Latest & greatest articles for inequality

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Top results for inequality

121. Socioeconomic inequalities in outcome of pregnancy and neonatal mortality associated with congenital anomalies: population based study. (PubMed)

Socioeconomic inequalities in outcome of pregnancy and neonatal mortality associated with congenital anomalies: population based study. To investigate socioeconomic inequalities in outcome of pregnancy and neonatal mortality associated with congenital anomalies.Retrospective population based registry study.East Midlands and South Yorkshire regions of England (representing about 10% of births in England and Wales).All registered cases of nine selected congenital anomalies with poor prognostic (...) with deprivation (rate ratio 0.99, 0.84 to 1.17). The rate of termination after antenatal diagnosis of a congenital anomaly was lower in the most deprived areas compared with the least deprived areas (63% v 79%; rate ratio 0.80, 0.65 to 0.97). Consequently there were significant socioeconomic inequalities in the rate of live birth and neonatal mortality associated with the presence of any of these nine anomalies. Compared with the least deprived areas, the most deprived areas had a 61% higher rate of live

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2011 BMJ

122. Impact of Quality and Outcomes Framework on health inequalities

Impact of Quality and Outcomes Framework on health inequalities Impact of Quality and Outcomes Framework on health inequalities | The King's Fund Main navigation Health and care services Leadership, systems and organisations Patients, people and society Policy, finance and performance Search term Apply Impact of Quality and Outcomes Framework on health inequalities: Summary of full report This content relates to the following topics: Part of Share this content Related details Authors Artak (...) Khachatryan Andrew Wallace Stephen Peckham Tammy Boyce Stephen Gillam Publication details ISBN 978 1 85717 618 6 Pages 14 When it came to power in 1997 the Labour government committed to reducing health inequalities, and made extra funding available to those primary care trusts (PCTs) in areas of the country with the worst health and deprivation indicators (Spearhead areas). The General Medical Services contract introduced a pay-for-performance scheme known as the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF

2011 The King's Fund

123. [Evaluation of the impact in inequality before and after the enhancement of health insurance coverage of cancer]

[Evaluation of the impact in inequality before and after the enhancement of health insurance coverage of cancer] [Evaluation of the impact in inequality before and after the enhancement of health insurance coverage of cancer] [Evaluation of the impact in inequality before and after the enhancement of health insurance coverage of cancer] Kwon SM, Kim SJ, Yoon Y, Jung Y, Kim HS, Oh JH, Choi YS, Kim GY, Tae YH, Kang BJ Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology (...) assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Kwon SM, Kim SJ, Yoon Y, Jung Y, Kim HS, Oh JH, Choi YS, Kim GY, Tae YH, Kang BJ. [Evaluation of the impact in inequality before and after the enhancement of health insurance coverage of cancer] Seoul: National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency (NECA). NECA-M-11-001. 2011 Authors' conclusions The purpose of this study is to evaluate how the enforcement

2011 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

124. Nature of socioeconomic inequalities in neonatal mortality: population based study. (PubMed)

Nature of socioeconomic inequalities in neonatal mortality: population based study. To investigate time trends in socioeconomic inequalities in cause specific neonatal mortality in order to assess changing patterns in mortality due to different causes, particularly prematurity, and identify key areas of focus for future intervention strategies.Retrospective cohort study.England.All neonatal deaths in singleton infants born between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2007.Cause specific neonatal (...) . For intrapartum events and sudden infant deaths (only 13.5% of deaths) the relative deprivation gap narrowed slightly.Almost 80% of the relative deprivation gap in all cause mortality was explained by premature birth and congenital anomalies. To reduce socioeconomic inequalities in mortality, a change in focus is needed to concentrate on these two influential causes of death. Understanding the link between deprivation and preterm birth should be a major research priority to identify interventions to reduce

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2010 BMJ

125. Variation and inequality-what are the causes?

Variation and inequality-what are the causes? Variation and inequality-what are the causes? | TrustTheEvidence.net Syndicate Discover the truth behind the research findings that affect everyday healthcare. » » Links Tags HONcode Certified This site complies with the for trustworthy health information: . Variation and inequality-what are the causes? Ami Banerjee Last edited 26th November 2010 Yesterday the was launched. It aims to “address variations in activity and spend within the NHS (...) ” and “search for un-warranted variation”. Unwarranted variation is defined as “Variation in the utilization of health care services that cannot be explained by variation in patient or patient preferences”, and addressing it may “maximise health outcome and minimise inequalities”. The media coverage, as expected, has focused on the shocking of NHS healthcare with a . Across countries and across disease areas, there has been a flurry of research to show both VARIATION and INEQUALITIES. What do these words

2010 TrustTheEvidence

126. Inequalities in premature mortality in Britain: observational study from 1921 to 2007. (PubMed)

Inequalities in premature mortality in Britain: observational study from 1921 to 2007. To report on the extent of inequality in premature mortality as measured between geographical areas in Britain.Observational study of routinely collected mortality data and public records. Population subdivided by age, sex, and geographical area (parliamentary constituencies from 1991 to2007, pre-1974 local authorities over a longer time span).Great Britain.Entire population aged under 75 from 1990 to 2007 (...) , and entire population aged under 65 in the periods 1921-39, 1950-3, 1959-63, 1969-73, and 1981-2007.Relative index of inequality (RII) and ratios of inequality in age-sex standardised mortality ratios under ages 75 and 65. The relative index of inequality is the relative rate of mortality for the hypothetically worst-off compared with the hypothetically best-off person in the population, assuming a linear association between socioeconomic position and risk of mortality. The ratio of inequality

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2010 BMJ

127. Association of leg-length inequality with knee osteoarthritis: a cohort study. (PubMed)

Association of leg-length inequality with knee osteoarthritis: a cohort study. Leg-length inequality is common in the general population and may accelerate development of knee osteoarthritis.To determine whether leg-length inequality is associated with prevalent, incident, and progressive knee osteoarthritis.Prospective observational cohort study.Population samples from Birmingham, Alabama, and Iowa City, Iowa.3026 participants aged 50 to 79 years with or at high risk for knee (...) osteoarthritis.The exposure was leg-length inequality, measured by full-limb radiography. The outcomes were prevalent, incident, and progressive knee osteoarthritis. Radiographic osteoarthritis was defined as Kellgren and Lawrence grade 2 or greater, and symptomatic osteoarthritis was defined as radiographic disease in a consistently painful knee.Compared with leg-length inequality less than 1 cm, leg-length inequality of 1 cm or more was associated with prevalent radiographic (53% vs. 36%; odds ratio [OR], 1.9

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2010 Annals of Internal Medicine

128. Educational inequalities in mortality over four decades in Norway: prospective study of middle aged men and women followed for cause specific mortality, 1960-2000. (PubMed)

Educational inequalities in mortality over four decades in Norway: prospective study of middle aged men and women followed for cause specific mortality, 1960-2000. To determine the extent to which educational inequalities in relation to mortality widened in Norway during 1960-2000 and which causes of death were the main drivers of this disparity.Nationally representative prospective study.Four cohorts of the Norwegian population aged 45-64 years in 1960, 1970, 1980, and 1990 and followed up (...) for mortality over 10 years.359 547 deaths and 32 904 589 person years.All cause mortality and deaths due to cancer of lung, trachea, or bronchus; other cancer; cardiovascular diseases; suicide; external causes; chronic lower respiratory tract diseases; or other causes. Absolute and relative indices of inequality were used to present differences in mortality by educational level (basic, secondary, and tertiary).Mortality fell from the 1960s to the 1990s in all educational groups. At the same time

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2010 BMJ

129. Will policies for the early years reduce inequalities in health? A synthesis of evidence to inform policy development, using the examples of unintentional injury and childcare

Will policies for the early years reduce inequalities in health? A synthesis of evidence to inform policy development, using the examples of unintentional injury and childcare 1 Will policies for the early years reduce inequalities in health? A synthesis of evidence to inform policy development, using the examples of unintentional injury and childcare. Final report Law, Catherine 1 ; Abbas, Jake 2 ; Duncan, Helen 2 ; Ferguson, Brian 2 ; Graham, Hilary 3 ; Jenkins, Richard 1 ; Li, Leah 1 (...) and childcare. Some of these less well researched areas were then explored with secondary data, summarised below. Because these are based on observational data, causality cannot be assumed. Policies and inequalities in unintentional injury in young children Home environment in relation to inequalities in injury · Preschool children from less advantaged backgrounds were more likely to have visited a GP or A&E due to an unintentional injury which occurred in the home and they were also more likely to live

2010 Public Health Research Consortium

130. The impact on health inequalities of approaches to community engagement in the New Deal for Communities regeneration initiative: a mixed-methods evaluation

The impact on health inequalities of approaches to community engagement in the New Deal for Communities regeneration initiative: a mixed-methods evaluation The impact on health inequalities of approaches to community engagement in the New Deal for Communities regeneration initiative: a mixed-methods evaluation Journals Library An error occurred retrieving content to display, please try again. >> >> >> Page Not Found Page not found (404) Sorry - the page you requested could not be found. Please

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2010 NIHR HTA programme

131. Tobacco Control, Inequalities in Health and Action at the Local Level in England

Tobacco Control, Inequalities in Health and Action at the Local Level in England Tobacco control, inequalities in health and action at the local level in England. FINAL REPORT 31 March 2011 Grantholders Amanda Amos, University of Edinburgh Linda Bauld, University of Stirling Sarah Hill, University of Edinburgh Steve Platt, University of Edinburgh Jude Robinson, University of Liverpool Project Team Amanda Amos, University of Edinburgh Linda Bauld, University of Stirling David Clifford (...) . INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………17 1.1 Background…………………………………………………………………………..17 1.2 Aims………………………………………………………………………………….17 1.3 Research questions…………………………………………………………………...17 1.4 Structure of the report……………………………………….………………………..18 1.5 Resources and contributions……………………………………………….…………19 2. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF THE EVIDENCE ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TOBACCO CONTROL INTERVENTIONS IN REDUCING INEQUALITIES IN SMOKING 2.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………21 2.2 Methods

2010 Public Health Research Consortium

132. Socioeconomic inequalities in survival and provision of neonatal care: population based study of very preterm infants. (PubMed)

Socioeconomic inequalities in survival and provision of neonatal care: population based study of very preterm infants. To assess socioeconomic inequalities in survival and provision of neonatal care among very preterm infants.Prospective cohort study in a geographically defined population.Former Trent health region of the United Kingdom (covering about a twelfth of UK births).All infants born between 22+0 and 32+6 weeks' gestation from 1 January 1998 to 31 December 2007 who were alive

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2009 BMJ

133. Could Medicare Readmission Policy Exacerbate Health Care System Inequity? (PubMed)

Could Medicare Readmission Policy Exacerbate Health Care System Inequity? The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services recently started publicly reporting hospital readmission rates. Health care reform proposals include readmission provisions as vehicles to promote care coordination and achieve savings. Current approaches ascribe variability in hospital readmission primarily to differences in patient medical risk and hospital performance. These approaches do not adequately account (...) for the effect of patient sociodemographic and community factors that influence health care utilization and outcomes. The evidence base on cost-effective and generalizable care management techniques to reduce readmission is still evolving. Although readmission-related policies may prove to be a transformational force in health care reform, their incorrect application in facilities serving vulnerable communities may increase health care system inequity. Policy options can mitigate this potential.

2009 Annals of Internal Medicine

134. Income inequality, mortality, and self rated health: meta-analysis of multilevel studies. (PubMed)

Income inequality, mortality, and self rated health: meta-analysis of multilevel studies. To provide quantitative evaluations on the association between income inequality and health.Random effects meta-analyses, calculating the overall relative risk for subsequent mortality among prospective cohort studies and the overall odds ratio for poor self rated health among cross sectional studies.PubMed, the ISI Web of Science, and the National Bureau for Economic Research database. Review methods Peer (...) reviewed papers with multilevel data. Results The meta-analysis included 59 509 857 subjects in nine cohort studies and 1 280 211 subjects in 19 cross sectional studies. The overall cohort relative risk and cross sectional odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) per 0.05 unit increase in Gini coefficient, a measure of income inequality, was 1.08 (1.06 to 1.10) and 1.04 (1.02 to 1.06), respectively. Meta-regressions showed stronger associations between income inequality and the health outcomes among

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2009 BMJ

135. Contribution of smoking during pregnancy to inequalities in stillbirth and infant death in Scotland 1994-2003: retrospective population based study using hospital maternity records. (PubMed)

Contribution of smoking during pregnancy to inequalities in stillbirth and infant death in Scotland 1994-2003: retrospective population based study using hospital maternity records. To quantify the contribution of smoking during pregnancy to social inequalities in stillbirth and infant death.Population based retrospective cohort study.Scottish hospitals between 1994 and 2003.Records of 529 317 singleton live births and 2699 stillbirths delivered at 24-44 weeks' gestation in Scotland from 1994 (...) to 2003.Rates of stillbirth and infant, neonatal, and post-neonatal death for each deprivation category (fifths of postcode sector Carstairs-Morris scores); contribution of smoking during pregnancy ("no," "yes," or "not known") in explaining social inequalities in these outcomes.The stillbirth rate increased from 3.8 per 1000 in the least deprived group to 5.9 per 1000 in the most deprived group. For infant deaths, the rate increased from 3.2 per 1000 in the least deprived group to 5.4 per 1000

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2009 BMJ

136. Socioeconomic inequalities in hearing loss in a healthy population sample: The HUNT Study (PubMed)

Socioeconomic inequalities in hearing loss in a healthy population sample: The HUNT Study We assessed socioeconomic position and hearing loss in a Norwegian population of 17 593 men and women aged 30-54 years in 1984-1986 who were followed for 11 years. We used analysis of variance, logistic regression, and population-attributable fraction analyses to examine associations. Significant socioeconomic inequalities in hearing loss were found among men. Adjusted odds ratios for hearing loss were

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2009 EvidenceUpdates

137. Coronary heart disease mortality among young adults in Scotland in relation to social inequalities: time trend study. (PubMed)

Coronary heart disease mortality among young adults in Scotland in relation to social inequalities: time trend study. To examine recent trends and social inequalities in age specific coronary heart disease mortality.Time trend analysis using joinpoint regression.Scotland, 1986-2006.Men and women aged 35 years and over.Age adjusted and age, sex, and deprivation specific coronary heart disease mortality.Persistent sixfold social differentials in coronary heart disease mortality were seen between (...) and women aged 45-54 showed similar flattening from about 2003. Rates in women aged 55-64 may also now be flattening. The flattening of coronary heart disease mortality in younger men and women was confined to the two most deprived fifths.Premature death from coronary heart disease remains a major contributor to social inequalities. Furthermore, the flattening of the decline in mortality for coronary heart disease among younger adults may represent an early warning sign. The observed trends were

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2009 BMJ

138. Working for health? Evidence from systematic reviews on the effects on health and health inequalities of organisational changes to the psychosocial work environment (PubMed)

Working for health? Evidence from systematic reviews on the effects on health and health inequalities of organisational changes to the psychosocial work environment To map the health effects of interventions which aim to alter the psychosocial work environment, with a particular focus on differential impacts by socio-economic status, gender, ethnicity, or age.A systematic approach was used to identify, appraise and summarise existing systematic reviews (umbrella review) that examined the health (...) on health. Importantly, five reviews suggested that organisational level psychosocial workplace interventions may have the potential to reduce health inequalities amongst employees.Policy makers should consider organisational level changes to the psychosocial work environment when seeking to improve the health of the working age population.

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2009 EvidenceUpdates

139. Inequalities in reported use of breast and cervical screening in Great Britain: analysis of cross sectional survey data. (PubMed)

Inequalities in reported use of breast and cervical screening in Great Britain: analysis of cross sectional survey data. To investigate the relation between women's reported use of breast and cervical screening and sociodemographic characteristics.Cross sectional multipurpose survey.Private households, Great Britain. Population 3185 women aged 40-74 interviewed in the National Statistics Omnibus Survey 2005-7.Ever had a mammogram, ever had a cervical smear, and, for each, timing of most recent (...) of cervical screening was greater among more educated women but was not significantly associated with cars, housing tenure, or region.Most (84%) eligible women report having had both breast and cervical screening, but 3% report never having had either. Some inequalities exist in the reported use of screening, which differ by screening type; indicators of wealth were important for breast screening and ethnicity for cervical screening. The routine collection within general practice of additional

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2009 BMJ

140. Inequalities in maternal health: national cohort study of ethnic variation in severe maternal morbidities. (PubMed)

Inequalities in maternal health: national cohort study of ethnic variation in severe maternal morbidities. To describe on a national basis ethnic differences in severe maternal morbidity in the United Kingdom.National cohort study using the UK Obstetric Surveillance System (UKOSS).All hospitals with consultant led maternity units in the UK.686 women with severe maternal morbidity between February 2005 and February 2006.Rates, risk ratios, and odds ratios of severe maternal morbidity (...) . This highlights to clinicians and policy makers the importance of tailored maternity services and improved access to care for women from ethnic minorities. National information on the ethnicity of women giving birth in the UK is needed to enable ongoing accurate study of these inequalities.

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2009 BMJ