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Latest & greatest articles for obesity
The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence. If you wanted the latest trusted evidence on obesity or other clinical topics then use Trip today.
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Early Complications and Mortality following Radical Cystectomy: Associations with Malnutrition and Obesity There are conflicting data regarding the impact of obesity on postoperative outcomes following radical cystectomy (RC) and how obesity and malnutrition interact in patients undergoing RC.To evaluate associations of body mass index (BMI), significant preoperative weight loss, and hypoalbuminemia with 30-day complications and mortality after RC.Review of the American College of Surgeons (...) National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database identified 2,055 patients who underwent RC (2006-12). Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were developed to assess associations between hypoalbuminemia (<3.5 g/dL), >10% preoperative weight loss, obesity as characterized by BMI (class I: 30-34.9, II: 35-39.9, III: ≥40 kg/m2), and 30-day complications and mortality.The median BMI of the study cohort was 27.82 kg/m2 with 22.4% classified as having class I, 7.5% class II, and 4.2
Association Between Bariatric Surgery and Macrovascular Disease Outcomes in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Severe Obesity. Macrovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for patients with type 2 diabetes, and medical management, including lifestyle changes, may not be successful at lowering risk.To investigate the relationship between bariatric surgery and incident macrovascular (coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular diseases) events in patients with severe obesity (...) and type 2 diabetes.In this retrospective, matched cohort study, patients with severe obesity (body mass index ≥35) aged 19 to 79 years with diabetes who underwent bariatric surgery from 2005 to 2011 in 4 integrated health systems in the United States (n = 5301) were matched to 14 934 control patients on site, age, sex, body mass index, hemoglobin A1c, insulin use, observed diabetes duration, and prior health care utilization, with follow-up through September 2015.Bariatric procedures (76% Roux-en-Y
Undernutrition, obesity and governance: a unified framework for upholding the right to food This paper addresses the need for conceptual and analytic clarity on nutrition governance, an essential underpinning of more effective approaches for undernutrition, the 'single greatest constraint to global development' and obesity, which already accounts for 4% of the world's disease burden and is growing rapidly. The governance of nutrition, which is essential to designing and implementing policies (...) to realise the right to food, is among the most important and most defining duties of society. But research and action on nutrition governance are hampered by the absence of conceptual rigour, even as the continuing very high burden of undernutrition and the rapid rise in obesity highlight the need for such structures. The breadth of nutrition itself suggests that governance is both needed and sure to be complicated. This analysis explores the reasons attention has come to governance in development
Acceleration of BMI in Early Childhood and Risk of Sustained Obesity. The dynamics of body-mass index (BMI) in children from birth to adolescence are unclear, and whether susceptibility for the development of sustained obesity occurs at a specific age in children is important to determine.To assess the age at onset of obesity, we performed prospective and retrospective analyses of the course of BMI over time in a population-based sample of 51,505 children for whom sequential anthropometric data (...) were available during childhood (0 to 14 years of age) and adolescence (15 to 18 years of age). In addition, we assessed the dynamics of annual BMI increments, defined as the change in BMI standard-deviation score per year, during childhood in 34,196 children.In retrospective analyses, we found that most of the adolescents with normal weight had always had a normal weight throughout childhood. Approximately half (53%) of the obese adolescents had been overweight or obese from 5 years of age onward
Effect of lorcaserin on prevention and remission of type 2 diabetes in overweight and obese patients (CAMELLIA-TIMI 61): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. There is a direct relationship between bodyweight and risk of diabetes. Lorcaserin, a selective serotonin 2C receptor agonist that suppresses appetite, has been shown to facilitate sustained weight loss in obese or overweight patients. We aimed to evaluate the long-term effects of lorcaserin on diabetes prevention and remission.In (...) this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial done in eight countries, we recruited overweight or obese patients (body-mass index ≥27 kg/m2) with or at high risk for atherosclerotic vascular disease. Eligible patients were aged 40 years or older; patients at high risk for atherosclerotic vascular disease had to be aged 50 years or older with diabetes and at least one other risk factor. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either lorcaserin (10 mg twice daily) or matching placebo. Additionally
A behavioural intervention for obese pregnant women did not reduce risk of diabetes A behavioural intervention for obese pregnant women did not reduce risk of diabetes Discover Portal Discover Portal A behavioural intervention for obese pregnant women did not reduce risk of diabetes Published on 4 November 2015 doi: This large NIHR-funded UK trial found that a behavioural intervention for obese pregnant women did not reduce their risk of developing diabetes during pregnancy, or having a baby (...) result does emphasise the need to follow NICE recommendations to test for diabetes in all pregnant women with obesity. Share your views on the research. Why was this study needed? Obesity rates in UK women have risen between 1993 and 2011 from 16% to 26%. Rates of gestational diabetes are also increasing. Women who are obese when they become pregnant have a higher risk of developing diabetes, high blood pressure, or having babies that are on average larger than the duration of pregnancy would predict
Effects of intermittent versus continuous dieting on weight and body composition in obese and overweight people: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials Intermittent dieting may be an alternative to continuous dieting for weight reduction.To evaluate the effect of intermittent dieting versus continuous dieting on weight and body composition in overweight or obese adults.A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Five databases (...) , and energy expenditure. Data were pooled by the inverse variance method using random-effects models and expressed as mean differences (MD) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI).Nine trials met the inclusion criteria (n = 782), six comparing regular intermittent vs continuous (n = 553), and three comparing intensified intermittent vs continuous (n = 229). Populations were heterogeneous: obese only in five studies, and overweight or obese (mixed) in four studies. Lean mass was significantly lower
Prenatal education of overweight or obese pregnant women to prevent childhood overweight (the ETOIG study): an open-label, randomized controlled trial We aimed to evaluate whether pre and perinatal education of pregnant women would reduce childhood overweight.Four French centers included women at ≤21 gestational weeks (GWs) with body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m2 before pregnancy. Patients were randomized to a control group (routine care including at least one dietary visit) or an intervention
Functional imagery training versus motivational interviewing for weight loss: a randomised controlled trial of brief individual interventions for overweight and obesity Functional Imagery Training (FIT) is a new brief motivational intervention based on the Elaborated Intrusion theory of desire. FIT trains the habitual use of personalised, affective, goal-directed mental imagery to plan behaviours, anticipate obstacles, and mentally try out solutions from previous successes. It is delivered
Total hip arthroplasty outcomes in morbidly obese patients: A systematic review The increasing prevalence of obesity has resulted in a marked increase in the number of total hip arthroplasties (THAs) carried out in patients with a high body mass index (BMI).THA in morbidly obese patients is often technically challenging owing to the associated co-morbidities and anatomical factors. Furthermore, the long-term clinical and functional outcomes of the procedure in these patients are not clear.The (...) aim of this systematic review was to compare the long-term failure rate and functional outcomes of THA in morbidly obese versus non-obese patients.A literature search of PubMed, EMBASE and PubMed Central was conducted to identify studies that compared the outcomes of THA in patients defined as morbidly obese (BMI ≥ 35) to a control group (BMI < 30). The primary and secondary outcome measures were rate of revision and functional outcome, respectively, in the long term.Eight studies were included
Behavioral and Pharmacotherapy Weight Loss Interventions to Prevent Obesity-Related Morbidity and Mortality in Adults: Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Overweight and obesity have been associated with adverse health effects.To systematically review evidence on benefits and harms of behavioral and pharmacotherapy weight loss and weight loss maintenance interventions in adults to inform the US Preventive Services Task Force.MEDLINE, PubMed (...) in adults.Data were abstracted by one reviewer and confirmed by another. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted for weight loss outcomes in behavior-based interventions.Health outcomes, weight loss or weight loss maintenance, reduction in obesity-related conditions, and adverse events.A total of 122 RCTs (N = 62 533) and 2 observational studies (N = 209 993) were identified. Compared with controls, participants in behavior-based interventions had greater mean weight loss at 12 to 18 months (-2.39 kg [95
Behavioral Weight Loss Interventions to Prevent Obesity-Related Morbidity and Mortality in Adults: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. More than 35% of men and 40% of women in the United States are obese. Obesity is associated with health problems such as increased risk for coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, various types of cancer, gallstones, and disability. Obesity is also associated with an increased risk for death, particularly among adults younger than 65 (...) years.To update the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) 2012 recommendation on screening for obesity in adults.The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on interventions (behavioral and pharmacotherapy) for weight loss or weight loss maintenance that can be provided in or referred from a primary care setting. Surgical weight loss interventions and nonsurgical weight loss devices (eg, gastric balloons) are considered to be outside the scope of the primary care setting.The USPSTF found adequate evidence
Obesity and loss of disease-free years owing to major non-communicable diseases: a multicohort study Obesity increases the risk of several chronic diseases, but the extent to which the obesity-related loss of disease-free years varies by lifestyle category and across socioeconomic groups is unclear. We estimated the number of years free from major non-communicable diseases in adults who are overweight and obese, compared with those who are normal weight.We pooled individual-level data on body (...) examinations, or self-report. Disease-free years from age 40 years to 75 years associated with underweight (BMI <18·5 kg/m2), overweight (≥25 kg/m2 to <30 kg/m2), and obesity (class I [mild] ≥30 kg/m2 to <35 kg/m2; class II-III [severe] ≥35 kg/m2) compared with normal weight (≥18·5 kg/m2 to <25 kg/m2) were estimated.Of 137 503 participants from ten studies, we excluded 6973 owing to missing data and 10 349 with prevalent disease at baseline, resulting in an analytic sample of 120 181 participants. Of 47
Prophylactic Negative Pressure Wound Therapy and Wound Complication After Cesarean Delivery in Women With Class II or III Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Trial To compare the occurrence of superficial surgical site infections in obese women using prophylactic negative pressure therapy with standard dressings after cesarean delivery.We conducted a randomized controlled, nonblinded, two-center study of prophylactic negative pressure therapy compared with standard surgical dressings placed (...) at the time of primary closure at cesarean delivery in obese women with body mass indexes (BMI) of 35 or higher (ie, class II and III obesity). Our primary outcome was occurrence of a superficial surgical site infection. We assumed a superficial surgical site infection occurrence rate of 20% and intended to recruit 400 women. However, after low enrollment of 166 women over 24 months, an interim analysis for futility was conducted and the decision was made to halt the study.Women were recruited between
Is four-week underwater treadmill exercise regimen compared to home exercise efficacious for pain relief and functional improvement in obese patients with knee osteoarthritis? A randomized controlled trial To investigate the efficacy of a four-week underwater treadmill exercise regimen compared to a home exercise regimen relative to pain relief and functional improvement in obese patients with knee osteoarthritis.Single-blind randomized controlled trial.Outpatient.Eighty primary knee (...) improvement and higher patient satisfaction than those in control group (13 (39.4%) vs. 4 (10.8%); P = 0.014 and 23 (69.7%) vs. 16 (43.2%); P = 0.021, respectively).Exercise using an underwater treadmill was found to be as efficacious as home exercise for relieving pain and improving function in obese people with mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis.
Cardiovascular Safety of Lorcaserin in Overweight or Obese Patients. Lorcaserin, a selective serotonin 2C receptor agonist that modulates appetite, has proven efficacy for weight management in overweight or obese patients. The cardiovascular safety and efficacy of lorcaserin are undefined.We randomly assigned 12,000 overweight or obese patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease or multiple cardiovascular risk factors to receive either lorcaserin (10 mg twice daily) or placebo (...) . 4, P=0.04).In a high-risk population of overweight or obese patients, lorcaserin facilitated sustained weight loss without a higher rate of major cardiovascular events than that with placebo. (Funded by Eisai; CAMELLIA-TIMI 61 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02019264 .).
Contribution of sex and body constitution to three-dimensional lower extremity alignment for healthy, elderly, non-obese humans in a Japanese population Humans support their bodies exclusively by vertical balance in bipedal locomotion, and the body, especially the lower extremity, generally changes with age. Sex and body constitution are assumed to be associated with lower extremity alignment, but this association remains to be elucidated. This study sought to clarify this association (...) in healthy, elderly, non-obese humans in a Japanese population.The present study investigated 55 healthy volunteers (mean age: 70 ± 6 years). A 3D extremity alignment system was applied under weight-bearing conditions on biplane long lower extremities X-rays using a 3D-to-2D image registration technique. The evaluation parameters included 3D hip-knee-ankle angle (3DHKA) alignment in the coronal (coronal alignment) and sagittal planes (sagittal alignment) and rotational alignment between the femur
Efficacy and safety of semaglutide compared with liraglutide and placebo for weight loss in patients with obesity: a randomised, double-blind, placebo and active controlled, dose-ranging, phase 2 trial. Obesity is a major public health issue, and new pharmaceuticals for weight management are needed. Therefore, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue semaglutide in comparison with liraglutide and a placebo in promoting weight loss.We did a randomised