Latest & greatest articles for infants

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Top results for infants

1821. The efficacy of aprotinin in arterial switch operations in infants (PubMed)

The efficacy of aprotinin in arterial switch operations in infants In the present study we assessed whether aprotinin at a total dose (40,000 kallikrein inhibitor units (KIU)/kg) is effective in reducing postoperative blood loss and blood product requirement after arterial switch operations in infants.A prospective, double-blind, randomized study, evaluated 50 infants who underwent arterial switch operations for transposition of great arteries. Patients were randomized into a placebo group, 25

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2008 EvidenceUpdates Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1822. Oral probiotics prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight preterm infants: a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial (PubMed)

Oral probiotics prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight preterm infants: a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial The goal was to investigate the efficacy of orally administered probiotics in preventing necrotizing enterocolitis for very low birth weight preterm infants.A prospective, blinded, randomized, multicenter controlled trial was conducted at 7 NICUs in Taiwan, to evaluate the beneficial effects of probiotics in necrotizing enterocolitis among very low birth weight (...) infants (birth weight: <1500 g). Very low birth weight infants who survived to start enteral feeding were eligible and were assigned randomly to 2 groups after parental informed consent was obtained. Infants in the study group were given Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus, added to breast milk or mixed feeding (breast milk and formula), twice daily for 6 weeks. Infants in the control group were fed with breast milk or mixed feeding. The clinicians caring for the infants were blinded

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2008 EvidenceUpdates Controlled trial quality: predicted high

1823. Schizophrenia and offspring`s risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes and infant death (PubMed)

Schizophrenia and offspring`s risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes and infant death Women with schizophrenia are at increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. It is not known whether offspring born to fathers with schizophrenia also have an increased risk.To evaluate paternal and maternal influences on the association between schizophrenia and pregnancy outcomes.A record linkage including 2 million births was made using Swedish population-based registers. The risk for adverse pregnancy (...) outcomes was evaluated through logistic regression.Offspring with a mother or father with schizophrenia faced a doubled risk of infant mortality, which could not be explained by maternal behaviour alone during pregnancy. Excess infant death risk was largely attributable to post-neonatal death. Maternal factors (e.g. smoking) explained most of the other risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes among both mothers and fathers with schizophrenia.The risks to offspring whose fathers had schizophrenia suggest

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2008 EvidenceUpdates

1824. Impact of intensive care practices on short-term and long-term outcomes for extremely preterm infants: comparison between the British Isles and France (PubMed)

Impact of intensive care practices on short-term and long-term outcomes for extremely preterm infants: comparison between the British Isles and France The objective of this study was to compare practices of care and outcomes of infants who were born between 23 and 25 weeks' gestation in 1995 in the British Isles and in 1997-1998 in France.We examined 2 population-based cohorts in the British Isles (1892 births included) and in France (456 births): the EPICure and EPIPAGE studies. The rate (...) of follow-up was 90% at 30 months and 86% at 2 years. At 5 to 6 years, the cognitive function of 64% of the children without severe disability was assessed in the EPICure study and 57% in the EPIPAGE study.The mortality rate of live-born infants was lower in the EPICure study (25%) than in the EPIPAGE study (34%) before admission to a NICU but higher in the NICU (45% vs 29%, respectively), such that there was no difference in the proportions of survivors at discharge after adjustment for gestational age

2008 EvidenceUpdates

1825. Recurrence rates for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): the importance of risk stratification (PubMed)

Recurrence rates for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): the importance of risk stratification To investigate the importance of stratification by risk factors in computing the probability of a second death from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in a family.Simulation study.The fact that a baby dies suddenly and unexpectedly means that there is a raised probability that the baby's family have risk factors associated with SIDS. Thus one cannot consider the risk of a subsequent death (...) to get the risk of two SIDS in a family. We have used CESDI data to estimate the probability of a second SID in a family under different plausible scenarios of the prevalence of the risk factors. We have applied the model to make predictions in the Care of Next Infant (CONI) study.The model gave plausible predictions. The CONI study observed 18 second SIDS. Our model predicted 14 deaths (95% prediction interval 7 to 21).When considering the risk of a subsequent SIDS in a family one should always take

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2008 EvidenceUpdates

1826. Procalcitonin in young febrile infants for the detection of serious bacterial infections (PubMed)

Procalcitonin in young febrile infants for the detection of serious bacterial infections The objectives of the study were (1) to study the test performance of procalcitonin for identifying serious bacterial infections in febrile infants infants at low risk for serious bacterial infections.A prospective observational study was performed with febrile infants Infants were classified as having definite, possible, or no serious bacterial infections.A total of 234 infants (median age: 51 days) were studied. Thirty infants (12.8%) had definite serious bacterial

2008 EvidenceUpdates

1827. Adverse neonatal outcomes: examining the risks between preterm, late preterm, and term infants (PubMed)

Adverse neonatal outcomes: examining the risks between preterm, late preterm, and term infants There is a relative paucity of data regarding neonatal outcomes in the late preterm cohort (34 to 36 6/7 weeks). This study sought to assess differences in adverse outcomes between infants delivering 32 to 33 6/7, 34 to 36 6/7 weeks, and 37 weeks or later.Data were collected as part of a retrospective cohort study of preterm labor patients (2002-2005). Patients delivering 32 weeks or later were (...) included (n = 264). The incidence of adverse outcomes was assessed. Significant associations between outcomes and gestational age at delivery were determined using chi(2) analyses and Poisson regression modeled cumulative incidence and controlled for confounders.Late preterm infants have increased risk of adverse outcomes, compared with term infants. Controlling for confounders, there was a 23% decrease in adverse outcomes with each week of advancing gestational age between 32 and 39 completed weeks

2008 EvidenceUpdates

1828. Head covering - a major modifiable risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome: a systematic review (PubMed)

Head covering - a major modifiable risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome: a systematic review Some victims of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) are found with their heads covered with bedclothes, but the significance of this is uncertain. The aim of this review is to describe the prevalence of head covering, the magnitude of the risk and how far the suggested causal mechanisms agree with current epidemiological evidence.Systematic review of population-based age-matched controlled

2008 EvidenceUpdates

1829. Systematic Review of the Diagnostic Accuracy of C-Reactive Protein to Detect Bacterial Infection in Nonhospitalized Infants and Children with Fever (PubMed)

Systematic Review of the Diagnostic Accuracy of C-Reactive Protein to Detect Bacterial Infection in Nonhospitalized Infants and Children with Fever To determine the accuracy of C-reactive protein (CRP) for diagnosing serious bacterial and bacterial infections in infants and children presenting with fever.Systematic review of diagnostic accuracy studies. We included studies comparing the diagnostic accuracy of CRP with microbiologic confirmation of (a) serious bacterial and (b) bacterial

2008 EvidenceUpdates

1830. Low superior vena cava flow on day 1 and adverse outcome in the very low birthweight infant (PubMed)

Low superior vena cava flow on day 1 and adverse outcome in the very low birthweight infant Superior vena cava (SVC) flow assesses blood flow from the upper body, and may provide a reliable assessment of systemic blood flow.(i) To assess the relationship between SVC flow in first 24 h and adverse outcome in very low birthweight (VLBW) infants (ii) To assess correlation between SVC flow and left and right ventricular outputs and anterior cerebral artery (ACA) velocity measurements.A prospective (...) ). There was no correlation between SVC flow and right ventricular outputs and ACA velocity and blood pressure measurements.21% of our VLBW infants had low SVC flow in the first 24 h, and this was associated with early neonatal death and/or severe IVH.

2008 EvidenceUpdates

1831. Review: bed sharing between parents and infants exposed to smoke may increase the risk of sudden infant death syndrome

Review: bed sharing between parents and infants exposed to smoke may increase the risk of sudden infant death syndrome Review: bed sharing between parents and infants exposed to smoke may increase the risk of sudden infant death syndrome | Evidence-Based Nursing We use cookies to improve our service and to tailor our content and advertising to you. You can manage your cookie settings via your browser at any time. To learn more about how we use cookies, please see our . Log in using your (...) username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? Search for this keyword Search for this keyword Main menu Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? You are here Review: bed sharing between parents and infants exposed to smoke may increase the risk of sudden infant death syndrome Article Text Causation Review: bed

2008 Evidence-Based Nursing

1832. Routine rotavirus vaccinations of infants cost US$138 per case averted and US$197 190 per life year saved from a societal perspective

Routine rotavirus vaccinations of infants cost US$138 per case averted and US$197 190 per life year saved from a societal perspective Routine rotavirus vaccinations of infants cost US$138 per case averted and US$197 190 per life year saved from a societal perspective | BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine We use cookies to improve our service and to tailor our content and advertising to you. You can manage your cookie settings via your browser at any time. To learn more about how we use cookies, please (...) see our . Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? Search for this keyword Search for this keyword Main menu Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? You are here Routine rotavirus vaccinations of infants cost US$138 per case averted and US$197 190 per life year saved from a societal

2008 Evidence-Based Medicine

1833. Metabolic Responses to Early and High Protein Supplementation in a Randomized Trial Evaluating the Prevention of Hyperkalemia in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants (PubMed)

Metabolic Responses to Early and High Protein Supplementation in a Randomized Trial Evaluating the Prevention of Hyperkalemia in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants To determine whether early and higher intravenous amino acid (EHAA) supplementation decreases hyperkalemia in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants (<1000 g).Infants were enrolled at birth in a randomized, double-masked, prospective fashion and treated for 7 days. The standard group (SAA) infants received intravenous amino acid (...) (AA) starting at 0.5 g x kg(-1) x d(-1) and increased by 0.5 g x kg(-1) every day to a maximum of 3 g x kg(-1) x d(-1). EHAA group infants received 2 g x kg(-1) x d(-1) of AA soon after birth and advanced by 1 g x kg(-1) every day to 4 g x kg(-1) x d(-1). Data analysis was by SPSS 11.5, with statistical significance at alpha = 0.05 and 90% power to determine a difference in mean K(+) level of 2.Sixty-two patients, mean gestational age of 26.0 +/- 2.0 weeks and birth weight of 775 +/- 136 g, were

2008 EvidenceUpdates Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1834. Long-term Mother and Child Mental Health Effects of a Population-Based Infant Sleep Intervention: Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Trial (PubMed)

Long-term Mother and Child Mental Health Effects of a Population-Based Infant Sleep Intervention: Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Trial Maternal depression is an established risk for adverse child development. Two thirds of clinically significant depressive symptoms occur in mothers reporting an infant sleep problem. We aimed to determine the long-term effects of a behavioral intervention for infant sleep problems on maternal depression and parenting style, as well as on child mental health (...) and sleep, when the children reached 2 years of age.We conducted a cluster-randomized trial in well-child centers across 6 government areas of Melbourne, Australia. Participants included 328 mothers reporting an infant sleep problem at 7 months, drawn from a population sample (N = 739) recruited at 4 months. We compared the usual well-child care (n = 154) versus a brief behavior-modification program designed to improve infant sleep (n = 174) delivered by well-child nurses at ages 8 to 10 months

2008 EvidenceUpdates Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1835. Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants With Surgical Short Bowel Syndrome: Incidence, Morbidity and Mortality, and Growth Outcomes at 18 to 22 Months (PubMed)

Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants With Surgical Short Bowel Syndrome: Incidence, Morbidity and Mortality, and Growth Outcomes at 18 to 22 Months The objective of this study was to determine the (1) incidence of short bowel syndrome in very low birth weight (<1500 g) infants, (2) associated morbidity and mortality during initial hospitalization, and (3) impact on short-term growth and nutrition in extremely low birth weight (<1000 g) infants.Infants who were born from January 1, 2002 (...) short bowel syndrome in this cohort of 12316 very low birth weight infants was 0.7%. Necrotizing enterocolitis was the most common diagnosis associated with surgical short bowel syndrome. More very low birth weight infants with short bowel syndrome (20%) died during initial hospitalization than those without necrotizing enterocolitis or short bowel syndrome (12%) but fewer than the infants with surgical necrotizing enterocolitis without short bowel syndrome (53%). Among 5657 extremely low birth

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2008 EvidenceUpdates

1836. Recurrent postnatal infections are associated with progressive white matter injury in premature infants (PubMed)

Recurrent postnatal infections are associated with progressive white matter injury in premature infants Our objective was to identify clinical predictors of progressive white matter injury.We evaluated 133 infants of <34 weeks of gestation at birth from 2 university hospitals. Infants underwent MRI twice, initially when in stable condition for transport and again at term-equivalent age or before transfer or discharge. Two neuroradiologists who were blinded to the clinical course graded MRI (...) injury. Of the 11 neonates with >1 infection, 36.4% (4 infants) had progressive injury, compared with 5.0% (6 infants) of those with infants with chronic lung disease, 17.1% (6 infants) had progressive injury, compared with 4.3% (4 infants) of those without chronic lung disease. After adjustment for gestational age at birth, the association between infection and white matter injury persisted, whereas chronic lung disease was no longer a statistically significant risk

2008 EvidenceUpdates

1837. Molecular markers of resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine during intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in Mozambican infants (PubMed)

Molecular markers of resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine during intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in Mozambican infants Intermittent preventive treatment in infants (IPTi) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is a potential malaria control strategy. There is concern about the impact that increasing in vivo resistance to SP has on the efficacy of IPTi, as well as about the potential contribution of IPTi to increases in resistance.We compared the frequency of clinical episodes (...) period, children receiving SP harbored more dhps codon 437 mixed infections (odds ratio [OR], 10.56 [95% CI, 1.30-86.14]) and fewer dhps double-pure mutant parasites (OR, 0.43 [95% CI, 0.22-0.84]) than did placebo recipients.IPTi appears to be associated with some changes in the prevalence of genotypes involved in SP resistance. In the face of a high prevalence of quintuple-mutant parasites, SP exhibited a high level of efficacy in the prevention of new episodes of malaria in infants.

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2008 EvidenceUpdates Controlled trial quality: predicted high

1838. Volume guarantee versus high-frequency ventilation: lung inflammation in preterm infants (PubMed)

Volume guarantee versus high-frequency ventilation: lung inflammation in preterm infants Appropriate ventilation together with improvement of clinical care of premature babies can contribute to reducing lung inflammation, known to represent the "primum movens" of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) and volume-guarantee (VG) ventilation are effective in the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS).To assess the potential of HFOV and VG (...) to prevent BPD in the acute phase of RDS, by a randomised clinical study evaluating lung inflammation in premature infants.Forty infants (gestational age 25-32 weeks) with RDS were assigned to assist-control ventilation plus VG (Vt = 5 ml/kg) or HFOV (both with a Dräger Babylog 8000 plus ventilator). Levels of interleukin (IL) 6, IL8 and tumour necrosis factor were determined in tracheal aspirate on days 1, 3 and 7 of life.In the HFOV group IL6 levels were significantly higher on day 3 (0.5 (0.2) vs

2008 EvidenceUpdates Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1839. Serum albumin and mortality in very low birth weight infants (PubMed)

Serum albumin and mortality in very low birth weight infants Serum albumin is a predictor of outcome in adults but its role in paediatric patients is unclear. Earliest albumin was not associated with mortality or morbidity in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. However, the lowest serum albumin had a statistically significant inverse correlation with mortality and potentially plays a prognostic role in VLBW neonates.

2008 EvidenceUpdates

1840. Outcomes in a population of healthy term and near-term infants with serum bilirubin levels of >or=325 micromol/L (>or=19 mg/dL) who were born in Nova Scotia, Canada, between 1994 and 2000 (PubMed)

Outcomes in a population of healthy term and near-term infants with serum bilirubin levels of >or=325 micromol/L (>or=19 mg/dL) who were born in Nova Scotia, Canada, between 1994 and 2000 The goal was to study the incidence of kernicterus, developmental delay, autism, cerebral palsy, and hearing loss in infants with peak total serum bilirubin levels of >or=325 micromol/L (>or=19 mg/dL), compared with infants with less-severe or no hyperbilirubinemia, in a population of healthy term and late (...) preterm infants.Prospectively gathered, standardized, maternal and neonatal data for infants at >or=35 weeks of gestation who were born between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 2000, were extracted from the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database. Infants with Rh factor isoimmunization, significant congenital or chromosomal abnormalities, or severe peripartum asphyxia were excluded. Comparisons were made on the basis of peak total serum bilirubin levels. Diagnoses were obtained through data linkage

2008 EvidenceUpdates