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Latest & greatest articles for influenza
The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence. If you wanted the latest trusted evidence on influenza or other clinical topics then use Trip today.
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The safety of inactivated influenza vaccine in adults and children with asthma. Influenza causes substantial morbidity in adults and children with asthma, and vaccination can prevent influenza and its complications. However, there is concern that vaccination may cause exacerbations of asthma.To investigate the safety of the inactivated trivalent split-virus influenza vaccine in adults and children with asthma, we conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over (...) of asthma in the two weeks after the injections.The frequency of exacerbations of asthma was similar in the two weeks after the influenza vaccination and after placebo injection (28.8 percent and 27.7 percent, respectively; absolute difference, 1.1 percent; 95 percent confidence interval, -1.4 percent to 3.6 percent). The exacerbation rates were similar in subgroups defined according to age, severity of asthma, and other factors. Among symptoms thought to be associated with the injection, only body
Cost effectiveness of zanamivir for the treatment of influenza in a high risk population in Australia Cost effectiveness of zanamivir for the treatment of influenza in a high risk population in Australia Cost effectiveness of zanamivir for the treatment of influenza in a high risk population in Australia Mauskopf J A, Cates S C, Griffin A D, Neighbors D M, Lamb S C, Rutherford C Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED (...) . Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Zanamivir for the treatment of influenza in a high risk population in Australia. Type of intervention Treatment. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis and cost-utility analysis. Study population High-risk population in Australia visiting a physician for treatment of influenza or influenza
Zanamivir: no noticeable progress against influenza Zanamivir: no noticeable progress against influenza Zanamivir: no noticeable progress against influenza Evidence-based drug reviews Authors' objectives To examine the following questions. When a person develops symptoms of influenza during an influenza epidemic, does zanamivir reduce the severity or duration of symptoms? Does it hasten the resumption of daily activities? Does it reduce the incidence of complications, including death, in people (...) trials, 6.4 mg of zanamivir nasal spray was added to one zanamivir group, while the second received a placebo nasal spray. The third group received placebo inhalation plus placebo nasal spray. In the third trial, zanamivir inhalation was compared with placebo inhalation. Two trials reported a subgroup analysis according to whether treatment was started more than 30 hours after symptom onset. Participants included in the review Patients older than 12 years who had symptoms of influenza for no more
Guidance on the use of zanamivir (Relenza) in the treatment of influenza Guidance on the use of zanamivir (Relenza) in the treatment of influenza Guidance on the use of zanamivir (Relenza) in the treatment of influenza National Institute for Clinical Excellence Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Guidance (...) on the use of zanamivir (Relenza) in the treatment of influenza. London: National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE). Technology Appraisal Guidance 15. 2000 Authors' objectives To provide guidance on the use of zanamivir (Relenza) in the treatment of influenza. Authors' conclusions Guidance 1.1 For otherwise healthy adults with influenza, the use of zanamivir is not recommended. 1.2 Zanamivir is recommended, when influenza is circulating in the community, for the treatment of at-risk adults, who
Anti-influenza agents Anti-influenza agents Anti-influenza agents Stachnik J Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Stachnik J. Anti-influenza agents. University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC). Drug Monograph. 2000 Authors' objectives The UHC Drug Monographs are a continuing series of authoritative, concise evaluations of new and emerging pharmaceuticals (...) comprehensive information from the primary literature and provides recommendations for appropriate use. Project page URL Indexing Status Subject indexing assigned by CRD MeSH Antiviral Agents; Influenza, Human /drug therapy Language Published English Country of organisation United States Address for correspondence University HealthSystem Consortium, 2001 Spring Rd., Suite 700, Oak Brook, IL 60523 USA. Tel: 630-954-1700; Fax: 630-954-4730; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org AccessionNumber 32003000637 Date bibliographic
Effectiveness and cost-benefit of influenza vaccination of healthy working adults: a randomized controlled trial Effectiveness and cost-benefit of influenza vaccination of healthy working adults: a randomized controlled trial Effectiveness and cost-benefit of influenza vaccination of healthy working adults: a randomized controlled trial Bridges C B, Thompson W W, Meltzer M I, Reeve G R, Talamonti W J, Cox N J, Lilac H A, Hall H, Klimov A, Fukuda K Record Status This is a critical abstract (...) of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Influenza vaccination of healthy working adults aged under 65. Type of intervention Primary prevention. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population The study population was healthy working adults younger than 65
The cost effectiveness of zanamivir and oseltamivir for influenza treatment The cost effectiveness of zanamivir and oseltamivir for influenza treatment The cost effectiveness of zanamivir and oseltamivir for influenza treatment Armstrong E P, Khan Z M, Perry A S, Perri L R Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed (...) critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Two health technologies for the treatment of influenza were considered in the study: zanamivir and oseltamivir, both neuraminidase inhibitors. The former is an orally inhaled powder designed to target delivery to the primary site of viral replication in the lungs and the latter is an orally administered tablet. Type of intervention Treatment. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population
Prevention and Treatment of Influenza A and B  Prevention and Treatment of Influenza A and B | Therapeutics Initiative Independent Healthcare Evidence > >  Prevention and Treatment of Influenza A and B Influenza is a common and usually self-limiting acute respiratory infection. Onset is rapid and the main symptoms are fever, myalgia, headache, general malaise, and cough. Acute illness lasts on average three days, but cough and malaise can persist for several weeks. The elderly (...) and patients with chronic pulmonary and cardiac disease are at greatest risk for complications, including viral and bacterial pneumonia, otitis media, sinusitis and exacerbations of chronic respiratory disease. Two subtypes cause serious infection in humans, influenza A and B. Influenza A is more common and more severe. Prevention with vaccines Inactivated parenteral influenza vaccines are updated annually to match newly evolved viral strains. Optimal timing for vaccination is mid-October to November
Vaccines for preventing influenza in people with cystic fibrosis. Viral respiratory tract infections in patients with cystic fibrosis have a deteriorating effect on their lung function and disease progression. Annual influenza vaccination is therefore commonly recommended for patients with cystic fibrosis.To assess the effectiveness of influenza vaccination for patients with cystic fibrosis.We have used the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group specialist trials register which (...) comprises references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches, hand searching relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings and communication to the drug companies marketing influenza vaccines.All randomised and pseudorandomised trials (published or unpublished) comparing any influenza vaccine with a placebo or with another type of influenza vaccine.Both reviewers independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Additional information were obtained
Homoeopathic Oscillococcinum for preventing and treating influenza and influenza-like syndromes. Influenza is a highly infectious viral disease that is particularly common in the winter months. Conventional management options are limited to bed rest and treatment of complications such as secondary bacterial infections. Oscillococcinum is a patented, commercially available homoeopathic medicine. The rationale for its use in influenza comes from the homoeopathic principle of 'let like be cured (...) by like'. The medicine is manufactured from wild duck heart and liver, a well-known reservoir for influenza viruses.To determine whether homoeopathic Oscillococcinum or similar medicines are more effective than placebo in the prevention and treatment of influenza and influenza-like syndromes.The registry of randomised trials for the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field was searched using the term "homeopathy" with "influenza", "respiratory tract", "infection", "cough", "virus" and "fever
Haemophilus influenzae oral vaccination against acute bronchitis. To assess the effects of an oral whole cell nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) vaccine in protecting against recurrent episodes of bronchitis.We searched the Cochrane trials register, MEDLINE, Extramed, ISI Current Contents, Carl Uncover and contacted investigators of the studies.Randomised trials comparing the effects of an oral monobacterial NTHi vaccine on patients with recurrent exacerbations of bronchitis were (...) included when there was overt matching of the vaccine and placebo groups on clinical grounds.Two reviewers extracted data and assessed trial quality independently from original records and publications for incidence and severity of bronchitis episodes and carriage rate of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in the upper respiratory tract every three months following vaccination.Six trials were included in the study with a total of 440 participants. Oral vaccination using a monobacterial whole cell
Amantadine and rimantadine for preventing and treating influenza A in adults. Amantadine hydrochloride and rimantadine hydrochloride have antiviral properties, but they are not widely used due to a lack of knowledge of their properties and concerns about possible adverse effects. The objective of this review was to assess the effects and safety of amantadine and rimantadine in healthy adults.We searched the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Medline, Embase and reference lists of articles. We (...) also contacted manufacturers, researchers and authors.Randomised and quasi-randomised studies comparing amantadine and/or rimantadine with placebo, control antivirals or no intervention, or comparing doses or schedules of amantadine and/or rimantadine in healthy adults.For prevention trials the numbers of participants with clinically defined influenza, with serologically confirmed clinical influenza A and adverse effects were analysed. Analysis for treatment trials was of the mean duration of fever
Neuraminidase inhibitors for preventing and treating influenza in healthy adults. Influenza is an acute respiratory infection associated with raised temperature, headache, muscle ache and cough. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of neuraminidase inhibitors (NIs) in preventing cases of influenza and shortening or reducing the severity of influenza in healthy adults. A further objective was to estimate the frequency of adverse effects associated with NI administration.We (...) and experimental influenza were considered. The main outcomes were numbers and/or severity of influenza cases and the number and seriousness of adverse effects.Two reviewers applied the inclusion criteria to the retrieved studies, assessed trial quality and extracted data.Eight trials with 1180 adults were included. Overall the methodological quality of the studies appeared to be good. As a preventive measure, NIs when compared to placebo were 74% effective (95% confidence interval 50% to 87%) in preventing
Vaccines for preventing influenza in healthy adults. To identify, retrieve and assess all studies evaluating the effects of vaccines on influenza in healthy adults. To assess the effectiveness of vaccines in preventing cases of influenza in healthy adults. To estimate the frequency of adverse effects associated with influenza vaccination in healthy adults.MEDLINE was searched using the strategy of the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group. The bibliography of retrieved articles (...) , the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CCTR), and EMBASE (1990 to 1997) were also searched. Handsearch of the journal Vaccine from its first issue to the end of 1997 (Jefferson and Jefferson, 1996; Jefferson, 1998). We wrote to vaccine manufacturers and first or corresponding authors of studies in the review.Any randomised or quasi-randomised studies comparing influenza vaccines in humans with placebo, control vaccines or no intervention, or comparing types, doses or schedules of influenza vaccine. Live
Influenza vaccine for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Influenza vaccinations are currently recommended in the care of people with COPD, but these recommendations are based largely on evidence from observational studies with very few randomised controlled trials (RCTs) reported. Influenza infection causes excess morbidity and mortality in COPD patients but there is also the potential for influenza vaccination to cause adverse effects or not to be cost effective.To evaluate (...) the evidence from RCTs for a treatment effect of influenza vaccination in COPD subjects. Outcomes of interest were exacerbation rates, hospitalisations, mortality, lung function and adverse effects.We searched the Cochrane Airways Group trials register and reference lists of articles. References were also provided by a number of drug companies we contacted.RCTs that compared live or inactivated virus vaccines with placebo, either alone or with another vaccine in persons with COPD. Studies of people
Vaccines for preventing influenza in people with asthma. Influenza vaccination is recommended for asthmatic patients in many countries as observational studies have shown that influenza infection can be associated with asthma exacerbations, but influenza vaccination itself has the potential to adversely affect pulmonary function. A recent overview concluded that there was no clear benefit of influenza vaccination in patients with asthma but this conclusions was not based on a systematic search (...) of the literature.Whilst influenza may cause asthma exacerbations, there is controversy about the use of influenza vaccinations, since they may precipitate an asthma attack in some people. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of influenza vaccination in children and adults with asthma.We searched the Cochrane Airways Group trials register and checked reference lists of articles.Randomised trials of influenza vaccination in children (over two years of age) and adults with asthma. Studies involving
Efficacy and safety of oseltamivir in treatment of acute influenza: a randomised controlled trial. Neuraminidase Inhibitor Flu Treatment Investigator Group. Use of some antiviral drugs for influenza infection is limited by potential rapid emergence of resistance. We studied the efficacy and safety of oseltamivir, the oral prodrug of the neuraminidase inhibitor GS4071, in adults with naturally acquired laboratory-confirmed influenza.We did a randomised controlled trial of 726 previously healthy (...) non-immunised adults with febrile influenza-like illness of up to 36 h duration. Patients were assigned oral oseltamivir 75 mg (n=243), oseltamivir 150 mg (n=245), or placebo (n=238) twice daily for 5 days. We assessed recovery by questionnaire and temperature recordings. The primary endpoint was time to resolution of illness in influenza-infected patients.475 (66%) patients had confirmed infection. Duration of illness was significantly shorter by 29 h (25% reduction, median duration 87.4 h [95
2000LancetControlled trial quality: predicted high
Efficacy and safety of the oral neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir in treating acute influenza: a randomized controlled trial. US Oral Neuraminidase Study Group. Previous studies have shown oseltamivir, a neuraminidase inhibitor, to be effective in preventing influenza and treating experimental influenza.To evaluate the efficacy and safety of oseltamivir in the treatment of naturally acquired influenza infection.Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study conducted January through March (...) , or placebo (n = 209).Duration and severity of illness in individuals infected with influenza.Two individuals withdrew before receiving medication and were excluded from further analyses. A total of 374 individuals (59.6%) were infected with influenza. Their duration of illness was reduced by more than 30% with both oseltamivir, 75 mg twice daily (median, 71.5 hours; P < .001), and oseltamivir, 150 mg twice daily (median, 69.9 hours; P = .006), compared with placebo (median, 103.3 hours). Severity
Effects of influenza vaccination of health-care workers on mortality of elderly people in long-term care: a randomised controlled trial. Vaccination of health-care workers has been claimed to prevent nosocomial influenza infection of elderly patients in long-term care. Data are, however, limited on this strategy. We aimed to find out whether vaccination of health-care workers lowers mortality and the frequency of virologically proven influenza in such patients.In a parallel-group study, health (...) -care workers in 20 long-term elderly-care hospitals (range 44-105 patients) were randomly offered or not offered influenza vaccine (cluster randomisation, stratified for policy for vaccination of patients and hospital size). All deaths among patients were recorded over 6 months in the winter of 1996-97. We selected a random sample of 50% of patients for virological surveillance for influenza, with combined nasal and throat swabs taken every 2 weeks during the epidemic period. Swabs were tested
Effectiveness and cost-benefit of influenza vaccination of healthy working adults: A randomized controlled trial. Although the cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of influenza vaccination are well established for persons aged 65 years or older, the benefits for healthy adults younger than 65 years are less clear.To evaluate the effectiveness and cost-benefit of influenza vaccine in preventing influenza-like illness (ILI) and reducing societal costs of ILI among healthy working adults.Double (...) -blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial conducted during 2 influenza seasons.Healthy adults aged 18 to 64 years and employed full-time by a US manufacturing company (for 1997-1998 season, n = 1184; for 1998-1999 season, n = 1191).For each season, participants were randomly assigned to receive either trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (n = 595 in 1997-1998 and n = 587 in 1998-1999) or sterile saline injection (placebo; n = 589 in 1997-1998 and n = 604 in 1998-1999). Participants in 1997-1998