Latest & greatest articles for infants

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Top results for infants

101. Impact of Steroid Therapy on Early Growth in Infants with Biliary Atresia: The Multicenter Steroids in Biliary Atresia Randomized Trial

Impact of Steroid Therapy on Early Growth in Infants with Biliary Atresia: The Multicenter Steroids in Biliary Atresia Randomized Trial To investigate the impact of corticosteroid therapy on the growth of participants in the Steroids in Biliary Atresia Randomized Trial (START) conducted through the Childhood Liver Disease Research Network. The primary analysis in START indicated that steroids did not have a beneficial effect on drainage in a cohort of infants with biliary atresia. We (...) hypothesized that steroids would have a detrimental effect on growth in these infants.A total of 140 infants were enrolled in START, with 70 randomized to each treatment arm: steroid and placebo. Length, weight, and head circumference were obtained at baseline and follow-up visits to 24 months of age.Patients treated with steroids had significantly lower length and head circumference z scores during the first 3 months post-hepatoportoenterostomy (HPE), and significantly lower weight until 12 months. Growth

2018 EvidenceUpdates

102. Preterm Infant Outcomes after Randomization to Initial Resuscitation with FiO2 0.21 or 1.0

Preterm Infant Outcomes after Randomization to Initial Resuscitation with FiO2 0.21 or 1.0 To determine rates of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) at 2 years corrected age (primary outcome) in children <32 weeks' gestation randomized to initial resuscitation with a fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) value of 0.21 or 1.0.Blinded assessments were conducted at 2-3 years corrected age with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition or the Ages and Stages (...) (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 0.86-2.5; P = .16). No difference in NDI was found in 215 survivors randomized to FiO2 0.21 vs 1.0 (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 0.70-2.28; P = .11). In post hoc exploratory analyses in the whole cohort, children with a 5-minute blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) <80% were more likely to die or to have NDI (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.07-3.2; P = .03).Initial resuscitation of infants <32 weeks' gestation with initial FiO2 0.21 had no significant effect on death or NDI compared with initial FiO2 1.0. Further

2018 EvidenceUpdates

103. The Impact of Pulmonary Hypertension in Preterm Infants with Severe Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia through 1 Year

The Impact of Pulmonary Hypertension in Preterm Infants with Severe Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia through 1 Year To assess the effect of pulmonary hypertension on neonatal intensive care unit mortality and hospital readmission through 1 year of corrected age in a large multicenter cohort of infants with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia.This was a multicenter, retrospective cohort study of 1677 infants born <32 weeks of gestation with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia enrolled in the Children's (...) Hospital Neonatal Consortium with records linked to the Pediatric Health Information System.Pulmonary hypertension occurred in 370 out of 1677 (22%) infants. During the neonatal admission, pulmonary hypertension was associated with mortality (OR 3.15, 95% CI 2.10-4.73, P < .001), ventilator support at 36 weeks of postmenstrual age (60% vs 40%, P < .001), duration of ventilation (72 IQR 30-124 vs 41 IQR 17-74 days, P < .001), and higher respiratory severity score (3.6 IQR 0.4-7.0 vs 0.8 IQR 0.3-3.3, P

2018 EvidenceUpdates

104. Improved Outcomes in Preterm Infants Fed a Nonacidified Liquid Human Milk Fortifier: A Prospective Randomized Clinical Trial

Improved Outcomes in Preterm Infants Fed a Nonacidified Liquid Human Milk Fortifier: A Prospective Randomized Clinical Trial To compare growth, feeding tolerance, and clinical and biochemical evaluations in human milk-fed preterm infants randomized to receive either an acidified or a nonacidified liquid human milk fortifier.This prospective, controlled, parallel, multicenter growth and tolerance study included 164 preterm infants (≤32 weeks of gestation, birth weight 700-1500 g) who were (...) randomized to acidified or nonacidified liquid human milk fortifier from study day 1, the first day of fortification, through study day 29 or until hospital discharge.There was no difference in the primary outcome of weight gain from study days 1 to 29 (acidified liquid human milk fortifier, 16.4 ± 0.4 g/kg/day; nonacidified liquid human milk fortifier, 16.9 ± 0.4 g/kg/day). However, in both the intention-to-treat and the protocol evaluable analyses, infants fed nonacidified liquid human milk fortifier

2018 EvidenceUpdates

105. Effects of a new device for automated closed loop control of inspired oxygen concentration on fluctuations of arterial and different regional organ tissue oxygen saturations in preterm infants

Effects of a new device for automated closed loop control of inspired oxygen concentration on fluctuations of arterial and different regional organ tissue oxygen saturations in preterm infants To assess the efficacy of a newly developed system for closed loop control of the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) on variation of arterial (SpO2) and on regional tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) in preterm infants with fluctuations in SpO2.Randomised crossover trial comparing automated (auto) to manual (...) FiO2 adjustment (manual) during two consecutive 24 hours periods using a Sophie infant ventilator (SPO2C).Tertiary university medical centre.Twelve very low birthweight infant (VLBWI) (gestational age (median; IQR): (25; 23-26 weeks); birth weight (mean±SD): (667±134 g); postnatal age (mean±SD): (31.5±14 days)).Time within SpO2 target range.There was an increase in time within the intended SpO2 target range (88%-96%) during auto as compared with manual mode (77.8%±7.1% vs 68.5%±7.7% (mean±SD), p

2018 EvidenceUpdates

106. Direct infant UV light exposure is associated with eczema and immune development

Direct infant UV light exposure is associated with eczema and immune development Suboptimal vitamin D levels during critical periods of immune development have emerged as an explanation for higher rates of allergic diseases associated with industrialization and residing at higher latitudes.We sought to determine the effects of early postnatal vitamin D supplementation on infant eczema and immune development.By using a double-blind randomized controlled trial, newborn infants were randomized (...) to receive vitamin D supplementation (400 IU/d) or a placebo until 6 months of age. Some infants also wore personal UV dosimeters to measure direct UV light (290-380 nm) exposure. Infant vitamin D levels were measured at 3 and 6 months of age. Eczema, wheeze, and immune function outcomes were assessed at 6 months of age.At 3 (P < .01) and 6 (P = .02) months of age, vitamin D levels were greater for the vitamin D-supplemented group than the placebo group, but there was no difference in eczema incidence

2018 EvidenceUpdates

107. Effects of Myo-inositol on Type 1 Retinopathy of Prematurity Among Preterm Infants &lt;28 Weeks' Gestational Age: A Randomized Clinical Trial. (PubMed)

Effects of Myo-inositol on Type 1 Retinopathy of Prematurity Among Preterm Infants <28 Weeks' Gestational Age: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Previous studies of myo-inositol in preterm infants with respiratory distress found reduced severity of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and less frequent ROP, death, and intraventricular hemorrhage. However, no large trials have tested its efficacy or safety.To test the adverse events and efficacy of myo-inositol to reduce type 1 ROP among infants (...) younger than 28 weeks' gestational age.Randomized clinical trial included 638 infants younger than 28 weeks' gestational age enrolled from 18 neonatal intensive care centers throughout the United States from April 17, 2014, to September 4, 2015; final date of follow-up was February 12, 2016. The planned enrollment of 1760 participants would permit detection of an absolute reduction in death or type 1 ROP of 7% with 90% power. The trial was terminated early due to a statistically significantly higher

2018 JAMA

108. Infant formulas containing hydrolysed protein for prevention of allergic disease. (PubMed)

Infant formulas containing hydrolysed protein for prevention of allergic disease. Infant formulas containing hydrolysed proteins have been widely advocated for preventing allergic disease in infants, in place of standard cow's milk formula (CMF). However, it is unclear whether the clinical trial evidence supports this.To compare effects on allergic disease when infants are fed a hydrolysed formula versus CMF or human breast milk. If hydrolysed formulas are effective, to determine what type (...) of hydrolysed formula is most effective, including extensively or partially hydrolysed formula (EHF/PHF). To determine whether infants at low or high risk of allergic disease, and whether infants receiving early short-term (first few days after birth) or prolonged formula feeding benefit from hydrolysed formulas.We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2017, Issue 11), MEDLINE (1948 to 3 November 2017), and Embase (1974 to 3 November 2017). We also searched clinical trials

2018 Cochrane

109. Creation of the WHO Indicators of Infant and Young Child Development (IYCD): metadata synthesis across 10 countries (PubMed)

Creation of the WHO Indicators of Infant and Young Child Development (IYCD): metadata synthesis across 10 countries Renewed global commitment to the improvement of early child development outcomes, as evidenced by the focus of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 4, highlights an increased need for reliable and valid measures to evaluate preventive and interventional efforts designed to affect change. Our objective was to create a new tool, applicable across multicultures, to measure

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2018 BMJ global health

110. Naloxone for opioid-exposed newborn infants. (PubMed)

Naloxone for opioid-exposed newborn infants. Naloxone, a specific opioid antagonist, is available for the treatment of newborn infants with cardiorespiratory or neurological depression that may be due to intrauterine exposure to opioid. It is unclear whether newborn infants may benefit from this therapy and whether naloxone has any harmful effects.To determine the effect of naloxone on the need for and duration of neonatal unit stay in infants of mothers who received opioid analgesia prior (...) to delivery or of mothers who have used a prescribed or non-prescribed opioid during pregnancy.We searched the following databases in February 2018: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (the Cochrane Library 2018, Issue 1), MEDLINE (OvidSP), MEDLINE In process & Other Non-Indexed Citations (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), CINAHL (EBSCO), Maternity and Infant Care (OvidSP), and PubMed. We searched for ongoing and completed trials in the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and the EU

2018 Cochrane

111. Hydrocortisone (Alkindi) - replacement therapy of adrenal insufficiency in infants, children and adolescents (from birth to <18 years old)

Hydrocortisone (Alkindi) - replacement therapy of adrenal insufficiency in infants, children and adolescents (from birth to <18 years old) Published 08 October 2018 1 hydrocortisone 0.5mg, 1mg, 2mg and 5mg granules in capsules for opening (Alkindi ® ) SMC2088 Diurnal Limited 7 September 2018 The Scottish Medicines Consortium (SMC) has completed its assessment of the above product and advises NHS Boards and Area Drug and Therapeutic Committees (ADTCs) on its use in NHSScotland. The advice (...) is summarized as follows: ADVICE: following a full submission hydrocortisone (Alkindi ® ) is accepted for restricted use within NHSScotland. Indication under review: replacement therapy of adrenal insufficiency in infants, children and adolescents (from birth to <18 years old). SMC restriction: for the first-line treatment of infants and young children with adrenal insufficiency aged from birth to less than six years of age for whom hydrocortisone must otherwise be individually prepared by manipulation

2018 Scottish Medicines Consortium

112. Sociodemographic Factors and Survival of Infants With Congenital Heart Defects

Sociodemographic Factors and Survival of Infants With Congenital Heart Defects To examine the first-year survival of infants with congenital heart defects (CHDs) and investigate the potential role of socioeconomic and demographic factors on survival.Subjects included 15 533 infants with CHDs born between 2004 and 2013 ascertained by the NC Birth Defects Monitoring Program. We classified CHDs into the following 3 groups: critical univentricular (n = 575), critical biventricular (n = 1494 (...) ), and noncritical biventricular (n = 13 345). We determined vital status and age at death through linkage to state vital records and used geocoded maternal residence at birth to obtain census information for study subjects. We calculated Kaplan-Meier survival estimates by maternal and infant characteristics and derived hazard ratios from Cox proportional hazard models for selected exposures.Among all infants with CHDs, there were 1289 deaths (8.3%) in the first year. Among infants with univentricular defects

2018 EvidenceUpdates

113. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Barrier Dressing to Reduce Nasal Injury in Preterm Infants Receiving Binasal Noninvasive Respiratory Support

A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Barrier Dressing to Reduce Nasal Injury in Preterm Infants Receiving Binasal Noninvasive Respiratory Support To determine whether the use of a hydrocolloid nasal barrier dressing during binasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, compared with no barrier dressing, reduces the rate of nasal injury in very preterm and/or very low birth weight infants.A single-center randomized controlled trial conducted in the neonatal intensive care unit (...) at The Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne. Eligible infants were born <30 weeks of gestation and/or with birth weight <1250 g, and had received ≥4 hours, but <48 hours, of CPAP. Infants were randomly allocated to receive either a hydrocolloid nasal barrier dressing during CPAP (barrier group), or no barrier dressing (no barrier group). The primary outcome was the incidence of any nasal injury during CPAP support, until the infant was both >30 weeks of postmenstrual age and >1250 g, unless CPAP therapy

2018 EvidenceUpdates

114. Ultrasonography-Guided Lumbar Punctures Effect on Success Rate in Infants

Ultrasonography-Guided Lumbar Punctures Effect on Success Rate in Infants "Ultrasonography-Guided Lumbar Punctures Effect on Success Rate in Infa" by Patricia Dorian < > > > > > Title Author Date of Graduation Summer 8-11-2018 Degree Type Capstone Project Degree Name Master of Science in Physician Assistant Studies Rights . Abstract Background: Lumbar puncture (LP) is a common diagnostic procedure performed in emergency departments for febrile infants in order to rule in or rule out bacterial (...) . The goal of this review is to analyze studies done on infants and discern if they have a similar or better success rate with ultrasonography assistance. Methods: An exhaustive search of the literature was conducted on the following search engines: Web of Science, MEDLINE-Ovid, MEDLINE-PubMed, and Google Scholar. Key terms used included: ultrasonography, infant, lumbar puncture, and randomized control trial . All articles found went through an eligibility criteria and were analyzed using the GRADE

2018 Pacific University EBM Capstone Project

115. The Quarter Prone Position Increases Oxygen Saturation in Premature Infants Using Continuous Positive Airway Pressure. (PubMed)

The Quarter Prone Position Increases Oxygen Saturation in Premature Infants Using Continuous Positive Airway Pressure. A primary problem that occurs in premature infants is oxygenation disorders, thus requiring respiratory support, including continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). The effectiveness of CPAP can be improved by adjusting the body's position, so the aim of this study was to examine the effect of the quarter prone position on the oxygenation status of preterm infants using CPAP (...) . This study used a randomized controlled trial with a crossover design. A group of 15 preterm infants receiving CPAP was selected, and randomization of allocation was done to divide the respondents into the intervention group (quarter prone) or the control group (supine). Oxygenation status was measured using an observation form, and the result showed a significant difference in the oxygen saturation levels of premature infants using CPAP in the quarter prone group compared to that in the supine group (p

2018 Comprehensive child and adolescent nursing

116. Ibuprofen for the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus in preterm or low birth weight (or both) infants. (PubMed)

Ibuprofen for the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus in preterm or low birth weight (or both) infants. Indomethacin is used as standard therapy to close a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) but is associated with reduced blood flow to several organs. Ibuprofen, another cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, may be as effective as indomethacin with fewer adverse effects.To determine the effectiveness and safety of ibuprofen compared with indomethacin, other cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor(s), placebo (...) compared with placebo (typical relative risk (RR); 0.62 (95% CI 0.44 to 0.86); typical risk difference (RD); -0.18 (95% CI -0.30 to -0.06); NNTB 6 (95% CI 3 to 17); I2 = 65% for RR and I2 = 0% for RD; 2 studies, 206 infants; moderate-quality the evidence). One study reported decreased failure to close a PDA after single or three doses of oral ibuprofen compared with placebo (64 infants; RR 0.26, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.62; RD -0.44, 95% CI -0.65 to -0.23; NNTB 2, 95% CI 2 to 4; I2 test not applicable

2018 Cochrane

117. Oropharyngeal colostrum in preventing mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. (PubMed)

Oropharyngeal colostrum in preventing mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. Placing a small volume of colostrum directly onto the buccal mucosa of preterm infants during the early neonatal period may provide immunological and growth factors that stimulate the immune system and enhance intestinal growth. These benefits could potentially reduce the risk of infection and necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and improve survival and long-term outcome.To determine if early (within the first 48 (...) hours of life) oropharyngeal administration of mother's own fresh or frozen/thawed colostrum can reduce rates of NEC, late-onset invasive infection, and/or mortality in preterm infants compared with controls. To assess trials for evidence of safety and harm (e.g. aspiration pneumonia). To compare effects of early oropharyngeal colostrum (OPC) versus no OPC, placebo, late OPC, and nasogastric colostrum.We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group to search the Cochrane

2018 Cochrane

118. A modified developmental care bundle reduces pain and stress in preterm infants undergoing examinations for retinopathy of prematurity: A randomised controlled trial

A modified developmental care bundle reduces pain and stress in preterm infants undergoing examinations for retinopathy of prematurity: A randomised controlled trial To determine the comparative efficacy of developmental care versus standard care for reducing pain and stress in preterm infants during examinations for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP).ROP examinations are routinely performed in neonatal intensive care units to detect these lesions. Pain scores recorded during and after eye (...) examinations have revealed physiological and behavioural manifestations of pain and stress.A randomised crossover trial was conducted.Fourteen preterm infants were evaluated. The modified developmental care bundle included environmental modifications, positioning and containment, oxygen supplementation, interaction and approach and cue-based individual care, which were applied before, during and after the ROP examination. The primary outcomes were obtained from pain and stress scores using the premature

2018 EvidenceUpdates

119. Oral thyroxin supplementation in infants undergoing cardiac surgery: A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial

Oral thyroxin supplementation in infants undergoing cardiac surgery: A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial Decreases in serum total thyroxin and total triiodothyronine occurs after cardiopulmonary bypass, and is reflected as poor immediate outcome. We studied effects of oral thyroxin supplementation in infants who underwent open-heart surgery.In this prospective study, 100 patients were randomized into 2 groups: 50 in the thyroxin group (TH) and 50 in the placebo group (PL (...) ). The average therapeutic intervention scoring system scores for the first 2 days were higher in the PL in the complex category.Oral thyroxin supplementation improves the CI and reduces the inotropic requirement. In addition, it reduces the duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU and hospital stay, and therapeutic intervention scoring system in infants after surgery for complex congenital heart defects.Copyright © 2018 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

2018 EvidenceUpdates

120. The Effect of Noninvasive High-Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation on Desaturations and Bradycardia in Very Preterm Infants: A Randomized Crossover Trial

The Effect of Noninvasive High-Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation on Desaturations and Bradycardia in Very Preterm Infants: A Randomized Crossover Trial Noninvasive high-frequency oscillatory ventilation compared with nasal continuous positive airway pressure significantly reduced the number of desaturations and bradycardia in preterm infants. However, noninvasive high-frequency oscillatory ventilation was associated with increased oxygen requirements and higher heart rates.Australian and New

2018 EvidenceUpdates