Latest & greatest articles for infants

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Top results for infants

121. Cord milking versus immediate clamping in preterm infants: a randomised controlled trial

Cord milking versus immediate clamping in preterm infants: a randomised controlled trial To investigate whether umbilical cord milking (UCM) at birth improves systemic blood flow and short-term outcomes, as compared with immediate cord clamping (ICC).Randomised clinical trial.Single tertiary care centre.Infants born to eligible women presenting in preterm labour between 24 and 31 weeks' gestation.UCM three times at birth or ICC.Primary outcome included systemic blood flow as represented by echo (...) -derived superior vena cava(SVC) flow at 4-6 hours after birth. The echocardiographer and interpreter were blinded to the randomisation. Secondary outcomes included cardiac output, neonatal morbidities and mortality. Analysis was by intention to treat.A total of 73 infants were randomised (37 to UCM and 36 to ICC). Mean (SD) gestational age was 27 (2) weeks and mean (SD) birth weight was 1040 (283) g. Haemoglobin on admission was higher in the UCM than in the ICC group (16.1 vs 15.0 g/L), p=0.049 (mean

2018 EvidenceUpdates

122. Association of Early Introduction of Solids With Infant Sleep: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial

Association of Early Introduction of Solids With Infant Sleep: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months. However, 75% of British mothers introduce solids before 5 months and 26% report infant waking at night as influencing this decision.To determine whether early introduction of solids influences infant sleep.The Enquiring About Tolerance study was a population-based randomized clinical trial conducted from (...) January 15, 2008, to August 31, 2015, that included 1303 exclusively breastfed 3-month-old infants from England and Wales. Clinical visits took place at St Thomas' Hospital, London, England, and the trial studied the early introduction of solids into the infant diet from age 3 months.The early introduction group (EIG) continued to breastfeed while nonallergenic and then 6 allergenic foods were introduced. The standard introduction group (SIG) followed British infant feeding guidelines (ie, exclusive

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2018 EvidenceUpdates

123. Lipid-based nutrient supplements for maternal, birth, and infant developmental outcomes. (PubMed)

Lipid-based nutrient supplements for maternal, birth, and infant developmental outcomes. Ready-to-use lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) are a highly nutrient-dense supplement, which could be a good source of macro- and micronutrients for pregnant women who need to supplement their nutrient intake.To assess the effects of LNS for maternal, birth and infant outcomes in pregnant women. Secondary objectives were to explore the most appropriate composition, frequency and duration of LNS (...) compared to the IFA group, but no difference between the groups as regards adverse effects. There was no difference between the two groups for maternal mortality (risk ratio (RR) 0.53, 95% CI 0.12 to 2.41; 3 studies, 5628 participants).Birth and infant outcomes: there was no difference between the LNS and IFA groups for low birth weight (LBW) (RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.05; 3 studies, 4826 participants), though newborns in the LNS group had a slightly higher mean birth weight (mean difference (MD) 53.28

2018 Cochrane

124. Carbohydrate supplementation of human milk to promote growth in preterm infants. (PubMed)

Carbohydrate supplementation of human milk to promote growth in preterm infants. Preterm infants are born with low glycogen stores and require higher glucose intake to match fetal accretion rates. In spite of the myriad benefits of breast milk for preterm infants, it may not adequately meet the needs of these rapidly growing infants. Supplementing human milk with carbohydrates may help. However, there is a paucity of data on assessment of benefits or harms of carbohydrate supplementation (...) of human milk to promote growth in preterm infants. This is a 2018 update of a Cochrane Review first published in 1999.To determine whether human milk supplemented with carbohydrate compared with unsupplemented human milk fed to preterm infants improves growth, body composition, and cardio-metabolic and neurodevelopmental outcomes without significant adverse effects.We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials

2018 Cochrane

125. Vitamin D Supplementation in Pregnancy and Lactation and Infant Growth. (PubMed)

Vitamin D Supplementation in Pregnancy and Lactation and Infant Growth. It is unclear whether maternal vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy and lactation improves fetal and infant growth in regions where vitamin D deficiency is common.We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Bangladesh to assess the effects of weekly prenatal vitamin D supplementation (from 17 to 24 weeks of gestation until birth) and postpartum vitamin D supplementation on the primary outcome (...) of infants' length-for-age z scores at 1 year according to World Health Organization (WHO) child growth standards. One group received neither prenatal nor postpartum vitamin D (placebo group). Three groups received prenatal supplementation only, in doses of 4200 IU (prenatal 4200 group), 16,800 IU (prenatal 16,800 group), and 28,000 IU (prenatal 28,000 group). The fifth group received prenatal supplementation as well as 26 weeks of postpartum supplementation in the amount of 28,000 IU (prenatal

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2018 NEJM

126. Thermal Effect of a Woolen Cap in Low Birth Weight Infants During Kangaroo Care

Thermal Effect of a Woolen Cap in Low Birth Weight Infants During Kangaroo Care World Health Organization guidelines recommend covering the head during kangaroo mother care (KMC), but the effect of a cap on neonatal thermal control during KMC remains to be defined. Our objective was to assess the effectiveness and safety of a woolen cap in maintaining low birth weight infants (LBWIs) in normal thermal range during KMC.Three hundred LBWI candidates for KMC in 3 African hospitals were randomly

2018 EvidenceUpdates

127. Efficacy of facilitated tucking combined with non-nutritive sucking on very preterm infants` pain during the heel-stick procedure: A randomized controlled trial

Efficacy of facilitated tucking combined with non-nutritive sucking on very preterm infants` pain during the heel-stick procedure: A randomized controlled trial Reducing acute pain in premature infants during neonatal care improves their neurophysiological development. The use of pharmacological and non-pharmacological analgesia, such as sucrose, is limited per day, particularly for very preterm infants. Thus, the usual practice of non-nutritive sucking is often used alone. Facilitated tucking (...) trial.Level III and II neonatal care units, including the neurosensory care management program.Very preterm infants (gestational age between 28 and 32 weeks) were randomly assigned by a computer programme to the intervention or control group during a heel-stick procedure within the first 48 h of life. In both groups, infants were placed in an asymmetric position on a cushion; noise and light were limited following routine care. A heel-stick was performed first in the care sequence. In the intervention

2018 EvidenceUpdates

128. Sudden vs Pressure Wean From Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Infants Born Before 32 Weeks of Gestation: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Sudden vs Pressure Wean From Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Infants Born Before 32 Weeks of Gestation: A Randomized Clinical Trial Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) is a well-established treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants. Suboptimal weaning from nCPAP may be associated with lung injury, pulmonary morbidity, and infant weight gain. To our knowledge, the best weaning strategy from nCPAP is unknown.To compare the effect of sudden wean (...) and pressure wean from nCPAP in very preterm infants.A randomized, clinical, open-label, multicenter trial was conducted at 6 neonatal intensive care units in Denmark from September 2012 to December 2016 and included infants born before 32 weeks of gestation.Sudden wean with discontinuation of nCPAP without a prior reduction in pressure. Pressure wean with gradual pressure reduction prior to the discontinuation of nCPAP.The primary outcome was weight gain velocity from randomization to postmenstrual age 40

2018 EvidenceUpdates

129. Association between Furosemide Exposure and Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Hospitalized Infants of Very Low Birth Weight

Association between Furosemide Exposure and Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Hospitalized Infants of Very Low Birth Weight To evaluate the association between furosemide exposure and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in a large, contemporary cohort of hospitalized infants with very low birth weight (VLBW).Using the Pediatrix Medical Group Clinical Data Warehouse, we identified all inborn infants of VLBW <37 weeks of gestation discharged from the neonatal intensive care unit after the first postnatal (...) week from 2011 to 2015. We defined PDA as any medical (ibuprofen or indomethacin) or surgical PDA therapy. We collected data up to the day of PDA treatment or postnatal day 18 for infants not diagnosed with PDA. We performed multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the association between PDA and exposure to furosemide.We included 43 576 infants from 337 neonatal intensive care units, of whom 6675 (15%) underwent PDA treatment. Infants with PDA were more premature and more often exposed

2018 EvidenceUpdates

130. Gastric Residual Volume in Feeding Advancement in Preterm Infants (GRIP Study): A Randomized Trial

Gastric Residual Volume in Feeding Advancement in Preterm Infants (GRIP Study): A Randomized Trial To evaluate the effect of not relying on prefeeding gastric residual volumes to guide feeding advancement on the time to reach full feeding volumes in preterm infants, compared with routine measurement of gastric residual volumes. We hypothesized that not measuring prefeeding gastric residual volumes can shorten the time to reach full feeds.In this single-center, randomized, controlled trial, we (...) included gavage fed preterm infants with birth weights (BW) 1500-2000 g who were enrolled within 48 hours of birth. Exclusion criteria were major congenital malformations, asphyxia, and BW below the third percentile. In the study group, the gastric residual volume was measured only in the presence of bloody aspirates, vomiting, or an abnormal abdominal examination. In the control group, gastric residual volume was assessed routinely, and feeding advancement was based on the gastric residual volume

2018 EvidenceUpdates

131. Procedural Pain during Insertion of a Continuous Glucose Monitoring Device in Preterm Infants

Procedural Pain during Insertion of a Continuous Glucose Monitoring Device in Preterm Infants Procedural pain was compared between the insertion of a continuous glucose monitoring sensor and heel stick using the Premature Infant Pain Profile in a single-blinded controlled trial in preterm infants (≤32 weeks of gestation or birth weight ≤1500 g) (ClinicalTrials.govNCT02583776). Continuous glucose monitoring insertion was associated with lower pain scores compared with the heel stick.Copyright ©

2018 EvidenceUpdates

132. Updated recommendations on first-line and second-line antiretroviral regimens and post-exposure prophylaxis and recommendations on early infant diagnosis of HIV: interim guidance

Updated recommendations on first-line and second-line antiretroviral regimens and post-exposure prophylaxis and recommendations on early infant diagnosis of HIV: interim guidance UPDATED RECOMMENDATIONS ON FIRST-LINE AND SECOND-LINE ANTIRETROVIRAL REGIMENS AND POST-EXPOSURE PROPHYLAXIS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON EARLY INFANT DIAGNOSIS OF HIV JULY 2018 POLICY BRIEF HIV TREATMENT – INTERIM GUIDANCE @WHO/SEARO Gary HamptonWHO/CDS/HIV/18.18 © World Health Organization 2018 Some rights reserved (...) the licence shall be conducted in accordance with the mediation rules of the World Intellectual Property Organization. Suggested citation. Updated recommendations on first-line and second-line antiretroviral regimens and post-exposure prophylaxis and recommendations on early infant diagnosis of HIV: interim guidance. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2018 (WHO/CDS/HIV/18.18). Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO. Cataloguing-in-Publication (CIP) data. CIP data are available at http://apps.who.int/iris. Sales

2018 World Health Organisation HIV Guidelines

133. Best Practices on Periodicity of Examination, Preventive Dental Services, Anticipatory Guidance/Counseling, and Oral Treatment for Infants, Children, and Adolescents

Best Practices on Periodicity of Examination, Preventive Dental Services, Anticipatory Guidance/Counseling, and Oral Treatment for Infants, Children, and Adolescents Overview Upcoming Events News Room Get Involved Member News Parent Resource Member Benefit AAPD 2019 AAPD CE Course Highlight Pedo Teeth Talk Oral Health Policies & Recommendations Practice Management Open Access Policy Center Update New Best Practice Recommendation Evidence-Based Dentistry Latest Advocacy News Grassroots Advocacy (...) AAPD PAC Open Searchbar Close Searchbar Open Navigation Close Searchbar > > > Periodicity of Examination, Preventive Dental Services, Anticipatory Guidance/Counseling, and Oral Treatment for Infants, Children, and Adolescents Periodicity of Examination, Preventive Dental Services, Anticipatory Guidance/Counseling, and Oral Treatment for Infants, Children, and Adolescents Share on social media: Purpose The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry ( AAPD ) intends these recommendations to help

2018 American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry

134. Best Practices for Pain Management in Infants, Children, Adolescents, and Individuals with Special Health Care Needs

Best Practices for Pain Management in Infants, Children, Adolescents, and Individuals with Special Health Care Needs AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRIC DENTISTRY RECOMMENDATIONS: BEST PRACTICES 321 Purpose The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry ( AAPD) recognizes that infants, children, adolescents, and individuals with special health care needs can and do experience pain due to dental/orofacial injury, infection, and dental procedures, and that inadequate pain management may have significant (...) nervous system. FDA: Food and Drug Administration. IV: Intravenous. NSAIDs: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. VAS: Visual analogue scale. Pain Management in Infants, Children, Adolescents and Individuals with Special Health Care Needs322 RECOMMENDATIONS: BEST PRACTICES REFERENCE MANUAL V 40 / NO 6 18 / 19 the area of tissue damage, and allodynia, which refers to pain perception following innocuous stimuli such as light touch, are characteristics of central sensitization. 13 Pain modulation

2018 American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry

135. Infants

Infants Top results for infants - Trip Database or use your Google+ account Liberating the literature ALL of these words: Title only Anywhere in the document ANY of these words: Title only Anywhere in the document This EXACT phrase: Title only Anywhere in the document EXCLUDING words: Title only Anywhere in the document Timeframe: to: Combine searches by placing the search numbers in the top search box and pressing the search button. An example search might look like (#1 or #2) and (#3 or #4 (...) ) Loading history... Population: Intervention: Comparison: Outcome: Population: Intervention: Latest & greatest articles for infants The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence. If you wanted

2018 Trip Latest and Greatest

136. Metformin for women who are overweight or obese during pregnancy for improving maternal and infant outcomes. (PubMed)

Metformin for women who are overweight or obese during pregnancy for improving maternal and infant outcomes. There has been considerable interest in providing antenatal dietary and lifestyle advice for women with obesity or who are overweight during pregnancy, as a strategy to limit gestational weight gain and improve maternal and infant health. However, such antenatal interventions appear to have a modest effect on gestational weight gain and other clinical pregnancy and birth outcomes (...) with obesity or who are overweight, acting to reduce glucose production in the liver and improve glucose uptake in smooth muscle cells, and therefore improve the overall metabolic health of women in pregnancy and reduce the risk of known adverse pregnancy outcomes.To evaluate the role of metformin in pregnant women with obesity or who are overweight, on maternal and infant outcomes, including adverse effects of treatment and costs.We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register

2018 Cochrane

137. Minimally invasive perventricular versus open surgical ventricular septal defect closure in infants and children: a randomised clinical trial

Minimally invasive perventricular versus open surgical ventricular septal defect closure in infants and children: a randomised clinical trial Robust evidence is lacking regarding the clinical efficacy, safety and cardiopulmonary performance of perventricular closure. This study investigated the perioperative efficacy, safety and cardiorespiratory performance of perventricular closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defects (pmVSDs).Operation-naïve infants and young children aged 5-60 (...) )), but was shown in the PP (0.010 (95% CI -0.043 to 0.062)) and AT populations (0.048 (95% CI -0.009 to 0.106)). Perventricular closure reduced the rate of compromising cardiac haemodynamics, electrophysiological responses, cardiomyocyte viability, respiratory mechanics, ventilatory and gas exchange function and oxygenation and tissue perfusion compared with surgical closure (all between-group P<0.05).For infants and young children with pmVSD, perventricular closure reduced the rate of postoperative

2018 EvidenceUpdates

138. Hyperglycemia in Extremely Preterm Infants-Insulin Treatment, Mortality and Nutrient Intakes

Hyperglycemia in Extremely Preterm Infants-Insulin Treatment, Mortality and Nutrient Intakes To explore the prevalence of hyperglycemia and the associations between nutritional intakes, hyperglycemia, insulin treatment, and mortality in extremely preterm infants.Prospectively collected data from the Extremely Preterm Infants in Sweden Study (EXPRESS) was used in this study and included 580 infants born <27 gestational weeks during 2004-2007. Available glucose measurements (n = 9850) as well (...) concentration (P < .001). Hyperglycemia was associated with more than double the 28-day mortality risk (P < .01). In a logistic regression model, insulin treatment was associated with lower 28- and 70-day mortality when given to infants with hyperglycemia irrespective of the duration of the hyperglycemic episode (P < .05).Hyperglycemia is common in extremely preterm infants throughout the first postnatal month. Glucose infusions seem to have only a minimal impact on glucose concentrations. In the EXPRESS

2018 EvidenceUpdates

139. Cortical Pain Response of Newborn Infants to Venepuncture: A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Analgesic Effects of Sucrose Versus Breastfeeding

Cortical Pain Response of Newborn Infants to Venepuncture: A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Analgesic Effects of Sucrose Versus Breastfeeding Sucrose administration and breastfeeding decrease behavioral expressions of pain in neonates. However, recent studies indicated that there is a persistent cortical response with sucrose. This study compared the efficacy of sucrose administration versus breastfeeding to decrease cortical responses to pain during venepuncture.A randomized (...) , with 102 included for the primary outcome (breastfed group: 48; sucrose group: 54). Similar maximum increases in [HbT] were observed in both groups (mean±SD: sucrose group: 31.2±58.1 μmol/L; breastfed group: 38.9±61.4 μmol/L; P=0.70). Breastfed neonates presented more behavioral expressions that indicated pain compared with sucrose-administered neonates (46.8% vs. 26.8% of NFCS ≥1, P=0.04). The maximum increase in [HbT] was persistent, although newborn infants who did not express behavioral signs

2018 EvidenceUpdates

140. Variability of Very Low Birth Weight Infant Outcome and Practice in Swiss and US Neonatal Units

Variability of Very Low Birth Weight Infant Outcome and Practice in Swiss and US Neonatal Units Outcomes of very preterm infants vary considerably between health care facilities. Our objective was to compare outcome and practices between the Swiss Neonatal Network (SNN) and US members of the Vermont Oxford Network (US-VON).Retrospective observational study including all live-born infants with a birth weight between 501 and 1500 g as registered by SNN and US-VON between 2012 and 2014. We (...) performed multivariable and propensity score-matched analyses of neonatal outcome by adjusting for case-mix, race, prenatal care, and unit-level factors, and compared indirectly standardized practices.A total of 123 689 infants were born alive in 696 US-VON units and 2209 infants were born alive in 13 SNN units. Adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) for the composite "death or major morbidity" (aRR: 0.56, 95% confidence interval: 0.51-0.62) and all other outcomes were either comparable or lower in SNN except

2018 EvidenceUpdates