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Latest & greatest articles for inequality
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Explaining educational inequalities in preterm birth: the generation r study Although a low socioeconomic status has consistently been associated with an increased risk of preterm birth, little is known about the pathways through which socioeconomic disadvantage influences preterm birth.To examine mechanisms that might underlie the association between the educational level of pregnant women as an indicator of socioeconomic status, and preterm birth.The study was nested in a population-based (...) , and lifestyle habits. Apparently, educational inequalities in preterm birth go together with an accumulation of multiple adverse circumstances among women with a low education. A number of explanatory mechanisms unravelled in the present study seem to be modifiable by intervention programmes.
Improving partnership working to reduce health inequalities Improving partnership working to reduce health inequalities | The King's Fund Main navigation Health and care services Leadership, systems and organisations Patients, people and society Policy, finance and performance Search term Apply Improving partnership working to reduce health inequalities This content relates to the following topics: Share this content Authors Tammy Boyce Professor David Hunter Working in partnership is central (...) to reducing health inequalities – one department acting alone cannot tackle an issue that does not respect organisational boundaries. But unfortunately, all too frequently, only lip service is paid to partnership working in place of real engagement with practicable and sustainable outcomes. The King's Fund, in partnership with the Strategic Review of Health Inequalities Post 2010 led by Professor Sir Michael Marmot, held a seminar to discuss how to improve partnership working and health inequalities.So
Strategic review of health inequalities in England post-2010 (Marmot Review) Strategic review of health inequalities in England post-2010 (Marmot Review) | The King's Fund Main navigation Health and care services Leadership, systems and organisations Patients, people and society Policy, finance and performance Search term Apply Strategic review of health inequalities in England post-2010 (Marmot Review) Consultation response This content relates to the following topics: Share this content (...) This paper is a response to the Marmot Review consultation. It provides a comprehensive analysis of the proposals to reduce health inequalities and a range of evidence to underpin future health policy and action. The Marmot Review helps to clarify the role of the Department of Health and the NHS in reducing health inequalities. This is welcome guidance as the role that the NHS can play in doing so is often vague. Related content You may also be interested in Quick links Connect with us Latest Tweet
[The state of research into inequalities in the incidence, death, prevention and healthcare in cancer in Spain. A bibliometric study and literature review.] Investigacion en Espana sobre desigualdades en la incidencia, mortalidad, prevencion y atencion del cancer. Estudio bibliometrico y de revision de la literatura. [The state of research into inequalities in the incidence, death, prevention and healthcare in cancer in Spain. A bibliometric study and literature review.] Investigacion en Espana (...) sobre desigualdades en la incidencia, mortalidad, prevencion y atencion del cancer. Estudio bibliometrico y de revision de la literatura. [The state of research into inequalities in the incidence, death, prevention and healthcare in cancer in Spain. A bibliometric study and literature review.] Aguado Romeo MJ, Marquez Calderon S, Rohlfs I, Sarmiento Gonzalez-Nieto V. Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation
Inequalities and the mental health of young people: a systematic review of secondary school-based cognitive behavioural interventions Inequalities and the mental health of young people: a systematic review of secondary school-based cognitive behavioural interventions Inequalities and the mental health of young people: a systematic review of secondary school-based cognitive behavioural interventions Kavanagh J, Oliver S, Caird J, Tucker H, Greaves A, Harden A, Oakley A, Lorenc T, Thomas J CRD (...) health educational programmes and explore the impact of these interventions on inequalities in young people's mental health. Searching MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, ASSIA, Trials Register of Public Health Interventions (TROPHI), Database of Public Health Effectiveness Reviews (DOPHER), C2-SPECTR and PsiTri were searched for English-language articles published from 1996 onwards. Various websites were searched, references from relevant
Inequalities and the mental health of young people: a systematic review of secondary school-based cognitive behavioural interventions School-based cognitive-behavioural interventions: a systematic review of effects and inequalities 09 April 2019 Links Download report (pdf) Inequalities and the mental health of young people: a systematic review of secondary school-based cognitive behavioural interventions What do we want to know? Health inequalities are recognised as an important problem both (...) nationally and internationally. The research literature which demonstrates the complex interactions between the key axes of social differences in populations including class, education, occupation, income/assets, gender, ethnicity; in relation to health outcomes is yet to be matched by a strong body of evidence of what works to reduce health inequalities. Systematic reviewers wanting to examine how interventions impact upon gaps and gradients have been hampered by a lack of tested tools and methods
Health promotion, inequalities and young people's health: a systematic review or research Health promotion, inequalities and young people 10 April 2019 Links Download report (pdf) Health promotion, inequalities and young people's health: a systematic review of research What do we want to know? Health inequalities are recognised as an important problem nationally and internationally. There is policy interest in improving the health of the most disadvantaged, reducing the gap between the most (...) and least disadvantaged, and reducing gradients across the whole population. Health inequalities arise from variations in social, economic and environmental influences along the life course. Health promotion, particularly when it uses social and structural interventions developed by multi-disciplinary teams working with young people, not merely for them, has the potential to reduce health inequalities among young people immediately, and in their later lives. This study describes how much health
Inequalities in healthy life years in the 25 countries of the European Union in 2005: a cross-national meta-regression analysis. Although life expectancy in the European Union (EU) is increasing, whether most of these extra years are spent in good health is unclear. This information would be crucial to both contain health-care costs and increase labour-force participation for older people. We investigated inequalities in life expectancies and healthy life years (HLYs) at 50 years of age (...) years in men and women (p<0.039 for both indicators and sexes); however, in men alone, long-term unemployment was negatively associated (p=0.023) and life-long learning positively associated (p=0.021) with HLYs at 50 years of age.Substantial inequalities in HLYs at 50 years exist within EU countries. Our findings suggest that, without major improvements in population health, the target of increasing participation of older people into the labour force will be difficult to meet in all 25 EU
Effect of exposure to natural environment on health inequalities: an observational population study. Studies have shown that exposure to the natural environment, or so-called green space, has an independent effect on health and health-related behaviours. We postulated that income-related inequality in health would be less pronounced in populations with greater exposure to green space, since access to such areas can modify pathways through which low socioeconomic position can lead to disease.We (...) stratified models to identify the nature of this variation.The association between income deprivation and mortality differed significantly across the groups of exposure to green space for mortality from all causes (p<0.0001) and circulatory disease (p=0.0212), but not from lung cancer or intentional self-harm. Health inequalities related to income deprivation in all-cause mortality and mortality from circulatory diseases were lower in populations living in the greenest areas. The incidence rate ratio
Best-practice interventions to reduce socioeconomic inequalities of coronary heart disease mortality in UK: a prospective occupational cohort study. How much the successful implementation of the most effective (ie, best-practice) interventions could reduce socioeconomic inequalities of coronary heart disease mortality is not known. We assessed this issue in an occupational cohort study comparing low with high socioeconomic groups.We undertook a prospective cohort study on 17 186 male civil
Addressing social determinants of health inequities: what can the state and civil society do? In this Health Policy article, we selected and reviewed evidence synthesised by nine knowledge networks established by WHO to support the Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. We have indicated the part that national governments and civil society can play in reducing health inequity. Government action can take three forms: (1) as provider or guarantor of human rights and essential services (...) and civil society can have important positive roles in addressing health inequity if political will exists.
Effect of financial incentives on inequalities in the delivery of primary clinical care in England: analysis of clinical activity indicators for the quality and outcomes framework. The quality and outcomes framework is a financial incentive scheme that remunerates general practices in the UK for their performance against a set of quality indicators. Incentive schemes can increase inequalities in the delivery of care if practices in affluent areas are more able to respond to the incentives than (...) are those in deprived areas. We examined the relation between socioeconomic inequalities and delivered quality of clinical care in the first 3 years of this scheme.We analysed data extracted automatically from clinical computing systems for 7637 general practices in England, data from the UK census, and data for characteristics of practices and patients from the 2006 general medical statistics database. Practices were grouped into equal-sized quintiles on the basis of area deprivation in their locality
Socioeconomic inequalities in health in 22 European countries. Comparisons among countries can help to identify opportunities for the reduction of inequalities in health. We compared the magnitude of inequalities in mortality and self-assessed health among 22 countries in all parts of Europe.We obtained data on mortality according to education level and occupational class from census-based mortality studies. Deaths were classified according to cause, including common causes (...) , such as cardiovascular disease and cancer; causes related to smoking; causes related to alcohol use; and causes amenable to medical intervention, such as tuberculosis and hypertension. Data on self-assessed health, smoking, and obesity according to education and income were obtained from health or multipurpose surveys. For each country, the association between socioeconomic status and health outcomes was measured with the use of regression-based inequality indexes.In almost all countries, the rates of death
The contribution of job characteristics to socioeconomic inequalities in incidence of myocardial infarction The current study estimated the contribution of job characteristics to socioeconomic inequalities in incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) during a 12-year follow-up period. Data were from the working population (aged 25-64 years) in the Netherlands longitudinal GLOBE study (N=5757). Self-reported information was available from baseline measurement (in 1991) for education, occupation
Inequity of access to investigation and effect on clinical outcomes: prognostic study of coronary angiography for suspected stable angina pectoris. To determine whether coronary angiography for suspected stable angina pectoris is underused in older patients, women, south Asian patients, and those from socioeconomically deprived areas, and, if it is, whether this is associated with higher coronary event rates.Multicentre cohort with five year follow-up.Six ambulatory care clinics in England.1375
Inequalities in mortality during and after restructuring of the New Zealand economy: repeated cohort studies. To determine whether disparities between income and mortality changed during a period of major structural and macroeconomic reform and to estimate the changing contribution of different diseases to these disparities.Repeated cohort studies.1981, 1986, 1991, 1996, and 2001 censuses linked to mortality data. Population Total New Zealand population, ages 1-74 years.Mortality rates (...) standardised for age and ethnicity were calculated for each census cohort by level of household income. Standardised rate differences and rate ratios, and slope and relative indices of inequality (SII and RII), were calculated to measure disparities on both absolute and relative scales.All cause mortality rates declined over the 25 year study period in all groups stratified by sex, age, and income, except for 25-44 year olds of both sexes on low incomes among whom there was little change. In all age groups
Population tobacco control interventions and their effects on social inequalities in smoking Population tobacco control interventions and their effects on social inequalities in smoking Population tobacco control interventions and their effects on social inequalities in smoking Fayter D, Main C, Misso K, Ogilvie D, Petticrew M, Sowden A, Stirk L, Thomas S, Whitehead M, Worthy G Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA (...) . No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Fayter D, Main C, Misso K, Ogilvie D, Petticrew M, Sowden A, Stirk L, Thomas S, Whitehead M, Worthy G. Population tobacco control interventions and their effects on social inequalities in smoking. York: University of York. CRD Report 39. 2008 Authors' objectives The overall aims of this project were: To synthesise the best available evidence about the differential effects of population tobacco control interventions
Population tobacco control interventions and their effects on social inequalities in smoking Population tobacco control interventions and their effects on social inequalities in smoking Population tobacco control interventions and their effects on social inequalities in smoking Centre for Reviews and Dissemination CRD summary This well-conducted review assessed the effects of population level tobacco control interventions on smoking related health inequalities. The authors concluded (...) that these interventions have the potential to reduce health inequalities for disadvantaged groups. A need for further rigorous research in a number of specific areas was identified. Given the level of evidence presented, the authors' conclusions are likely to be reliable. Authors' objectives To evaluate the effects of population tobacco control interventions on social inequalities of smoking. Searching BIOSIS Previews, CINAHL, Cochrane library, EMBASE, EconLit, HMIC, HTA, ISI Technology Assessment database, MEDLINE
Child wellbeing and income inequality in rich societies: ecological cross sectional study. To examine associations between child wellbeing and material living standards (average income), the scale of differentiation in social status (income inequality), and social exclusion (children in relative poverty) in rich developed societies.Ecological, cross sectional studies.Cross national comparisons of 23 rich countries; cross state comparisons within the United States.Children and young people.The (...) Unicef index of child wellbeing and its components for rich countries; eight comparable measures for the US states and District of Columbia (teenage births, juvenile homicides, infant mortality, low birth weight, educational performance, dropping out of high school, overweight, mental health problems).The overall index of child wellbeing was negatively correlated with income inequality (r=-0.64, P=0.001) and percentage of children in relative poverty (r=-0.67, P=0.001) but not with average income (r
The global impact of income inequality on health by age: an observational study. To explore whether the apparent impact of income inequality on health, which has been shown for wealthier nations, is replicated worldwide, and whether the impact varies by age.Observational study.126 countries of the world for which complete data on income inequality and mortality by age and sex were available around the year 2002 (including 94.4% of world human population).Data on mortality were from the World (...) Health Organization and income data were taken from the annual reports of the United Nations Development Programme.Mortality in 5-year age bands for each sex by income inequality and income level.At ages 15-29 and 25-39 variations in income inequality seem more closely correlated with mortality worldwide than do variations in material wealth. This relation is especially strong among the poorest countries in Africa. Mortality is higher for a given level of overall income in more unequal nations.Income