Latest & greatest articles for infants

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on infants and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Top results for infants

21. Newborn and infant physical examination: programme handbook

Newborn and infant physical examination: programme handbook Newborn and infant physical examination: programme handbook - GOV.UK GOV.UK uses cookies to make the site simpler. Accept cookies You’ve accepted all cookies. You can at any time. Hide Search The United Kingdom is leaving the European Union on 31 October 2019. Guidance Newborn and infant physical examination: programme handbook This document brings together all the guidelines that relate to the NHS newborn and infant physical (...) ) and need a version of this document in a more accessible format, please email . Please tell us what format you need. It will help us if you say what assistive technology you use. Details The purpose of this handbook is to inform and support best clinical practice in the NHS newborn and infant physical examination ( 27 August 2019 Updated NIPE programme handbook. 24 April 2018 Updated pathway appendices in accessible PDF formats. 19 April 2018 Minor correction to neonatal hip risk factors under Standard

2019 Public Health England

22. Oral morphine analgesia for preventing pain during invasive procedures in non-ventilated premature infants in hospital: the Poppi RCT

Oral morphine analgesia for preventing pain during invasive procedures in non-ventilated premature infants in hospital: the Poppi RCT Oral morphine analgesia for preventing pain during invasive procedures in non-ventilated premature infants in hospital: the Poppi RCT Journals Library An error occurred retrieving content to display, please try again. >> >> >> Page Not Found Page not found (404) Sorry - the page you requested could not be found. Please choose a page from the navigation or try (...) a website search above to find the information you need. >> >> >> >> Issue {{metadata .Issue }} Toolkit 1)"> 0)"> 1)"> {{metadata.Title}} {{metadata.Headline}} The trial was stopped early because of profound respiratory adverse effects, without evidence of analgesic benefit for procedural pain, from the administration of oral morphine to non-ventilated premature infants. {{author}} {{($index , , , , , , , , , , , & . Vaneesha Monk 1, *, † , Fiona Moultrie 1, † , Caroline Hartley 1 , Amy Hoskin 1

2019 NIHR HTA programme

23. Randomized Trial of 42-Day Compared with 9-Day Courses of Dexamethasone for the Treatment of Evolving Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Extremely Preterm Infants

Randomized Trial of 42-Day Compared with 9-Day Courses of Dexamethasone for the Treatment of Evolving Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Extremely Preterm Infants To compare pulmonary and neurodevelopmental outcomes in extremely preterm infants with evolving bronchopulmonary dysplasia treated with either a 42-day course of dexamethasone or 9-day course(s) of dexamethasone.This was a prospective, randomized study in 59 infants ≤27 weeks of gestation born between October 2006 and December 2010, who (...) at day 10-21 of life had ventilatory support with mean airway pressure ≥8 cm H2O and FiO2 ≥60%. Infants received dexamethasone 0.5 mg/k/day × 3 days followed by a slow taper (42-day group, n = 30) or dexamethasone 0.5 mg/k/day followed by a rapid taper (9-day group, n = 29). Infants in the 9-day group received additional 9-day courses if they again required entry support. The primary outcome was intact survival (normal neurologic examination, IQ >70, and functioning in school without supplemental

2019 EvidenceUpdates

24. Neonatal, infant, and childhood growth following metformin versus insulin treatment for gestational diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Neonatal, infant, and childhood growth following metformin versus insulin treatment for gestational diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis Metformin is increasingly offered as an acceptable and economic alternative to insulin for treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in many countries. However, the impact of maternal metformin treatment on the trajectory of fetal, infant, and childhood growth is unknown.PubMed, Ovid Embase, Medline, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov (...) with oral glucose-lowering agents other than insulin. Two reviewers independently assessed articles for eligibility and risk of bias, and conflicts were resolved by a third reviewer. Outcome measures were parameters of fetal, infant, and childhood growth, including weight, height, BMI, and body composition. In total, 28 studies (n = 3,976 participants) met eligibility criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. No studies reported fetal growth parameters; 19 studies (n = 3,723 neonates) reported

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2019 EvidenceUpdates

25. Immunoglobulin treatment for hospitalised infants and young children with respiratory syncytial virus infection. (PubMed)

Immunoglobulin treatment for hospitalised infants and young children with respiratory syncytial virus infection. Millions of children are hospitalised due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection every year. Treatment is supportive, and current therapies (e.g. inhaled bronchodilators, epinephrine, nebulised hypertonic saline, and corticosteroids) are ineffective or have limited effect. Respiratory syncytial virus immunoglobulin is sometimes used prophylactically to prevent hospital (...) admission from RSV-related illness. It may be considered for the treatment of established severe RSV infection or for treatment in an immunocompromised host, although it is not licenced for this purpose. It is unclear whether immunoglobulins improve outcomes when used as a treatment for established RSV infection in infants and young children admitted to hospital.  OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of immunoglobulins for the treatment of RSV-proven lower respiratory tract infections in children aged up

2019 Cochrane

26. Formula versus maternal breast milk for feeding preterm or low birth weight infants. (PubMed)

Formula versus maternal breast milk for feeding preterm or low birth weight infants. Artificial formula can be manipulated to contain higher amounts of macro-nutrients than maternal breast milk but breast milk confers important immuno-nutritional advantages for preterm or low birth weight (LBW) infants.To determine the effect of feeding preterm or LBW infants with formula compared with maternal breast milk on growth and developmental outcomes.We used the standard strategy of Cochrane Neonatal (...) to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2018, Issue 9), and Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid Maternity & Infant Care Database, and CINAHL to October 2018. We searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles.Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared feeding preterm or low birth weight infants with formula versus maternal breast milk.Two review authors planned independently to assess trial

2019 Cochrane

27. Improving incidence trends of severe intraventricular haemorrhages in preterm infants at 32 weeks gestation: a cohort study

Improving incidence trends of severe intraventricular haemorrhages in preterm infants at 32 weeks gestation: a cohort study To describe the trend and risk factors for severe intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) among infants <32 weeks gestation.Population-based cohort study.Australia and New Zealand.All preterm infants <32 weeks gestation in the Australian and New Zealand Neonatal Network (ANZNN) from 1995 to 2012.Comparison of IVH incidence between 6-year epochs.Overall IVH and severe IVH (...) incidence.A total of 60 068 infants were included, and overall survival to discharge increased from 89% to 93% over the three epochs. As the percentage of infants with IVH decreased from 23.6% to 21.3% and 21.4% (p<0.001) from epoch 1 to 3, respectively, fewer survivors had severe IVH (4.0%, 3.3% and 2.8%, respectively, p<0.001). Over time, there were fewer antenatal complications, higher antenatal steroid usage and more caesarean-section births. Fewer infants were intubated at birth, had low 5 min Apgar

2019 EvidenceUpdates

28. Protein hydrolysate versus standard formula for preterm infants. (PubMed)

Protein hydrolysate versus standard formula for preterm infants. When human milk is not available for feeding preterm infants, protein hydrolysate, rather than standard cow's milk formulas (with intact proteins), is often used because it is perceived as being tolerated better and less likely to lead to complications. However, protein hydrolysate formulas are more expensive than standard formulas, and concern exists that their use in practice is not supported by high-quality evidence.To assess (...) the effects of feeding preterm infants hydrolysed formula (vs standard cow's milk formula) on risk of feed intolerance, necrotising enterocolitis, and other morbidity and mortality.We used the standard Cochrane Neonatal search strategy including electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2019, Issue 1), in the Cochrane Library; Ovid MEDLINE (1966 to 28 January 2019); Ovid Embase (1980 to 28 January 2019); and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health

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2019 Cochrane

29. Formula versus donor breast milk for feeding preterm or low birth weight infants. (PubMed)

Formula versus donor breast milk for feeding preterm or low birth weight infants. When sufficient maternal breast milk is not available, alternative forms of enteral nutrition for preterm or low birth weight (LBW) infants are donor breast milk or artificial formula. Donor breast milk may retain some of the non-nutritive benefits of maternal breast milk for preterm or LBW infants. However, feeding with artificial formula may ensure more consistent delivery of greater amounts of nutrients (...) differences (MDs) for continuous data, with respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used a fixed-effect model in meta-analyses and explored potential causes of heterogeneity in subgroup analyses. We assessed the certainty of evidence for the main comparison at the outcome level using GRADE methods.Twelve trials with a total of 1879 infants fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Four trials compared standard term formula versus donor breast milk and eight compared nutrient-enriched preterm formula versus

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2019 Cochrane

30. Nutrient-enriched formula versus standard formula for preterm infants. (PubMed)

Nutrient-enriched formula versus standard formula for preterm infants. Preterm infants may accumulate nutrient deficits leading to extrauterine growth restriction. Feeding preterm infants with nutrient-enriched rather than standard formula might increase nutrient accretion and growth rates and might improve neurodevelopmental outcomes.To compare the effects of feeding with nutrient-enriched formula versus standard formula on growth and development of preterm infants.We used the Cochrane (...) Neonatal standard search strategy. This included electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2018, Issue 11), MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (until November 2018), as well as conference proceedings, previous reviews, and clinical trials databases.Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared feeding preterm infants with nutrient-enriched formula (protein and energy plus minerals, vitamins

2019 Cochrane

31. Exposure to the smell and taste of milk to accelerate feeding in preterm infants. (PubMed)

Exposure to the smell and taste of milk to accelerate feeding in preterm infants. Preterm infants are often unable to co-ordinate sucking, swallowing and breathing for oral feeding because of their immaturity; in such cases, initial nutrition is provided by orogastric or nasogastric tube feeding. Feed intolerance is common and can delay attainment of full enteral feeds and sucking feeds, which prolongs the need for intravenous nutrition and hospital stay. Smell and taste play an important role (...) in the activation of physiological pre-absorptive processes that contribute to food digestion and absorption. However, during tube feedings, milk bypasses the nasal and oral cavities, which limits exposure to the smell and taste of milk. Provision of the smell and taste of milk with tube feedings is non-invasive and inexpensive; and if it does accelerate the transition to enteral feeds, and then to sucking feeds, it would be of considerable potential benefit to infants, their families, and the healthcare

2019 Cochrane

32. Routine monitoring of gastric residual for prevention of necrotising enterocolitis in preterm infants. (PubMed)

Routine monitoring of gastric residual for prevention of necrotising enterocolitis in preterm infants. Routine monitoring of gastric residual in preterm infants on gavage feeds is a common practice that is used to guide initiation and advancement of feeds. Some literature suggests that an increase in/or an altered gastric residual may be predictive of necrotising enterocolitis. Withholding monitoring of gastric residual may take away the early indicator and thus may increase the risk (...) the efficacy and safety of routine monitoring of gastric residual versus no monitoring of gastric residual in preterm infants• To assess the efficacy and safety of routine monitoring of gastric residual based on two different criteria for interrupting feeds or decreasing feed volume in preterm infantsWe planned to undertake subgroup analysis based on gestational age (≤ 27 weeks, 28 weeks to 31 weeks, ≥ 32 weeks), birth weight (< 1000 g, 1000 g to 1499 g, ≥ 1500 g), small for gestational age versus

2019 Cochrane

33. Re-feeding versus discarding gastric residuals to improve growth in preterm infants. (PubMed)

Re-feeding versus discarding gastric residuals to improve growth in preterm infants. Routine monitoring of gastric residuals in preterm infants on gavage feeds is a common practice in many neonatal intensive care units and is used to guide the initiation and advancement of feeds. No guidelines or consensus is available on whether to re-feed or discard the aspirated gastric residuals. Although re-feeding gastric residuals may replace partially digested milk, gastrointestinal enzymes, hormones (...) , and trophic substances that aid in digestion and promote gastrointestinal motility and maturation, re-feeding abnormal residuals may result in emesis, necrotising enterocolitis, or sepsis.To assess the efficacy and safety of re-feeding compared to discarding gastric residuals in preterm infants. The allocation should have been started in the first week of life and should have been continued at least until the baby reached full enteral feeds. The investigator could have chosen to discard the gastric

2019 Cochrane

34. Inositol in preterm infants at risk for or having respiratory distress syndrome. (PubMed)

Inositol in preterm infants at risk for or having respiratory distress syndrome. Inositol is an essential nutrient required by human cells in culture for growth and survival. Inositol promotes maturation of several components of surfactant and may play a critical role in fetal and early neonatal life. A drop in inositol levels in infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) can be a sign that their illness will be severe.To assess the effectiveness and safety of supplementary inositol (...) in preterm infants with or without respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in reducing adverse neonatal outcomes including: death (neonatal and infant deaths), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH), periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and sepsis.We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2018, Issue 11), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966

2019 Cochrane

35. Pharmacological interventions for prevention and treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in newborn infants. (PubMed)

Pharmacological interventions for prevention and treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in newborn infants. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is typically a mild, self-limiting condition that can affect both preterm and term neonates, although it can be severe particularly when associated with co-morbidities. Pharmacological interventions with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), H2 receptor antagonist (H2RA), antacid, bismuth and sucralfate may have effects on both the prevention and treatment (...) antagonist, antacid, sucralfate or bismuth either for the prevention or treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding.Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility of studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed methodological quality. We conducted meta-analysis using a fixed-effect model. We used the GRADE approach to assess quality of evidence.Eleven studies with 818 infants met the criteria for inclusion in this review.Four trials with 329 infants assessed the use of an H2 receptor

2019 Cochrane

36. Neuroprotection from acute brain injury in preterm infants

Neuroprotection from acute brain injury in preterm infants Infants born at ≤32 +6 weeks gestation are at higher risk for intracranial ischemic and hemorrhagic injuries, which often occur in the first 72 hours postbirth. Antenatal strategies to reduce the incidence of acute brain injuries include administering maternal corticosteroids and prompt antibiotic treatment for chorioamnionitis. Perinatal strategies include delivery within a tertiary centre, delayed cord clamping, and preventing (...) hypothermia. Postnatal strategies include empiric treatment with antibiotics when chorioamnionitis is suspected, the cautious use of inotropes, the avoidance of blood PCO2 fluctuation, and neutral head positioning. Clinicians should be aware of the policies and procedures that, especially when combined, can provide neuroprotection for preterm infants. Keywords: Acute brain injury; Infant; Intraventricular hemorrhage; Neuroprotection; Neuroprotective strategies; Premature

2019 Canadian Paediatric Society

37. Impact of Early Exposure to Cefuroxime on the Composition of the Gut Microbiota in Infants Following Cesarean Delivery

Impact of Early Exposure to Cefuroxime on the Composition of the Gut Microbiota in Infants Following Cesarean Delivery To assess in mothers giving birth by cesarean delivery if prophylactic antibiotics administered either before skin incision or immediately after cutting the umbilical cord influences gut microbiota colonization and antibiotic susceptibility of the gut bacteria in the newborn.Forty-two pregnant women scheduled for elective cesarean delivery were recruited at Odense University (...) Hospital, Denmark, and randomly assigned to receive cefuroxime either before skin incision or immediately after the umbilical cord was cut. Fecal samples were collected from all infants at age 10 days and 9 months. Composition of the gut microbiota was determined by 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon high-throughput sequencing. Gram-positive cocci and Enterobacteriaceae were isolated and identified before antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed by disk diffusion.No clear difference

2019 EvidenceUpdates

38. Ethnic and socioeconomic variation in cause-specific preterm infant mortality by gestational age at birth: national cohort study

Ethnic and socioeconomic variation in cause-specific preterm infant mortality by gestational age at birth: national cohort study To describe ethnic and socioeconomic variation in cause-specific infant mortality of preterm babies by gestational age at birth.National birth cohort study.England and Wales 2006-2012.Singleton live births at 24-36 completed weeks' gestation (n=256 142).Adjusted rate ratios for death in infancy by cause (three groups), within categories of gestational age at birth (24 (...) ). There was no evidence of socioeconomic variation in deaths from immaturity-related conditions.Gestation-specific preterm infant mortality shows contrasting ethnic patterns of death from immaturity-related conditions in extremely-preterm babies, and congenital anomalies in moderate/late-preterm babies. Socioeconomic variation derives from congenital anomalies and rarer causes in moderate/late-preterm babies. Future research should examine biological origins of extremely preterm birth.© Author(s) (or their employer(s

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2019 EvidenceUpdates

39. Effect of Umbilical Cord Blood Sampling versus Admission Blood Sampling on Requirement of Blood Transfusion in Extremely Preterm Infants: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Effect of Umbilical Cord Blood Sampling versus Admission Blood Sampling on Requirement of Blood Transfusion in Extremely Preterm Infants: A Randomized Controlled Trial To evaluate the effect of blood sampling from the placental end of the umbilical cord compared with initial blood sampling from neonates, on the need for first packed red blood cell transfusion in extremely preterm infants. We hypothesized that cord blood sampling could delay the time to first blood transfusion.In this single

2019 EvidenceUpdates

40. Pregnancy and early life: reducing stillbirth and infant death

Pregnancy and early life: reducing stillbirth and infant death Pregnancy and early life: reducing stillbirth and infant death - GOV.UK GOV.UK uses cookies to make the site simpler. Accept cookies You’ve accepted all cookies. You can at any time. Hide Search Guidance Pregnancy and early life: reducing stillbirth and infant death A planning tool to examine factors that influence stillbirth and infant death at the population level, rather than in individual clinical care. Published 12 March 2019 (...) Last updated 9 July 2019 — From: Documents Ref: PHE publication gateway reference GW-240 If you use assistive technology (such as a screen reader) and need a version of this document in a more accessible format, please email . Please tell us what format you need. It will help us if you say what assistive technology you use. Details This tool uses available data and evidence to model estimates of the possible effects of various factors on infant mortality and stillbirths in a local geographical area

2019 Public Health England