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Latest & greatest articles for measles
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A randomized, controlled trial of an aerosolized vaccine against measles. Aerosolized vaccine can be used as a needle-free method of immunization against measles, a disease that remains a major cause of illness and death. Data on the immunogenicity of aerosolized vaccine against measles in children are inconsistent.We conducted an open-label noninferiority trial involving children 9.0 to 11.9 months of age in India who were eligible to receive a first dose of measles vaccine. Children were (...) randomly assigned to receive a single dose of vaccine by means of either aerosol inhalation or a subcutaneous injection. The primary end points were seropositivity for antibodies against measles and adverse events 91 days after vaccination. The noninferiority margin was 5 percentage points.A total of 1001 children were assigned to receive aerosolized vaccine, and 1003 children were assigned to receive subcutaneous vaccine; 1956 of all the children (97.6%) were followed to day 91, but outcome data were
A Randomized, Controlled Trial of an Aerosolized Vaccine against Measles. Aerosolized vaccine can be used as a needle-free method of immunization against measles, a disease that remains a major cause of illness and death. Data on the immunogenicity of aerosolized vaccine against measles in children are inconsistent.We conducted an open-label noninferiority trial involving children 9.0 to 11.9 months of age in India who were eligible to receive a first dose of measles vaccine. Children were (...) randomly assigned to receive a single dose of vaccine by means of either aerosol inhalation or a subcutaneous injection. The primary end points were seropositivity for antibodies against measles and adverse events 91 days after vaccination. The noninferiority margin was 5 percentage points.A total of 1001 children were assigned to receive aerosolized vaccine, and 1003 children were assigned to receive subcutaneous vaccine; 1956 of all the children (97.6%) were followed to day 91, but outcome data were
Zinc supplementation for the treatment of measles in children. Measles is still an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality globally, despite increasing vaccine coverage. Zinc plays a significant role in the maintenance of normal immunological functions, therefore supplements given to zinc-deficient children will increase the availability of zinc and could reduce measles-related morbidity and mortality.To assess the effects of zinc supplementation in reducing morbidity and mortality (...) in India and included 85 children diagnosed with measles and pneumonia. The trial showed that there was no significant difference in mortality between the two groups (risk ratio (RR) 0.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01 to 8.14). Also, there was no significant difference in time to absence of fever between the two groups (hazard ratio (HR) 1.08, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.74). No treatment-related side effects were reported in either group. The overall quality of the evidence can be described as very low.We
Safety of measles-containing vaccines in 1-year-old children All measles-containing vaccines are associated with several types of adverse events, including seizure, fever, and immune thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP). Because the measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) vaccine compared with the separate measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) and varicella (MMR + V) vaccine increases a toddler's risk for febrile seizures, we investigated whether MMRV is riskier than MMR + V and whether either vaccine elevates
Measly protection: passive immunization for measles, past and present http://www.evidentlycochrane.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/ Search and hit Go By April 11, 2014 // Mother (to District Visitor). “Lumme Miss, there ain’t no danger of infection. Them children wot’s got the measles is at the ‘ead of the bed, and them wot aint is at the foot.” Wood engraving by S. Wood, 1915. : Wellcome Library, London. When I was about seven, I spent a year going through every infectious disease that children (...) could get in those days: whooping cough, rubella, mumps, chickenpox and measles. With measles, you got sore eyes, a hacking cough, a high fever and a rash that covered you all over. At the time, bed rest in a darkened room was compulsory. My mother left the house to do some quick shopping while I was lying abed, but her timing was poor: a thunderstorm was brewing, and while I lay alone with the curtains closed, the chimney was struck by lightning, the room was shaken by a loud explosion and I
Post-exposure passive immunisation for preventing measles. Measles outbreaks continue to occur in countries with high vaccination coverage. Passive immunisation is generally considered to prevent measles in someone who is not immune and has been exposed to infection. Estimates of effectiveness have varied and no minimum effective dose has been determined.To assess the effectiveness and safety of intramuscular injection or intravenous infusion of immunoglobulins (passive immunisation (...) ) for preventing measles when administered to exposed susceptible people before the onset of symptoms.We searched CENTRAL (2013, Issue 7), MEDLINE (1946 to July week 5, 2013), CINAHL (1981 to August 2013) and EMBASE (1974 to August 2013).We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs and prospective, controlled (cohort) studies if: participants were susceptible and exposed to measles, polyclonal immunoglobulins derived from human sera or plasma were administered intramuscularly or intravenously
Live vaccine against measles, mumps, and rubella and the risk of hospital admissions for nontargeted infections. In low-income countries, live measles vaccine reduces mortality from causes other than measles infection. Such nonspecific effects of vaccines might also be important for the health of children in high-income settings.To examine whether the live vaccine against measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) is associated with lower rates of hospital admissions for infections among children
Protection against varicella with two doses of combined measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine versus one dose of monovalent varicella vaccine: a multicentre, observer-blind, randomised, controlled trial. Rates of varicella have decreased substantially in countries implementing routine varicella vaccination. Immunisation is possible with monovalent varicella vaccine or a combined measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine (MMRV). We assessed protection against varicella in naive children
Routine vitamin A supplementation for the prevention of blindness due to measles infection in children. Reduced vitamin A concentration increases the risk of blindness in children infected with the measles virus. Promoting vitamin A supplementation in children with measles contributes to the control of blindness in children, which is a high priority within the World Health Organization (WHO) VISION 2020 The Right to Sight Program.To assess the efficacy of vitamin A in preventing blindness (...) in children with measles without prior clinical features of vitamin A deficiency.We searched CENTRAL 2013, Issue 2, MEDLINE (1950 to November week 2, 2013), EMBASE (1974 to November 2013) and LILACS (1985 to November 2013).Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of vitamin A in preventing blindness in well-nourished children diagnosed with measles but with no prior clinical features of vitamin A deficiency.For the original review, two review authors independently assessed studies
Antibiotics for preventing complications in children with measles. Measles is the leading killer among vaccine-preventable diseases; it is responsible for an estimated 44% of the 1.7 million vaccine-preventable deaths among children annually.To assess the effects of antibiotics given to children with measles to prevent complications and reduce pneumonia, other morbidities and mortality.We searched CENTRAL 2013, Issue 4, MEDLINE (1966 to May week 4, 2013) and EMBASE (1980 to May 2013).Randomised (...) ), diarrhea (OR 0.53; 95% CI 0.23 to 1.22) or croup (OR 0.16; 95% CI 0.01 to 4.06). No major adverse effects attributable to antibiotics were reported.The studies reviewed were of poor quality and used older antibiotics. This review suggests a beneficial effect of antibiotics in preventing complications such as pneumonia, purulent otitis media and tonsillitis in children with measles. On the basis of this review, it is not possible to recommend definitive guidelines on the type of antibiotic, duration
Effects of the live attenuated measles-mumps-rubella booster vaccination on disease activity in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a randomized trial. The immunogenicity and the effects of live attenuated measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination on disease activity in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) are matters of concern, especially in patients treated with immunocompromising therapies.To assess whether MMR booster vaccination affects disease activity and to describe (...) in the modified intention-to-treat analysis, including 60 using methotrexate and 15 using biologics. Disease activity during complete follow-up did not differ between 63 revaccinated patients (JADAS-27, 2.8; 95% CI, 2.1-3.5) and 68 controls (JADAS-27, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.7-3.1), with a difference of 0.4 (95% CI, -0.5 to 1.2), within the equivalence margin of 2.0. At 12 months, seroprotection rates were higher in revaccinated patients vs controls (measles, 100% vs 92% [95% CI, 84%-99%]; mumps, 97% [95% CI, 95%-100
MeaslesMeasles - NICE CKS Clinical Knowledge Summaries Share Measles: Summary Measles is a highly contagious airborne infection caused by a morbillivirus of the paramyxovirus family. It infects, via the respiratory tract, nearly all susceptible people who come into contact with it. Once infected, the person develops lifelong immunity. Although endemic in the UK in the past, measles has become relatively rare since the introduction of measles immunization. The main complications of measles (...) are of the respiratory tract or central nervous system and include: Otitis media. Pneumonia, pneumonitis, and tracheobronchitis. Convulsions, encephalitis, and blindness. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (a rare but serious complication affecting about 1 in 25,000 people with measles). Measles tends to be more severe in adults, infants, pregnancy, and immunocompromised people. Measles is usually a self-limiting condition; symptoms usually resolve over the course of about a week. Prodromal symptoms include fever
Assessment of the 2010 global measles mortality reduction goal: results from a model of surveillance data. In 2008 all WHO member states endorsed a target of 90% reduction in measles mortality by 2010 over 2000 levels. We developed a model to estimate progress made towards this goal.We constructed a state-space model with population and immunisation coverage estimates and reported surveillance data to estimate annual national measles cases, distributed across age classes. We estimated deaths (...) by applying age-specific and country-specific case-fatality ratios to estimated cases in each age-country class.Estimated global measles mortality decreased 74% from 535,300 deaths (95% CI 347,200-976,400) in 2000 to 139,300 (71,200-447,800) in 2010. Measles mortality was reduced by more than three-quarters in all WHO regions except the WHO southeast Asia region. India accounted for 47% of estimated measles mortality in 2010, and the WHO African region accounted for 36%.Despite rapid progress in measles
Effect of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria during infancy on serological responses to measles and other vaccines used in the Expanded Programme on Immunization: results from five randomised controlled trials. Intermittent preventive treatment for malaria during infancy (IPTi) is the administration of a full therapeutic course of antimalarial drugs to infants living in settings where malaria is endemic, at the time of routine vaccination in the first year of life. We investigated (...) eligible, and analyses included all children who had received measles vaccination (at 9 months of age) and at least one dose of IPTi or placebo. Blood samples were collected before and after vaccination, and antibody titres were measured by plaque reduction neutralisation (measles, yellow fever), microneutralisation (polio serotypes 1 and 3), and ELISA (all other EPI antigens). Laboratory personnel were unaware of the randomisation groups. We compared the proportion of infants in the IPTi and placebo
Chinese medicinal herbs for measles. Measles is an infectious disease caused by the Morbillivirus. Chinese physicians believe that medicinal herbs are effective in alleviating symptoms and preventing complications. Chinese herbal medicines are dispensed according to the particular symptoms. This is the second update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2006.To assess the effectiveness and possible adverse effects of Chinese medicinal herbs for measles.We searched the Cochrane Central (...) 2011) and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials for ongoing trials.Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of Chinese medicinal herbs in patients with measles (without complications).Two review authors (SC, TW) independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We telephone interviewed the trial authors for missing information regarding participant allocation. Some trials allocated participants according to the sequence they were admitted to the trials, that is to say, by using a pseudo-random
Measles. Measles is a highly contagious disease caused by measles virus and is one of the most devastating infectious diseases of man--measles was responsible for millions of deaths annually worldwide before the introduction of the measles vaccines. Remarkable progress in reducing the number of people dying from measles has been made through measles vaccination, with an estimated 164,000 deaths attributed to measles in 2008. This achievement attests to the enormous importance of measles (...) vaccination to public health. However, this progress is threatened by failure to maintain high levels of measles vaccine coverage. Recent measles outbreaks in sub-Saharan Africa, Europe, and the USA show the ease with which measles virus can re-enter communities if high levels of population immunity are not sustained. The major challenges for continued measles control and eventual eradication will be logistical, financial, and the garnering of sufficient political will. These challenges need to be met
The Challenge of Measles Control The Challenge of Measles Control – Clinical Correlations Search The Challenge of Measles Control September 15, 2010 13 min read By Taher Modarressi Faculty Peer Reviewed Measles remains one of the leading causes of preventable child mortality worldwide, despite the development of an effective vaccine in the 1960s. Even as late as the early 1990s, measles continued to infect tens of millions of people and claimed over a million lives each year (51]. Although (...) mortality dropped by 78% from 2000 to 2008 due to aggressive control initiatives, the disease is still responsible for 164,000 deaths annually [12, 72]. Morbidity and mortality is mostly due to measles-associated pneumonia [13, 59], middle-ear infection [13, 30, 59], corneal inflammation and ulceration (27, 28, 46, 64), diarrhea [19, 35, 61, 70] and, rarely, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis [36, 37, 77]. Currently, the disease accounts for 3-4% of all deaths worldwide in children under the age
Thrombocytopenic purpura after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination: a systematic review of the literature and guidance for management To determine the incidence of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) after measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) immunization compared with natural measles and rubella, its clinical course and outcome, and the risk of recurrence after repeat MMR vaccination.We performed a systematic review of the Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to present) bibliographic database. We selected studies
Early waning of maternal measles antibodies in era of measles elimination: longitudinal study. To investigate the duration of the presence of maternal antibodies to measles in infants.Prospective study (May 2006 to November 2008).Five hospitals in the Province of Antwerp, Belgium.Of 221 pregnant women recruited, 207 healthy woman-infant pairs were included-divided into a vaccinated group (n=87) and naturally immune group (n=120), according to vaccination documents and history.Measles IgG (...) study describes a very early susceptibility to measles in infants of both vaccinated women and women with naturally acquired immunity. This finding is important in view of recent outbreaks and is an argument for timeliness of the first dose of a measles vaccine and vaccination of travelling or migrating children under the age of 1 year.