ultrasonography.Ten participants in the treatment group, and 14 in the placebo group dropped out

2000 Lancet

93. Reduction of plasma homocyst(e)ine levels by breakfast cereal fortified with folic acid in patients with coronary heart disease. (PubMed)

Reduction of plasma homocyst(e)ine levels by breakfast cereal fortified with folic acid in patients with coronary heart disease. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recommended that cereal-grain products be fortified with folic acid to prevent congenital neural-tube defects. Since folic acid supplementation reduces levels of plasma homocyst(e)ine, or plasma total homocysteine, which are frequently elevated in arterial occlusive disease, we hypothesized that folic acid fortification might (...) reduce plasma homocyst(e)ine levels.To test this hypothesis, we assessed the effects of breakfast cereals fortified with three levels of folic acid, and also containing the recommended dietary allowances of vitamins B6 and B12, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial in 75 men and women with coronary artery disease.Plasma folic acid increased and plasma homocyst(e)ine decreased proportionately with the folic acid content of the breakfast cereal. Cereal providing 127 microg

1998 NEJM

94. Lowering blood homocysteine with folic acid based supplements: meta-analysis of randomised trials. Homocysteine Lowering Trialists' Collaboration. (PubMed)

Lowering blood homocysteine with folic acid based supplements: meta-analysis of randomised trials. Homocysteine Lowering Trialists' Collaboration. To determine the size of reduction in homocysteine concentrations produced by dietary supplementation with folic acid and with vitamins B-12 or B-6.Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials that assessed the effects of folic acid based supplements on blood homocysteine concentrations. Multivariate regression analysis was used to determine (...) the effects on homocysteine concentrations of different doses of folic acid and of the addition of vitamin B-12 or B-6.Individual data on 1114 people included in 12 trials.The proportional and absolute reductions in blood homocysteine produced by folic acid supplements were greater at higher pretreatment blood homocysteine concentrations (P < 0.001) and at lower pretreatment blood folate concentrations (P < 0.001). After standardisation to pretreatment blood concentrations of homocysteine of 12 mumol/l

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1998 BMJ

95. Lowering blood homocysteine with folic acid-based supplements: meta-analysis of randomised trials

Lowering blood homocysteine with folic acid-based supplements: meta-analysis of randomised trials Lowering blood homocysteine with folic acid-based supplements: meta-analysis of randomised trials Lowering blood homocysteine with folic acid-based supplements: meta-analysis of randomised trials Homocysteine Lowering Trialists' Collaboration Authors' objectives To determine the size of reduction in homocysteine concentrations produced by dietary supplementation with folic acid and with vitamins (...) B12 or B6. Searching English and non-English language studies were sought in MEDLINE. The reference lists were scanned and personal contact was made with relevant investigators. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Published and unpublished randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were included if they had assessed the effects on blood homocysteine concentrations of folic acid supplements with or without the addition of vitamins B6 or B12. Excluded were studies which did

1998 DARE.

96. Minimum effective dose of folic acid for food fortification to prevent neural-tube defects. (PubMed)

Minimum effective dose of folic acid for food fortification to prevent neural-tube defects. Although a daily supplement of 400 micrograms folic acid has been shown to prevent neural-tube defects (NTD), most women do not take the recommended supplement. Thus, food fortification is to be introduced in the USA and is being considered in the UK. Because of safety concerns, the USA has chosen a level of fortification that will increase the average woman's intake by only 100 micrograms (...) . Such an increase, although safe, may be ineffective; but a trial to assess its efficacy would be unethical. Because women with red-cell folate concentrations above 400 micrograms/L have a very low risk of NTD, we undertook a randomised trial of several folic acid doses to find out how much is needed to reach this protective concentration.We screened 323 women. 172 with red-cell folate between 150 micrograms/L and 400 micrograms/L were invited to take part in the trial. 121 women were randomly assigned placebo

1997 Lancet

97. A quantitative assessment of plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease. Probable benefits of increasing folic acid intakes. (PubMed)

A quantitative assessment of plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease. Probable benefits of increasing folic acid intakes. To determine the risk of elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) levels for arteriosclerotic vascular disease, estimate the reduction of tHcy by folic acid, and calculate the potential reduction of coronary artery disease (CAD) mortality by increasing folic acid intake.MEDLINE search for meta-analysis of 27 studies relating homocysteine to arteriosclerotic (...) vascular disease and 11 studies of folic acid effects on tHcy levels.Studies dealing with CAD, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral arterial vascular disease were selected. Three prospective and six population-based case-control studies were considered of high quality. Five cross-sectional and 13 other case-control studies were also included. Causality of tHcy's role in the pathogenesis of vascular disease was inferred because of consistency across studies by different investigators using different

1995 JAMA

98. Folic acid fortification of grain: an economic analysis

Folic acid fortification of grain: an economic analysis Folic acid fortification of grain: an economic analysis Folic acid fortification of grain: an economic analysis Romano P S, Waitzman N J, Scheffler R M, Pi R D Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study (...) and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Fortification of grain with folic acid to prevent neural tube defects (spina bifida and anencephaly). Type of intervention Primary prevention. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population Women of child-bearing age (11 to 50 years). Setting Community. The economic study was carried out in California, USA. Dates to which data relate Data on the effectiveness of folic acid fortification was taken from two studies published in 1989 and 1991. The data

1995 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.