Latest & greatest articles for infants

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Top results for infants

1821. Protection of infants against rotavirus diarrhoea by RIT 4237 attenuated bovine rotavirus strain vaccine. (PubMed)

Protection of infants against rotavirus diarrhoea by RIT 4237 attenuated bovine rotavirus strain vaccine. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the ability of RIT 4237 live attenuated bovine rotavirus (subgroup 1) vaccine strain to protect against natural rotavirus infection in children. 178 infants aged 8 to 11 months received a single oral dose of RIT 4237 vaccine or placebo and were followed up serologically and clinically during a subgroup 2

1984 Lancet

1822. Furosemide promotes patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants with the respiratory-distress syndrome. (PubMed)

Furosemide promotes patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants with the respiratory-distress syndrome. Furosemide stimulates the renal synthesis of prostaglandin E2, a potent dilator of the ductus arteriosus. We administered this drug to 33 premature infants with the respiratory-distress syndrome, to determine whether it increased the incidence of patent ductus arteriosus. Chlorothiazide, a diuretic that does not stimulate prostaglandin E synthesis, was used as the control drug in 33 other (...) infants. During the study, the incidence of patent ductus arteriosus was significantly higher (P less than 0.02) in the furosemide group (18 of 33 infants) than in the chlorothiazide group (8 of 33). Eleven infants in the furosemide group and seven in the chlorothiazide group required ductal ligation (P greater than 0.2). An additional six infants (all from the furosemide group) who did not have evidence of a patent ductus during the study were later found to have one. Overall survival was 76 and 61

1983 NEJM

1823. Phenobarbitone for prevention of periventricular haemorrhage in very low birth-weight infants. A randomised double-blind trial. (PubMed)

Phenobarbitone for prevention of periventricular haemorrhage in very low birth-weight infants. A randomised double-blind trial. A double-blind randomised trial was carried out in 60 infants with a birth-weight of less than 1500 g or a gestational age below 31 weeks. 30 infants received phenobarbitone (20 mg/kg) within 4 h of birth and 30 infants received a placebo. The two groups of infants were similar in birth-weight, gestational age, frequency of vaginal delivery, sex, Apgar scores (...) , ventilator dependence before the injection, pneumothorax, hypercapnia, and acidosis. Cranial ultrasound scans were carried out daily for 14 days. 12 out of 30 phenobarbitone-treated infants and 11 out of 30 placebo-treated infants had PVH, with parenchymal haemorrhages in 2 of the placebo group. Plasma phenobarbitone was over 15 micrograms/ml in 28 out of 30 of the phenobarbitone-treated infants during the first 72 h. 7 out of 17 spontaneously breathing infants became ventilator-dependent within 12 h

1983 Lancet

1824. Diet and sleep patterns in newborn infants. (PubMed)

Diet and sleep patterns in newborn infants. Sleep behavior is modulated by serotonergic neurons within the brain, and the synthesis and release of serotonin by such neurons is thought to be influenced by the availability of tryptophan, the amino acid precursor of serotonin. We investigated the effects on the sleep patterns of newborn infants of variations in diet designed to affect tryptophan availability. Twenty healthy newborns (two to three days of age) were randomly assigned to receive (...) a feeding consisting either of tryptophan in 10 per cent glucose or valine in 5 per cent glucose (valine competes with tryptophan for entry into the brain). Sleep patterns during the three hours after this feeding were compared with those after a feeding of routine formula (Similac). The infants fed tryptophan entered active sleep 14.1 minutes sooner than they did after Similac, and entered quiet sleep 20 minutes sooner. Those fed valine entered active sleep 15.8 minutes later than they did after

1983 NEJM

1825. Growth and biochemical response of preterm infants fed human milk or modified infant formula. (PubMed)

Growth and biochemical response of preterm infants fed human milk or modified infant formula. My colleagues and I compared the biochemical status and rates of growth of three groups of preterm infants: one group was fed milk obtained early from mothers of preterm infants; one group received milk produced during the mature stage of lactation by mothers of term infants; and one group received a whey-based infant formula. Sixty healthy preterm infants with birth weights of 1600 g or less were (...) randomly assigned to one of the three feedings groups. The 20 infants in each group were followed until they reached a weight of 1800 g. The mean (+/- S.E.M.) number of days required to regain birth weight was similar for infants receiving the formula (10.3 +/- 0.8) and those receiving milk from mothers of preterm infants (11.4 +/- 0.8); both were significantly less than the number (18.8 +/- 1.7) for infants receiving milk from mothers of term infants (P less than 0.001). Subsequent rates of weight

1983 NEJM

1826. Diet and antibody response to vaccinations in healthy infants. (PubMed)

Diet and antibody response to vaccinations in healthy infants. Antibody responses to poliovirus, diphtheria, pertussis, or tetanus vaccine were compared in five groups of infants. The 62 infants had been brought up on breast milk or on one of four types of artificial feed in the first five months of life. The types of artificial feed varied in quality and quantity of protein; they were high or low protein cow's milk, an adapted formula (with a casein/albumin ratio of 40/60), and a formula based (...) on soy flour. After the age of 5 months, all infants were put on the same diet. The general pattern of antibody responses as determined by antibody levels when the infants were 5 and 8 months old was that those fed on breast milk or high-protein cow's milk had adequate and sustained antibody responses; those fed on the adapted formula had a high but temporary response; and those fed on low-protein cow's milk or the soy-based formula had poor responses.

1983 Lancet

1827. A randomized trial of sodium intake and blood pressure in newborn infants. (PubMed)

A randomized trial of sodium intake and blood pressure in newborn infants. We studied the effect of dietary sodium on BP in a double-blind randomized trial with 245 newborn infants assigned to a normal-sodium diet and 231 to a low-sodium diet during the first six months of life. The sodium intake of the normal-sodium group was almost three times that of the low-sodium group. Systolic BP was measured every month from the first week until the 25th week. At 25 weeks, systolic pressure was 2.1 mm

1983 JAMA

1828. Penicillin in infants weighing two kilograms or less with early-onset Group B streptococcal disease. (PubMed)

Penicillin in infants weighing two kilograms or less with early-onset Group B streptococcal disease. We studied the effect of penicillin on early-onset Group B streptococcal disease over a 52-month period in neonates who were at high risk of infection. Shortly after birth, 1187 neonates weighing 2000 g or less had blood samples taken for cultures and were randomized into an early-treatment group (given intramuscular penicillin G within 60 minutes of birth) or a control group. The incidence (...) of early-onset disease was 20 per 1000 live births (24 of 1187); the number of infants in the early-treatment group who had disease (10 of 589) was similar to that in the control group (14 of 598). The fatality rates were similar in both groups (6 of 10 vs. 8 of 14). Cultures from blood obtained with one hour of birth were positive in 21 of the 24 infants with disease; 22 of the 24 were symptomatic within four hours of birth. Thus, infection was well established before the first hour of postnatal life

1983 NEJM

1829. Aerosolized ribavirin treatment of infants with respiratory syncytial viral infection. A randomized double-blind study. (PubMed)

Aerosolized ribavirin treatment of infants with respiratory syncytial viral infection. A randomized double-blind study. We evaluated a new antiviral agent, ribavirin, in the treatment of infants hospitalized with lower-respiratory-tract disease from respiratory syncytial virus. Ribavirin or placebo was administered to 33 infants in a double-blind manner by continuous aerosol for three to six days. Seventeen infants were treated with placebo, and 16 with ribavirin. By the end of treatment (...) , infants receiving ribavirin had significantly greater improvement in their overall score for severity of illness, in lower-respiratory-tract signs, and in arterial oxygen saturation. Viral shedding was also diminished in the treated groups as compared with the placebo group. No side effects or toxicity were associated with the aerosol therapy. Isolates of respiratory syncytial virus obtained from the infants over the course of therapy showed no change in sensitivity to ribavirin.

1983 NEJM

1830. Controlled trial of dexamethasone therapy in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. (PubMed)

Controlled trial of dexamethasone therapy in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Dexamethasone was compared with placebo in a double-blind, crossover, randomised study of infants with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia who had required mechanical ventilation for at least four weeks, despite treatment with diuretics, methylxanthines, bronchodilators, fluid restriction, nutritional supplementation, and ligation of the patent ductus arteriosus when indicated. Gestational age ranged from 27

1983 Lancet

1831. Do infant formula samples shorten the duration of breast-feeding? (PubMed)

Do infant formula samples shorten the duration of breast-feeding? To determine whether advertising by infant formula companies shortens the duration of breast-feeding, we randomly assigned 448 breast-feeding new mothers to either receive or not receive a formula sample packet upon discharge from a maternity ward. These mother, unaware of the study, were then telephoned 3 months post partum by a research assistant blind to the randomisation status. "Sample" mothers were less likely to still (...) be breast-feeding at 1 month (78% vs 84%, p = 0.07) and more likely to have introduced solid foods by 2 months (18% vs 10%, p = 0.01). These trends became more significant in three vulnerable subgroups: less educated mothers, primiparas, and mothers who had been ill post partum. Our results suggest that infant formula samples may shorten the duration of breast-feeding and hasten the age at which solids are introduced.

1983 Lancet

1832. Economic evaluation of neonatal intensive care of very low birth weight infants

Economic evaluation of neonatal intensive care of very low birth weight infants Economic evaluation of neonatal intensive care of very low birth weight infants Economic evaluation of neonatal intensive care of very low birth weight infants Boyle M H, Torrance G W, Sinclair J C, Horwood S P Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions (...) followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Neonatal intensive care. Type of intervention Treatment. Economic study type Cost-utility analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population Infants with birth weight 500-999g and birth weight 1000-1499g. Setting The study was carried out in Canada. Dates to which data relate Price related to 1978. Source of effectiveness data Single study. Study sample There is evidence

1983 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1833. Use or abuse of phototherapy for physiological jaundice of newborn infants. (PubMed)

Use or abuse of phototherapy for physiological jaundice of newborn infants. To investigate the need for and effects of phototherapy in full-term otherwise healthy babies with physiological jaundice, 40 consecutive babies with serum bilirubin levels of 250 mumol/l or more were assigned at random to two treatment groups. Phototherapy was started in the early group (n = 20) when serum bilirubin was 250 mumol/l and in the late group (n = 20) when serum bilirubin reached 320 mumol/l; however, only 3 (...) therefore curtailed the rise and duration of hyperbilirubinaemia, but the effect was small. Jaundice subsided spontaneously in most of these mature infants, especially girls. Phototherapy can separate mother from baby, and it is physiologically stressful. Treatment may be safely withheld until serum bilirubin exceeds 320 mumol/l.

1982 Lancet

1834. A randomised trial of oral gammaglobulin in low-birth-weight infants infected with rotavirus. (PubMed)

A randomised trial of oral gammaglobulin in low-birth-weight infants infected with rotavirus. Oral human gammaglobulin or placebo was given with each feed during the first week of life to 75 low-birth-weight babies. All were in a nursery where rotavirus was known to be endemic, 25 of the babies excreted rotavirus during the first 2 weeks of life. This group was regarded as the "challenge" group. Gammaglobulin administration was associated with delayed excretion of rotavirus and with milder (...) symptoms of infection. Rotavirus-associated diarrhoea necessitating low-lactose feeds developed in 6 of 11 babies given placebo and 1 of 14 babies given gammaglobulin. Oral human gammaglobulin seems to protect low-birth-weight infants from diarrhoea caused by rotavirus.

1982 Lancet

1835. Safety and immunogenicity of a new Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine in infants under one year of age. (PubMed)

Safety and immunogenicity of a new Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine in infants under one year of age. 64 healthy infants 2-3 months old, were randomly assigned to one of three vaccination groups which received either diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT) vaccine, Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide polyribosyl-ribitol phosphate (PRP) vaccine, or PRP + P (with pertussis adjuvant) vaccine in three doses at intervals of 2 months. Local and systemic reactions occurred most (...) frequently after DPT vaccination and least frequently for PRP alone. Data for 60 infants from whom complete sera sets were available indicated that 70% of the infants who received three doses of PRP + P showed 2-fold or greater increases in titres of antibody to PRP with final values above the level assumed to give protection against invasive H. influenzae type b disease (greater than or equal to 0.15 microgram/ml). In contrast, less than 10% of the infants who received PRP vaccine alone showed 2-fold

1981 Lancet

1836. Pancuronium during mechanical ventilation speeds recovery of lungs of infants with hyaline membrane disease. (PubMed)

Pancuronium during mechanical ventilation speeds recovery of lungs of infants with hyaline membrane disease. Spontaneous breathing during mechanical ventilation in newborn infants may damage the lung. To find out whether the prevalence of lesions which might be due to trauma was reduced by muscle relaxation, fifty infants who required mechanical ventilation of hyaline membrane disease were randomly assigned to treated and control groups. The treated infants were kept muscle relaxed (...) with pancuronium bromide until they needed a FiO2 of 0.40 or less during ventilation. The mean birthweight, gestational age, age at entry to the trial, duration of intubation and ventilation, FiO2 during the acute phase of the illness, and ventilator pressures were closely comparable in the two groups. Two of twenty-six treated infants and one of twenty-four controls died. Four treated and five control infants acquired pneumothoraces and/or interstitial emphysema. The length of time that the treated infants

1981 Lancet

1837. Prevention of intraventricular haemorrhage in preterm infants by phenobarbitone. A controlled trial. (PubMed)

Prevention of intraventricular haemorrhage in preterm infants by phenobarbitone. A controlled trial. Sixty infants with birth-weights less than 1500 g and who were less than 6 h old were randomly assigned to a group given phenobarbitone or a control group. Intravenous phenobarbitone was given in doses sufficient to achieve anticonvulsant serum levels within 12-18 h. Maintenance therapy was continued for one week. Periventricular/intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) occurred in 13.3% (4/30 (...) ) of the phenobarbitone group and in 46.7% (14/30) of the control group. The occurrence of risk factors related to IVH was similar in the two groups. Phenobarbitone may reduce the incidence of IVH in small preterm infants.

1981 Lancet

1838. Retrolental fibroplasia: efficacy of vitamin E in a double-blind clinical study of preterm infants. (PubMed)

Retrolental fibroplasia: efficacy of vitamin E in a double-blind clinical study of preterm infants. We performed a double-blind study in 101 preterm infants who weighed less than or equal to 1500 g at birth, who had respiratory distress, and who survived for at least four weeks, to evaluate the efficacy of oral vitamin E in preventing the development of retrolental fibroplasia. Weekly indirect ophthalmologic examinations begun when the infants were three weeks old revealed a significant (...) decrease in the incidence of retrolental fibroplasia greater than or equal to Grade III (P less than 0.03) and greater than or equal to Grade II (P less than 0.05) (McCormick classification) in the 50 infants given 100 mg of vitamin E per kilogram of body weight per day as compared with 51 given 5 mg per kilogram per day (controls). When multivariate analysis was applied to the controls, five risk factors were identified: gestational age, level and duration of administration oxygen, intraventricular

1981 NEJM

1839. Effect of fluid administration on the development of symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus and congestive heart failure in premature infants. (PubMed)

Effect of fluid administration on the development of symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus and congestive heart failure in premature infants. We studied 170 premature infants with birth weights between 751 and 2000 g in a randomized sequential trial comparing "high" and "low" volumes of fluid intake. Beginning on the third day of life, the low-volume group received only enough water to meet average estimated requirements, and the high-volume group received an excess of at least 20 ml per (...) kilogram of body weight per day (mean excess, 47 ml per kilogram per day). Sequential analysis showed that the risk of patent ductus arteriosus with congestive heart failure was greater in infants receiving the high-volume regimen. Thirty-five of 85 infants in the high-volume group acquired murmurs consistent with patent ductus arteriosus, and 11 of these 35 had congestive heart failure. Only nine of 85 infants in the low-volume group had murmurs consistent with patent ductus arteriosus, and two

1980 NEJM

1840. The effect of a supportive companion on perinatal problems, length of labor, and mother-infant interaction. (PubMed)

The effect of a supportive companion on perinatal problems, length of labor, and mother-infant interaction. We studied the effects of a supportive lay woman ("doula") on the length of labor and on mother-infant interaction after delivery in healthy Guatemalan primigravid women. Initial assignment of mothers to the experimental (doula) or control group was random, but controls showed a higher rate (P less than 0.001) of subsequent perinatal problems (e.g. cesarean section and meconium staining

1980 NEJM