Latest & greatest articles for hiv

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21. Quadruple versus triple combination antiretroviral therapies for treatment naive people with HIV: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. (PubMed)

Quadruple versus triple combination antiretroviral therapies for treatment naive people with HIV: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. To evaluate the effects of four drug (quadruple) versus three drug (triple) combination antiretroviral therapies in treatment naive people with HIV, and explore the implications of existing trials for clinical practice and research.Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, Web (...) of Science, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature from March 2001 to December 2016 (updated search in PubMed and EMBASE up to June 2018); and reference lists of eligible studies and related reviews.Randomised controlled trials comparing quadruple with triple combination antiretroviral therapies in treatment naive people with HIV and evaluating at least one effectiveness or safety outcome.Outcomes of interest included undetectable HIV-1 RNA, CD4 T cell count, virological failure

2019 BMJ

22. Emtricitabine + tenofovir disoproxil (Truvada and other brands) for prevention of HIV infection in adolescents

Emtricitabine + tenofovir disoproxil (Truvada and other brands) for prevention of HIV infection in adolescents Prescrire IN ENGLISH - Spotlight ''Emtricitabine + tenofovir disoproxil (Truvada° and other brands) for prevention of HIV infection in adolescents'', 1 July 2019 {1} {1} {1} | | > > > Emtricitabine + tenofovir disoproxil (Truvada° and other brands) for prevention of HIV infection in adolescents Spotlight Every month, the subjects in Prescrire’s Spotlight. 100 most recent :  |  (...)  |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |  Spotlight In the July-August issue of Prescrire International: emtricitabine + tenofovir disoproxil (Truvada° and other brands) for prevention of HIV infection in adolescents FREE DOWNLOAD Based on extrapolation of the data obtained in adults, the emtricitabine + tenofovir disoproxil combination (Truvada° or other brands) appears worth offering to adolescents whose sex practices place them at particularly

2019 Prescrire

23. Strategies to link people with undiagnosed HIV infection to HIV testing, care, and prevention services

Strategies to link people with undiagnosed HIV infection to HIV testing, care, and prevention services Strategies to link people with undiagnosed HIV infection to HIV testing, care, and prevention services | The Ontario HIV Treatment Network The Ontario HIV Treatment Network Strategies to link people with undiagnosed HIV infection to HIV testing, care, and prevention services Strategies to link people with undiagnosed HIV infection to HIV testing, care, and prevention services , , , , Questions (...) What strategies have been successful at linking people with undiagnosed HIV infection to HIV testing, care, and prevention services? Key take-home messages A variety of strategies have shown promise for identifying individuals with undiagnosed HIV and engaging them with HIV testing using clinical, community-based, network-based, and self-directed approaches. Various service delivery models for implementing rapid initiation of antiretroviral treatment have demonstrated benefits for linking the newly

2019 Ontario HIV Treatment Network

24. Management of newborns born to women with HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection

Management of newborns born to women with HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection Management of newborns born to women with HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection Document ID CHQ-GDL-01243 Version no. 3.1 Approval date 28/05/2019 Executive sponsor Executive Director Medical Services Effective date 28/05/2019 Author/custodian Infectious Diseases Physician - Infection Management and Prevention services Review date 28/05/2021 Supercedes 3.0 Applicable to All Children’s Health Queensland (...) staff Authorisation Executive Director Clinical Services (QCH) Purpose This guideline provides best practice recommendations for obstetricians, paediatricians, neonatologists and Human Immunodeficient Virus (HIV) physicians regarding management of infants born to women with HIV infection. Scope This Guideline provides information for all Children’s Health Queensland (CHQ) employees (permanent, temporary and casual) and all organisations and individuals acting as its agents (including Visiting

2019 Queensland Health

25. Causes of severe pneumonia requiring hospital admission in children without HIV infection from Africa and Asia: the PERCH multi-country case-control study. (PubMed)

Causes of severe pneumonia requiring hospital admission in children without HIV infection from Africa and Asia: the PERCH multi-country case-control study. Pneumonia is the leading cause of death among children younger than 5 years. In this study, we estimated causes of pneumonia in young African and Asian children, using novel analytical methods applied to clinical and microbiological findings.We did a multi-site, international case-control study in nine study sites in seven countries (...) to cases without HIV infection and with abnormal chest x-rays and to controls without HIV infection. We applied a Bayesian, partial latent class analysis to estimate probabilities of aetiological agents at the individual and population level, incorporating case and control data.Between Aug 15, 2011, and Jan 30, 2014, we enrolled 4232 cases and 5119 community controls. The primary analysis group was comprised of 1769 (41·8% of 4232) cases without HIV infection and with positive chest x-rays and 5102 (99

2019 Lancet

26. Rapid initiation of antiretroviral therapy for people living with HIV. (PubMed)

Rapid initiation of antiretroviral therapy for people living with HIV. Despite antiretroviral therapy (ART) being widely available, HIV continues to cause substantial illness and premature death in low-and-middle-income countries. High rates of loss to follow-up after HIV diagnosis can delay people starting ART. Starting ART within seven days of HIV diagnosis (rapid ART initiation) could reduce loss to follow-up, improve virological suppression rates, and reduce mortality.To assess the effects (...) of interventions for rapid initiation of ART (defined as offering ART within seven days of HIV diagnosis) on treatment outcomes and mortality in people living with HIV. We also aimed to describe the characteristics of rapid ART interventions used in the included studies.We searched CENTRAL, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, Embase, and four other databases up to 14 August 2018. There was no restriction on date, language, or publication status. We also searched ClinicalTrials.gov

2019 Cochrane

27. HIV incidence among women using intramuscular depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, a copper intrauterine device, or a levonorgestrel implant for contraception: a randomised, multicentre, open-label trial. (PubMed)

HIV incidence among women using intramuscular depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, a copper intrauterine device, or a levonorgestrel implant for contraception: a randomised, multicentre, open-label trial. Observational and laboratory studies suggest that some hormonal contraceptive methods, particularly intramuscular depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA-IM), might increase women's susceptibility to HIV acquisition. We aimed to compare DMPA-IM, a copper intrauterine device (IUD (...) ), and a levonorgestrel (LNG) implant among African women seeking effective contraception and living in areas of high HIV incidence.We did a randomised, multicentre, open-label trial across 12 research sites in eSwatini, Kenya, South Africa, and Zambia. We included HIV-seronegative women aged 16-35 years who were seeking effective contraception, had no medical contraindications to the trial contraceptive methods, agreed to use the assigned method for 18 months, and reported not using injectable, intrauterine

2019 Lancet

28. Preexposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of HIV Infection: Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. (PubMed)

Preexposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of HIV Infection: Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Effective prevention strategies for HIV infection are an important public health priority. Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) involves use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) daily or before and after sex to decrease risk of acquiring HIV infection.To synthesize the evidence on the benefits and harms of PrEP, instruments for predicting incident HIV infection (...) , and PrEP adherence to inform the US Preventive Services Task Force.Ovid MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and EMBASE through June 2018, with surveillance through January 2019.English-language placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials of oral PrEP with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate monotherapy; studies on the diagnostic accuracy of instruments for predicting incident HIV infection

2019 JAMA

29. Preexposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of HIV Infection: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. (PubMed)

Preexposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of HIV Infection: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. An estimated 1.1 million individuals in the United States are currently living with HIV, and more than 700 000 persons have died of AIDS since the first cases were reported in 1981. In 2017, there were 38 281 new diagnoses of HIV infection reported in the United States; 81% of these new diagnoses were among males and 19% were among females. Although treatable, HIV infection (...) has no cure and has significant health consequences.To issue a new US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for the prevention of HIV infection.The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on the benefits of PrEP for the prevention of HIV infection with oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate monotherapy or combined tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine and whether the benefits vary by risk group, population subgroup, or regimen or dosing strategy

2019 JAMA

30. Screening for HIV Infection: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. (PubMed)

Screening for HIV Infection: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Approximately 1.1 million persons in the United States are currently living with HIV, and more than 700 000 persons have died of AIDS since the first cases were reported in 1981. There were approximately 38 300 new diagnoses of HIV infection in 2017. The estimated prevalence of HIV infection among persons 13 years and older in the United States is 0.4%, and data from the Centers for Disease Control (...) and Prevention show a significant increase in HIV diagnoses starting at age 15 years. An estimated 8700 women living with HIV give birth each year in the United States. HIV can be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy, labor, delivery, and breastfeeding. The incidence of perinatal HIV infection in the United States peaked in 1992 and has declined significantly following the implementation of routine prenatal HIV screening and the use of effective therapies and precautions to prevent mother

2019 JAMA

31. Screening for HIV Infection in Asymptomatic, Nonpregnant Adolescents and Adults: Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. (PubMed)

Screening for HIV Infection in Asymptomatic, Nonpregnant Adolescents and Adults: Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Untreated HIV infection can result in significant morbidity, mortality, and HIV transmission. A 2012 review for the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) found antiretroviral therapy (ART) associated with improved clinical outcomes and decreased transmission risk in persons with CD4 cell counts less than 500/mm3.To update (...) the 2012 review on HIV screening to inform the USPSTF.Ovid MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from 2012 to June 2018, with surveillance through January 2019.Nonpregnant individuals 12 years and older; randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and controlled observational studies of screening vs no screening, alternative screening strategies, earlier vs later initiation of ART, and long-term harms of ART.One investigator abstracted data

2019 JAMA

32. Screening for HIV Infection in Pregnant Women: Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. (PubMed)

Screening for HIV Infection in Pregnant Women: Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Prenatal screening for HIV can inform use of interventions to reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission. The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) previously found strong evidence that prenatal HIV screening reduced risk of mother-to-child transmission. The previous evidence review was conducted in 2012.To update the 2012 review on prenatal HIV (...) groups.One investigator abstracted data; a second checked accuracy. Two investigators independently rated study quality.Mother-to-child transmission; harms of screening and treatment; screening yield.Sixty-two studies were included in this review, including 29 new studies. There remains no direct evidence on effects of prenatal screening vs no screening on risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission, maternal or infant clinical outcomes, or the yield of repeat or alternative screening strategies. New

2019 JAMA

33. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection: Screening

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection: Screening Final Update Summary: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection: Screening - US Preventive Services Task Force Search USPSTF Website Text size: Assembly version: 1.0.0.308 Last Build: 5/9/2019 1:01:08 PM You are here: Final Summary YouTube embedded video: https://www.youtube-nocookie.com/embed/guahk43RkV4 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection: Screening Release Date: June 2019 Recommendation Summary Population Recommendation (...) Grade Adolescents and adults aged 15 to 65 years The USPSTF recommends that clinicians screen for HIV infection in adolescents and adults aged 15 to 65 years. Younger adolescents and older adults who are at increased risk of infection should also be screened. Pregnant persons The USPSTF recommends that clinicians screen for HIV infection in all pregnant persons, including those who present in labor or at delivery whose HIV status is unknown. To read the recommendation statement in JAMA , select

2019 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

34. Prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection: Preexposure Prophylaxis

Prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection: Preexposure Prophylaxis Final Update Summary: Prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection: Preexposure Prophylaxis - US Preventive Services Task Force Search USPSTF Website Text size: Assembly version: 1.0.0.308 Last Build: 5/9/2019 1:01:08 PM You are here: Final Summary YouTube embedded video: https://www.youtube-nocookie.com/embed/guahk43RkV4 Prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection: Preexposure (...) Prophylaxis Release Date: June 2019 Recommendation Summary Population Recommendation Grade Persons at high risk of HIV acquisition The USPSTF recommends that clinicians offer preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with effective antiretroviral therapy to persons who are at high risk of HIV acquisition. To read the recommendation statement in JAMA , select . To read the evidence summary in JAMA , select . See the for information about identification of persons at high risk and selection of effective antiretroviral

2019 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

35. Health technology assessment of a PrEP programme for populations at substantial risk of sexual acquisition of HIV

Health technology assessment of a PrEP programme for populations at substantial risk of sexual acquisition of HIV Health technology assessment of a PrEP programme for populations at substantial risk of sexual acquisition of HIV 14 June 2019 Health technology assessment of a PrEP programme for populations at substantial risk of sexual acquisition of HIV Health Information and Quality Authority Page 2 of 257 Health technology assessment of a PrEP programme for populations at substantial risk (...) of sexual acquisition of HIV Health Information and Quality Authority Page 3 of 257 CONTENTS About the Health Information and Quality Authority (HIQA) 6 Foreword 7 Acknowledgements 8 Advice to the Minister for Health 10 Executive summary 15 Plain English summary 26 1 Introduction 28 1.1 Background to the request 28 1.2 Terms of reference 29 1.3 Overall approach 29 2 Description of technology 31 2.1 Background 32 2.2 Regulatory status of PrEP 33 2.3 Product information 33 2.4 PrEP use in Ireland 35 2.5

2019 Health Information and Quality Authority

36. Risk of HIV transmission through condomless sex in serodifferent gay couples with the HIV-positive partner taking suppressive antiretroviral therapy (PARTNER): final results of a multicentre, prospective, observational study. (PubMed)

Risk of HIV transmission through condomless sex in serodifferent gay couples with the HIV-positive partner taking suppressive antiretroviral therapy (PARTNER): final results of a multicentre, prospective, observational study. The level of evidence for HIV transmission risk through condomless sex in serodifferent gay couples with the HIV-positive partner taking virally suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) is limited compared with the evidence available for transmission risk in heterosexual (...) couples. The aim of the second phase of the PARTNER study (PARTNER2) was to provide precise estimates of transmission risk in gay serodifferent partnerships.The PARTNER study was a prospective observational study done at 75 sites in 14 European countries. The first phase of the study (PARTNER1; Sept 15, 2010, to May 31, 2014) recruited and followed up both heterosexual and gay serodifferent couples (HIV-positive partner taking suppressive ART) who reported condomless sex, whereas the PARTNER2

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2019 Lancet

37. Out-of-pocket costs associated with HIV in publicly funded high-income health care settings

Out-of-pocket costs associated with HIV in publicly funded high-income health care settings Out-of-pocket costs associated with HIV in publicly funded high-income health care settings | The Ontario HIV Treatment Network The Ontario HIV Treatment Network Out-of-pocket costs associated with HIV in publicly funded high-income health care settings Out-of-pocket costs associated with HIV in publicly funded high-income health care settings , , Question What out-of-pocket costs are associated (...) with aging among people living with HIV? Key take-home messages The aging of the people living with HIV in care is leading to increased HIV care costs (1). There is considerable inter-jurisdictional heterogeneity in the cost-sharing policies for antiretrovirals across Canada’s public drug programs (2). Out-of-pocket costs such as inadequate drug coverage, pharmacy dispensing fees, and clinic travel costs may affect treatment adherence and related health outcomes among people living with HIV (3, 4

2019 Ontario HIV Treatment Network

38. A cross-jurisdictional review of HIV testing intervals for population groups at high risk of HIV infection

A cross-jurisdictional review of HIV testing intervals for population groups at high risk of HIV infection A cross-jurisdictional review of HIV testing intervals for population groups at high risk of HIV infection | The Ontario HIV Treatment Network The Ontario HIV Treatment Network A cross-jurisdictional review of HIV testing intervals for population groups at high risk of HIV infection A cross-jurisdictional review of HIV testing intervals for population groups at high risk of HIV infection (...) , , , , , , , , , , Question At what intervals do high-income jurisdictions encourage population groups at high risk of HIV infection to come forward for routine testing? Key take-home messages Most guidelines recommend at least annual HIV testing of population groups at high risk of HIV infection. These include: men who have sex with men, transgender women and men, people who use injection drugs, African, Caribbean and Black communities, indigenous people, and women at risk. Some guidelines recommend more frequent

2019 Ontario HIV Treatment Network

39. Monitoring Progress of Neurological and Functional Outcomes in the Paediatric HIV Cohort in the UK

Monitoring Progress of Neurological and Functional Outcomes in the Paediatric HIV Cohort in the UK Developmental Monitoring Guidelines 2019 1 Monitoring Progress of Neurological and Functional Outcomes in the Paediatric HIV Cohort in the UK Authors: Anita Freeman, Clinical Psychologist, Paediatric Department, St Mary’s Hospital Jackie Nicholson, Clinical Psychologist, Paediatric Psychosocial Service, Manchester Children’s Hospital Philippa Hatton, Clinical psychologist, Great Ormond Street (...) referral 10 CONCLUSIONS 11 References 12 2 Summary This document aims to summarise the current understanding of neurological and functional outcomes for children living with HIV and provide recommendations for screening and monitoring, as well as the process for deciding when to refer for or carry out additional assessments. This guideline gives a summary of some of the literature relating to the neurological and functioning outcomes of children and young people living with HIV. It is aimed

2019 The Children's HIV Association

40. BHIVA guidelines on the management of HIV in pregnancy and postpartum

BHIVA guidelines on the management of HIV in pregnancy and postpartum British HIV Association guidelines for the management of HIV in pregnancy and postpartum 2018 BHIVA guidelines on the management of HIV in pregnancy and postpartum 2 Guideline writing group Dr Yvonne Gilleece (Chair) Honorary Clinical Senior Lecturer and Consultant Physician in HIV and Genitourinary Medicine, Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust Dr Shema Tariq (Vice-chair) Postdoctoral Clinical Research Fellow (...) , University College London, and Honorary Consultant Physician in HIV, Central and North West London NHS Foundation Trust Dr Alasdair Bamford Consultant in Paediatric Infectious Diseases, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London Dr Sanjay Bhagani Consultant Physician in Infectious Diseases, Royal Free Hospital NHS Trust, London Dr Laura Byrne Locum Consultant in HIV Medicine, St George’s University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London Dr Emily Clarke Consultant

2019 British HIV Association