Latest & greatest articles for hepatitis

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Top results for hepatitis

161. Chronic Hepatitis B Infection: A Review. (PubMed)

Chronic Hepatitis B Infection: A Review. More than 240 million individuals worldwide are infected with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV). Among individuals with chronic HBV infection who are untreated, 15% to 40% progress to cirrhosis, which may lead to liver failure and liver cancer.Pegylated interferon and nucleos(t)ide analogues (lamivudine, adefovir, entecavir, tenofovir disoproxil, and tenofovir alafenamide) suppress HBV DNA replication and improve liver inflammation and fibrosis. Long-term (...) viral suppression is associated with regression of liver fibrosis and reduced risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in cohort studies. The cure (defined as hepatitis B surface antigen loss with undetectable HBV DNA) rates after treatment remain low (3%-7% with pegylated interferon and 1%-12% with nucleos[t]ide analogue therapy). Pegylated interferon therapy can be completed in 48 weeks and is not associated with the development of resistance; however, its use is limited by poor tolerability and adverse

2018 JAMA

162. Can we reliably predict response to corticosteroid treatment in severe alcoholic hepatitis? (Full text)

Can we reliably predict response to corticosteroid treatment in severe alcoholic hepatitis? 29881814 2018 11 14 2471-254X 2 6 2018 Jun Hepatology communications Hepatol Commun Can we reliably predict response to corticosteroid treatment in severe alcoholic hepatitis? 625-627 10.1002/hep4.1191 Chokshi Shilpa S Chief Scientific Officer Institute of Hepatology Foundation for Liver Research London United Kingdom. eng Editorial 2018 04 27 United States Hepatol Commun 101695860 2471-254X 2018 03 29

2018 Hepatology communications PubMed

163. Hepatic iron concentration correlates with insulin sensitivity in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (Full text)

Hepatic iron concentration correlates with insulin sensitivity in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease Rodent and cell-culture models support a role for iron-related adipokine dysregulation and insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, substantial human data are lacking. We examined the relationship between measures of iron status, adipokines, and insulin resistance in patients with NAFLD in the presence and absence of venesection. This study forms (...) immunosorbent assay array. Hepatic iron concentration (HIC) was determined using MR FerriScan. Unexpectedly, analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between baseline serum adiponectin concentration and HIC, which strengthened after correction for age, sex, and body mass index (rho = 0.36; P = 0.007). In addition, there were significant inverse correlations between HIC and measures of insulin resistance (adipose tissue insulin resistance (Adipo-IR), serum insulin, serum glucose, homeostasis

2018 Hepatology communications PubMed

164. Protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 3B gene variation protects against hepatic fat accumulation and fibrosis in individuals at high risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (Full text)

Protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 3B gene variation protects against hepatic fat accumulation and fibrosis in individuals at high risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of liver damage and has a strong genetic component. The rs4841132 G>A variant, modulating the expression of protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 3B (PPP1R3B), which is involved in glycogen synthesis, has been reported to reduce the risk of NAFLD (...) was not associated with nonalcoholic or nonviral diseases of the liver but was associated with lower cholesterol (P = 1.7 × 10-8). In individuals with obesity, the A allele protecting against steatosis was associated with increased PPP1R3B messenger RNA expression and activation of lipid oxidation and with down-regulation of pathways related to lipid metabolism, inflammation, and cell cycle. Conclusion: The rs4841132 A allele is associated with protection against hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in individuals

2018 Hepatology communications PubMed

165. Forecasted impacts of a sofosbuvir-based national hepatitis C treatment programme on Egypt’s hepatocellular cancer epidemic: simulation of alternatives (Full text)

Forecasted impacts of a sofosbuvir-based national hepatitis C treatment programme on Egypt’s hepatocellular cancer epidemic: simulation of alternatives Egypt is experiencing a hepatocellular cancer (HCC) epidemic due to widespread hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission. The use of sofosbuvir-related therapies producing improved treatment success has permitted an updated, nationwide, HCV treatment programme with expanded coverage. This study simulated the multidecade impacts of the new treatment (...) programme on hepatitis and HCC.A Markov model of HCV infection and treatment analysed the HCV-related HCC epidemic between 2009 and 2050, using parameters based on peer-reviewed studies and expert opinion. Comparing the 'new' and 'old' scenarios, and with the old treatment programme being replaced or not by the new programme in 2015, the annual number, prevalence and incidence of HCC were simulated for representative Egypt populations including HCV-infected patients aged 15-59 years in 2008, healthy

2018 BMJ global health PubMed

166. Metabolic risk factors are associated with non‐hepatitis B non‐hepatitis C hepatocellular carcinoma in Taiwan, an endemic area of chronic hepatitis B (Full text)

Metabolic risk factors are associated with non‐hepatitis B non‐hepatitis C hepatocellular carcinoma in Taiwan, an endemic area of chronic hepatitis B Metabolic risk factors, such as obesity, fatty liver, high lipidemia, and diabetes mellitus are associated with increased risk for nonviral hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, few nonviral HCC studies have stratified patients according to underlying etiologies. From 2005 to 2011, 3,843 patients with HCC were recruited into the Taiwan (...) Liver Cancer Network. Of these patients, 411 (10.69%) who were negative for hepatitis B virus (HBV), surface antigen, HBV DNA, and anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody were classified as non-HBV non-HCV (NBNC)-HCC. Detailed clinical analyses of these patients were compared with age- and sex-matched patients with HBV-HCC or HCV-HCC for the associated metabolic risk factors. For this comparison, 420 patients with HBV-HCC and 420 patients with HCV-HCC were selected from the 3,843 patients with HCC

2018 Hepatology communications PubMed

167. Baseline urine metabolic phenotype in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis and its association with outcome (Full text)

Baseline urine metabolic phenotype in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis and its association with outcome Severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH) has a high mortality rate, and corticosteroid therapy is effective in 60% patients. This study aimed to investigate a baseline metabolic phenotype that could help stratify patients not likely to respond to steroid therapy and to have an unfavorable outcome. Baseline urine metabolome was studied in patients with SAH using ultra-high performance liquid

2018 Hepatology communications PubMed

168. Persistent Hepatitis C Virus−Associated Cryoglobulinemic Glomerulonephritis in Patients Successfully Treated With Direct-Acting Antiviral Therapy (Full text)

Persistent Hepatitis C Virus−Associated Cryoglobulinemic Glomerulonephritis in Patients Successfully Treated With Direct-Acting Antiviral Therapy 29988995 2019 02 26 2468-0249 3 4 2018 Jul Kidney international reports Kidney Int Rep Persistent Hepatitis C Virus-Associated Cryoglobulinemic Glomerulonephritis in Patients Successfully Treated With Direct-Acting Antiviral Therapy. 985-990 10.1016/j.ekir.2018.03.016 Santoriello Dominick D Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia (...) . 2018 Mar;67(3):553-561 28634198 J Viral Hepat. 2017 Dec;24(12):1168-1176 28643451 J Hepatol. 2017 Jan;66(1):153-194 27667367 Hepatology. 2016 Feb;63(2):408-17 26474537 Gastroenterology. 2017 Jun;152(8):2052-2062.e2 28274850 Postgrad Med. 2015 May;127(4):413-7 25746436 PLoS One. 2015 Dec 09;10(12):e0144629 26649443 N Engl J Med. 2013 Sep 12;369(11):1035-45 24024840 Int J Clin Lab Res. 1993;23(1):45-9 7682861 J Immunol. 2011 Dec 15;187(12):6550-63 22084433 J Rheumatol. 2005 Jun;32(6):1164-7 15940780

2018 Kidney international reports PubMed

169. Liver Transplantation for Hepatitis B Virus-related Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Hong Kong (Full text)

Liver Transplantation for Hepatitis B Virus-related Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Hong Kong Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer and the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Curative resection is frequently limited in Hong Kong by hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis, and liver transplantation is the treatment of choice. Liver transplantation has been shown to produce superior oncological benefits, when compared to hepatectomy for HCC. New (...) developments in the context of patient selection criteria, modification of organ allocation, bridging therapy, salvage liver transplantation and pharmaceutical breakthrough have improved the survival of HCC patients. In this article, we will share our experience in transplanting hepatitis B virus-related HCC patients in Hong Kong and discuss the recent progress in several areas of liver transplantation.

2018 Journal of clinical and translational hepatology PubMed

170. Harm reduction approaches predicted to reduce rates of new hepatitis C infection for people who inject drugs

Harm reduction approaches predicted to reduce rates of new hepatitis C infection for people who inject drugs Harm reduction approaches predicted to reduce rates of new hepatitis C infection for people who inject drugs Discover Portal Discover Portal Harm reduction approaches predicted to reduce rates of new hepatitis C infection for people who inject drugs Published on 5 December 2017 doi: A combination of providing clean needles and syringes and offering safer oral therapy, such as methadone (...) , reduced the predicted risk of becoming infected with hepatitis C virus by 71%. Providing both services to people who inject drugs was likely to be cost-effective and has the potential to be cost-saving in some parts of the UK, depending on the size of the local population of people who inject drugs and underlying rates of infection. Current services are estimated to save up to £54 million in costs of treating hepatitis C infection. This is in addition to the savings made from reducing the incidence

2018 NIHR Dissemination Centre

171. Tenofovir reduces mother-to-child hepatitis B transmission

Tenofovir reduces mother-to-child hepatitis B transmission Tenofovir reduces mother-to-child hepatitis B transmission Discover Portal Discover Portal Tenofovir reduces mother-to-child hepatitis B transmission Published on 25 July 2017 doi: Giving pregnant women with hepatitis B the drug tenofovir reduced the likelihood of passing the infection on to their baby by about 80% and did not have any adverse impact on mother or child. Hepatitis B often doesn't cause any obvious symptoms in adults (...) and typically passes in a few months without treatment, but in children it often persists for years and may cause progressive liver damage with cirrhosis and increased risk of liver cancer. Babies can get the infection from their mother during birth. The findings of this systematic review support current NICE recommendations that pregnant women with active hepatitis B infection are treated in the third trimester using the drug tenofovir and at risk babies immunised after birth. Share your views

2018 NIHR Dissemination Centre

172. Two drug treatments for severe alcoholic hepatitis do not improve survival rates

Two drug treatments for severe alcoholic hepatitis do not improve survival rates Two drug treatments for severe alcoholic hepatitis do not improve survival rates Discover Portal Discover Portal Two drug treatments for severe alcoholic hepatitis do not improve survival rates Published on 23 April 2015 doi: This NIHR funded trial found that neither prednisolone nor pentoxifylline improved mortality for people with severe alcoholic hepatitis. No differences were found in mortality at 28 or 90 days (...) , or in the need for liver transplant at one year. Overall mortality was high. Nearly three in ten people died before 90 days and more than half (56%) at one year. This shows that other new treatments are needed and more needs to be done to encourage complete abstinence from alcohol following severe alcoholic hepatitis. Share your views on the research. Why was this study needed? UK estimates from 2009 show a quarter of adults drink in a hazardous or harmful way. People with prolonged and heavy alcohol use can

2018 NIHR Dissemination Centre

173. Elbasvir/grazoprevir in Asia‐Pacific/Russian participants with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1, 4, or 6 infection (Full text)

Elbasvir/grazoprevir in Asia‐Pacific/Russian participants with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1, 4, or 6 infection The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Asian countries is high. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of elbasvir/grazoprevir (EBR/GZR) in participants with HCV infection from Asia-Pacific countries and Russia. In this phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study, treatment-naive participants with HCV genotype (GT) 1, 4, or 6 infection

2018 Hepatology communications PubMed

174. Diagnosis of Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy: A Systematic Review of Point-of-Care Diagnostic Tests

Diagnosis of Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy: A Systematic Review of Point-of-Care Diagnostic Tests Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is common, characterized by deficits in reaction time and executive function, and strongly associated with disability and mortality. Point-of-care diagnostics performed without specialized skills or equipment are now available, albeit with limited data regarding their generalizability.We systematically reviewed MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Scopus

2018 EvidenceUpdates

175. Sofosbuvir-velpatasvir-voxilaprevir (Vosevi) - chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV)

Sofosbuvir-velpatasvir-voxilaprevir (Vosevi) - chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) Published 9 April 2018 1 sofosbuvir 400mg, velpatasvir 100mg, voxilaprevir 100mg film-coated tablet (Vosevi ® ) SMC No 1317/18 Gilead Sciences Ltd 9 March 2018 The Scottish Medicines Consortium (SMC) has completed its assessment of the above product and advises NHS Boards and Area Drug and Therapeutic Committees (ADTCs) on its use in NHS Scotland. The advice is summarised as follows: ADVICE: following a full (...) submission sofosbuvir-velpatasvir-voxilaprevir (Vosevi®) is accepted for restricted use within NHS Scotland. Indication under review: Treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in adults. SMC restriction: for patients who: (1) Have failed to achieve a sustained virologic response (SVR) with a direct-acting anti-viral (DAA) or (2) are DAA-naïve, have genotype 3 (GT3) HCV infection, with or without cirrhosis, and are suitable for treatment with an eight-week course. Sofosbuvir-velpatasvir

2018 Scottish Medicines Consortium

176. Sofosbuvir-velpatasvir (Epclusa) - chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV)

Sofosbuvir-velpatasvir (Epclusa) - chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) Published 9 April 2018 1 Re-Submission sofosbuvir 400mg, velpatasvir 100mg film-coated tablets (Epclusa ® ) SMC No 1271/17 Gilead Sciences Ltd 9 March 2018 The Scottish Medicines Consortium (SMC) has completed its assessment of the above product and advises NHS Boards and Area Drug and Therapeutic Committees (ADTCs) on its use in NHS Scotland. The advice is summarised as follows: ADVICE: following a resubmission sofosbuvir (...) -velpatasvir (Epclusa ® ) is accepted for restricted use within NHS Scotland. Indication under review: treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in adults. SMC restriction: in patients with genotype 1 or 4 HCV infection. Sofosbuvir-velpatasvir was associated with high rates of sustained virologic suppression in adults with genotype 1 and 4 chronic HCV infection, including those with decompensated cirrhosis. This SMC advice takes account of the benefits of a Patient Access Scheme (PAS

2018 Scottish Medicines Consortium

177. Hepatitis C: sofosbuvir + velpatasvir (Epclusa) represents an advance for some patients

Hepatitis C: sofosbuvir + velpatasvir (Epclusa) represents an advance for some patients Prescrire IN ENGLISH - Spotlight ''Hepatitis C: sofosbuvir + velpatasvir (Epclusa°) represents an advance for some patients'', 1 April 2018 {1} {1} {1} | | > > > Hepatitis C: sofosbuvir + velpatasvir (Epclusa°) represents an advance for some patients Spotlight Every month, the subjects in Prescrire’s Spotlight. 100 most recent :  |   |   |   |   |   |    (...) |   |   |  Spotlight Hepatitis C: sofosbuvir + velpatasvir (Epclusa°) represents an advance for some patients The combination sofosbuvir + velpatasvir (Epclusa°) offers a therapeutic advance in the treatment of hepatitis C, especially in patients infected by a genotype 2 virus. But the uncertainty surrounding its adverse effects is unacceptable. Hepatitis C can cause complications such as cirrhosis and liver cancer. Treatment depends on the virus genotype, the severity

2018 Prescrire

178. Practice Advisory: Hepatitis B Prevention

Practice Advisory: Hepatitis B Prevention Practice Advisory: Hepatitis B Prevention - ACOG Menu ▼ Practice Advisory: Hepatitis B Prevention Page Navigation ▼ Share: Practice Advisory: Hepatitis B Prevention The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) have released updated guidance on preventing the transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (1). A critical element of the strategy to eliminate HBV in the United States (...) is the prevention of perinatal transmission. The CDC and ACIP’s updated guidance reflects the best currently available evidence and select new or updated recommendations include the following: Pregnant women positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) should be tested for hepatitis B virus deoxyribonucleic acid (HBV DNA) to guide the use of antiviral medication to prevent perinatal transmission Persons with chronic liver disease* should be vaccinated against HBV The American Association for the Study

2018 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

179. Diagnostic Accuracy of Aspartate Aminotransferase to Platelet Ratio Index and Fibrosis 4 Scores in Predicting Advanced Liver Fibrosis in Patients with End-stage Renal Disease and Chronic Viral Hepatitis: Experience from Pakistan (Full text)

Diagnostic Accuracy of Aspartate Aminotransferase to Platelet Ratio Index and Fibrosis 4 Scores in Predicting Advanced Liver Fibrosis in Patients with End-stage Renal Disease and Chronic Viral Hepatitis: Experience from Pakistan The aim was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of APRI and FIB-4 in assessing the stage of liver fibrosis in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients with chronic viral hepatitis and to compare the two tests with standard tru-cut liver biopsy.The study was conducted (...) at Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation Karachi (SIUT) from May 2010 to May 2014. All ESRD patients, being considered as candidates for renal transplantation and in whom liver biopsy was performed were included. Fibrosis stage was assessed on liver biopsy using Ishak scoring system. The serum transaminases and platelet counts were used to calculate APRI and FIB-4 scores.Out of 109 patients, hepatitis C and B virus infections were present in 104 (95.4%) and 3(2.8%), respectively, while 2 (1.8

2018 Journal of translational internal medicine PubMed

180. Liver‐enriched transcription factor expression relates to chronic hepatic failure in humans (Full text)

Liver‐enriched transcription factor expression relates to chronic hepatic failure in humans The mechanisms by which the liver fails in end-stage liver disease remain elusive. Disruption of the transcription factor network in hepatocytes has been suggested to mediate terminal liver failure in animals. However, this hypothesis remains unexplored in human subjects. To study the relevance of transcription factor expression in terminal stages of chronic liver failure in humans, we analyzed (...) the expression of liver-enriched transcription factors (LETFs) hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)4α, HNF1α, forkhead box protein A2 (FOXA2), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (CEBP)α, and CEBPβ. We then selected downstream genes responsible for some hepatic functions (ornithine transcarbamylase [OTC], cytochrome P450 3A4 [CYP3A4], coagulation factor VII [F7], cadherin 1 [CDH1], phospho-ezrin (Thr567)/radixin (Thr564)/moesin (Thr558) [p-ERM], phospho-myosin light chain [p-MLC], low-density lipoprotein receptor

2018 Hepatology communications PubMed