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Latest & greatest articles for pain
The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence. If you wanted the latest trusted evidence on pain or other clinical topics then use Trip today.
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Pain Management for Ambulatory Arthroscopic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Evidence-Based Recommendations From the Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia Ambulatory arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is associated with moderate pain, even when nonopioid oral analgesics such as acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used. Regional analgesia can supplement nonopioid oral analgesics and reduce postoperative opioid requirements, but the choice
Effect of 6-week retro or forward walking program on pain, functional disability, quadriceps muscle strength, and performance in individuals with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial (retro-walking trial) Previous studies reported the beneficial effects of walking in individual with mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis (OA). The current study aimed to compare the effect of 6-week retro versus forward walking program versus control group on pain, functional disability, quadriceps (...) . The control group received a routine physiotherapy program. This program comprises a combination of closed and open kinematic chain exercises, including straight leg raising, isometric quadriceps, isometric hip adduction, terminal knee extension, semi-squat, and leg press. The primary outcomes were mean pain and knee function score measured by the numerical rating scale and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, respectively. The secondary outcomes were mean score
Improving paediatric pain management in the emergency department: An integrative literature review Children presenting to the emergency department continue to experience suboptimal pain management. While evidence-based pain management interventions are available to clinicians, effective and sustainable practice change is yet to be achieved. This practice gap requires a collaborative approach to knowledge translation targeting systems of care.The purpose of this review was to explore systems (...) level change in the emergency department for improved paediatric pain management.Integrative review.CINAHL, Embase, PubMed/Medline, Dynamed, Cochrane, Scopus, Prospero and Joanna Briggs Institute were systematically searched, and clinical guidelines and reference lists scanned.Studies were screened and selected according to the inclusion criteria, and independently appraised for risk of bias. Integrative review methodology informed data extraction and synthesis, focused on organisational context
Conditional Recommendations for Specific Dietary Ingredients as an Approach to Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain: Evidence-Based Decision Aid for Health Care Providers, Participants, and Policy Makers Approximately 55-76% of Service members use dietary supplements for various reasons; although such use has become popular for a wide range of pain conditions, decisions to use supplements are often driven by information that is not evidence-based. This work evaluates whether the current research (...) on dietary ingredients for chronic musculoskeletal pain provides sufficient evidence to inform decisions for practice and self-care, specifically for Special Operations Forces personnel.A steering committee convened to develop research questions and factors required for decision-making. Key databases were searched through August 2016. Eligible systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials were assessed for methodological quality. Meta-analysis was applied where feasible. GRADE was used to determine
Insular and anterior cingulate cortex deep stimulation for central neuropathic pain: Disassembling the percept of pain To compare the analgesic effects of stimulation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) or the posterior superior insula (PSI) against sham deep (d) repetitive (r) transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in patients with central neuropathic pain (CNP) after stroke or spinal cord injury in a randomized, double-blinded, sham-controlled, 3-arm parallel study.Participants were (...) randomly allocated into the active PSI-rTMS, ACC-rTMS, sham-PSI-rTMS, or sham-ACC-rTMS arms. Stimulations were performed for 12 weeks, and a comprehensive clinical and pain assessment, psychophysics, and cortical excitability measurements were performed at baseline and during treatment. The main outcome of the study was pain intensity (numeric rating scale [NRS]) after the last stimulation session.Ninety-eight patients (age 55.02 ± 12.13 years) completed the study. NRS score was not significantly
Pain experienced by infants and toddlers at urine collection bag removal: A randomized, controlled, clinical trial In pre-continent children, collection bags are frequently used as a first-line option to obtain a urine specimen. This practice, acknowledged by several guidelines for the step of UTI screening, is driven by a perception of the technique as being more convenient and less painful. However, our own experience led us to consider bag removal as a painful experience.Our aim (...) was to determine whether the use of an oleo-calcareous liniment to aid bag removal reduced the acute pain expressed by young children.This prospective, randomized, controlled, single blind study was carried out in two emergency pediatrics departments. Pre-continent children aged 0-36 months admitted with an indication for urine testing were eligible for the study. Urine for dipstick test screening was obtained using a collection bag. At micturition, the patients were randomized into bag removal
The Impact of Surgical Amputation and Valproic Acid on Pain and Functional Trajectory: Results from the Veterans Integrated Pain Evaluation Research (VIPER) Randomized, Double-Blinded Placebo-Controlled Trial To determine if the perioperative administration of valproic acid reduces the incidence of chronic pain three months after amputation or revision surgery.Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.Academic, military, and veteran medical centers.One hundred twenty-eight (...) patients undergoing amputation or amputation revision surgery at Duke University Hospital, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, or the Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center for either medical disease or trauma.Patients were randomized to placebo or valproic acid for the duration of hospitalization and treated with multimodal analgesic care, including regional anesthetic blockade. Primary outcome was the proportion of patients with chronic pain at three months (average numeric pain score
Treatment Effect Sizes of Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy for Pain and Disability in Patients With Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy (MDT) is a treatment-based classification system founded on 3 core principles: classification into diagnostic syndromes, classification-based intervention, and appropriate application of force. Many randomized controlled trials have investigated the efficacy of MDT for low back pain; however, results have varied. The inconsistent (...) delivery of MDT across trials may explain the different findings.To compare treatment effect sizes for pain or disability between trials that delivered MDT consistent with the core principles of the approach and trials that met some or none of these principles.In this systematic review, databases were searched from inception to June 2018 for studies that delivered MDT compared to nonpharmacological, conservative control interventions in patients with low back pain and reported outcomes of pain
Timing of periarticular injection has no effect on postoperative pain and functional recovery in simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty: a prospective randomized, double-blinded trial Given no consensus on optimal timeframe of periarticular multimodal drug injection (PMDI) in knee osteoarthritis patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA), this study was aimed to compare the postoperative pain and the functional recovery in patients who underwent simultaneous bilateral TKA (SBTKA (...) ) and received PMDI at the different intraoperative time points.This prospective, randomized, double-blinded controlled trial study included 48 patients who underwent SBTKA and received PMDI mixture, either before prosthetic implantation (late PMDI), or just after knee arthrotomy (early PMDI). Each subject's knees were randomly selected to different PMDI administration time points. The outcome parameters were postoperative pain assessed by using a visual analog scale (VAS), the maximal angle of knee flexion
Subdissociative-dose Ketamine Is Effective for Treating Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Pain Subdissociative-dose ketamine (SDDK) is used to treat acute pain. We sought to determine if SDDK is effective in relieving acute exacerbations of chronic pain.This study was a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial conducted May 2017 to June 2018 at a public teaching hospital (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02920528). The primary endpoint was a 20-mm decrease on a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) at 60 (...) minutes. Power analysis using three groups (0.5 mg/kg ketamine, 0.25 mg/kg ketamine, or placebo infused over 20 minutes) estimated that 96 subjects were needed for 90% power. Inclusion criteria included age > 18 years, chronic pain > 3 months, and acute exacerbation (VAS ≥ 70 mm). Pain, agitation, and sedation were assessed by VAS at baseline and 20, 40, and 60 minutes after initiation of study drug. Telephone follow-up at 24 to 48 hours used a 10-point numeric rating scale for pain.A total of 106
Radiofrequency ablation of genicular nerves prior to total knee replacement has no effect on postoperative pain outcomes: a prospective randomized sham-controlled trial with 6-month follow-up Refractory chronic knee pain from osteoarthritis (OA) is commonly treated with total knee arthroplasty (TKA). TKA can be associated with severe postoperative pain and persistent postsurgical knee pain. Poorly controlled postoperative pain can negatively effect functional outcomes following TKA (...) , and effective opioid-sparing analgesia is key to the ideal recovery. Genicular nerve radiofrequency ablation (GN-RFA) has been shown in several trials to be clinically effective in patients with severe refractory knee pain from OA. We aimed to assess if preoperative GN-RFA would improve postoperative pain outcomes following TKA.This was a sham-control prospective clinical trial in which blinded participants were randomized to image-guided GN-RFA or a simulated sham procedure 2-6 weeks prior to elective TKA
Comparative Efficacy of Therapeutics for Chronic Cancer Pain: A Bayesian Network Meta-Analysis Opioids are the primary choice for managing chronic cancer pain. However, many nonopioid therapies are currently prescribed for chronic cancer pain with little published evidence comparing their efficacy.Electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing any systemic pharmaceutical intervention and/or combination thereof in treating chronic cancer pain. The primary (...) outcome was global efficacy reported as an odds ratio (OR). The secondary outcome was change in pain intensity reported as a standardized mean difference (SMD).We included 81 RCTs consisting of 10,003 patients investigating 11 medication classes. Most RCTs (80%) displayed low risk of bias. The top-ranking classes for global efficacy were nonopioid analgesics (network OR, 0.30; 95% credibility interval [CrI], 0.13 to 0.67), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (network OR, 0.44; 95% CrI, 0.22 to 0.90
Effect of adding interferential current stimulation to exercise on outcomes in primary care patients with chronic neck pain: a randomized controlled trial To evaluate the effect of adding interferential current stimulation to exercise on pain, disability, psychological status and range of motion in patients with neck pain.A single-blinded randomized controlled trial.Primary care physiotherapy units.A total of 84 patients diagnosed with non-specific mechanical neck pain. This sample was divided (...) into two groups randomly: experimental (n = 42) versus control group (n = 42).Patients in both groups had a supervised therapeutic exercise programme, with the experimental group having additional interferential current stimulation treatment.The main measures used were intensity of neck pain according to the Visual Analogue Scale; the degree of disability according to the Neck Disability Index and the CORE Outcome Measure; anxiety and depression levels according to the Goldberg scale; apprehension
Randomized Trial of Sacroiliac Joint Arthrodesis Compared with Conservative Management for Chronic Low Back Pain Attributed to the Sacroiliac Joint Sacroiliac joint pain is increasingly recognized as a cause of low back pain. We compared the safety and effectiveness of minimally invasive sacroiliac joint arthrodesis using triangular titanium implants and conservative management in patients with chronic sacroiliac joint pain.This study was a prospective, multicenter randomized controlled trial (...) of adults with chronic sacroiliac joint pain assigned to either conservative management or sacroiliac joint arthrodesis with triangular titanium implants. The study end points included self-rated low back pain (visual analog scale [VAS]), back dysfunction (Oswestry Disability Index [ODI]), and quality of life. Ninety percent of subjects in both groups completed the study.Between June 6, 2013, and May 15, 2015, 103 subjects were randomly assigned to conservative management (n = 51) or sacroiliac joint
Core im hoofbeats: a 66m w ruq pain, a 41m in afib w rvr and a 50m w syncope Core IM Hoofbeats: A 66M w RUQ pain, a 41M in Afib w RVR and a 50M w Syncope – Clinical Correlations Search Core IM Hoofbeats: A 66M w RUQ pain, a 41M in Afib w RVR and a 50M w Syncope April 10, 2019 1 min read Podcast: | Subscribe: | By Cindy Fang MD, David Kudlowitz MD, John Hwang MD || Illustration by Amy Ou MD || Audio Editing by Richard Chen, Harit Shah For a transcript of the podcast and show notes: Time Stamps (...) New features in this episode [0:30] Case one: 66M w RUQ pain [1:09] Case two: 41M w Afib in RVR [9:26] Case three: 50M w Syncope [14:33] Reveal [19:57] Retrieving illness scripts [22:29] Typical versus Atypical presentation of diseases [26:12] References Feinstein, A R. “An analysis of diagnostic reasoning. I. The domains and disorders of clinical macrobiology.” The Yale journal of biology and medicine vol. 46,3 (1973): 212-32. Nayar, et al. Venous Thromboembolism in Upper Extremity Fractures
Are opioids effective in the treatment of chronic low back pain? Are Opioids Effective in the Treatment of Chronic Low Back Pain? – Clinical Correlations Search Are Opioids Effective in the Treatment of Chronic Low Back Pain? April 17, 2019 4 min read By Anna Hirsch Peer Reviewed The use of opioid medications for chronic low back pain, or for any chronic non-cancer pain complaint, is still a source of controversy in the medical community, with a large divide between the recommendations (...) of professional societies and actual physician prescribing data. In the , 1 the 2 and the 3 have all issued guidelines urging caution with the use of opioids for chronic back pain, specifically emphasizing the poor-to-moderate quality of the evidence demonstrating benefit from this therapeutic modality. All three organizations reinforce that opioids should only be used after failure of other non-opioid and non-pharmacologic treatment options and recommend that if physicians choose to prescribe opioids
Hand Pain and Sensory Deficits: Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Clinical Practice Guidelines MIA ERICKSON, PT , EdD • MARSHA LAWRENCE, PT , DPT • CAROLINE W. STEGINK JANSEN, PT , PhD DIANE COKER, PT , DPT • PETER AMADIO, MD • CARLA CLEARY, PT , DPT Hand Pain and Sensory Deficits: Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Clinical Practice Guidelines Linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health From the Academy of Hand and Upper Extremity Physical Therapy and the Academy of Orthopaedic (...) their patients regarding the effects of mouse use on carpal tunnel pressure and assist pa- tients in developing alternate strategies, including the use of ar- row keys, touch screens, or alternating the mouse hand. Clinicians may recommend keyboards with reduced strike force for patients with CTS who report pain with keyboard use. INTERVENTIONS – ORTHOSES B Clinicians should recommend a neutral-positioned wrist orthosis worn at night for short-term symptom relief and functional improvement for individuals
Restrictive strategy versus usual care for cholecystectomy in patients with gallstones and abdominal pain (SECURE): a multicentre, randomised, parallel-arm, non-inferiority trial. International guidelines advise laparoscopic cholecystectomy to treat symptomatic, uncomplicated gallstones. Usual care regarding cholecystectomy is associated with practice variation and persistent post-cholecystectomy pain in 10-41% of patients. We aimed to compare the non-inferiority of a restrictive strategy (...) with stepwise selection with usual care to assess (in)efficient use of cholecystectomy.We did a multicentre, randomised, parallel-arm, non-inferiority study in 24 academic and non-academic hospitals in the Netherlands. We enrolled patients aged 18-95 years with abdominal pain and ultrasound-proven gallstones or sludge. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to either usual care in which selection for cholecystectomy was left to the discretion of the surgeon, or a restrictive strategy with stepwise selection
2019LancetControlled trial quality: predicted high
Effect of Doxepin Mouthwash or Diphenhydramine-Lidocaine-Antacid Mouthwash vs Placebo on Radiotherapy-Related Oral Mucositis Pain: The Alliance A221304 Randomized Clinical Trial. Oral mucositis causes substantial morbidity during head and neck radiotherapy. In a randomized study, doxepin mouthwash was shown to reduce oral mucositis-related pain. A common mouthwash comprising diphenhydramine-lidocaine-antacid is also widely used.To evaluate the effect of doxepin mouthwash or diphenhydramine (...) -lidocaine-antacid mouthwash for the treatment of oral mucositis-related pain.A phase 3 randomized trial was conducted from November 1, 2014, to May 16, 2016, at 30 US institutions and included 275 patients who underwent definitive head and neck radiotherapy, had an oral mucositis pain score of 4 points or greater (scale, 0-10), and were followed up for a maximum of 28 days.Ninety-two patients were randomized to doxepin mouthwash (25 mg/5 mL water); 91 patients to diphenhydramine-lidocaine-antacid
Transition from acute to chronic pain after surgery. Over the past decade there has been an increasing reliance on strong opioids to treat acute and chronic pain, which has been associated with a rising epidemic of prescription opioid misuse, abuse, and overdose-related deaths. Deaths from prescription opioids have more than quadrupled in the USA since 1999, and this pattern is now occurring globally. Inappropriate opioid prescribing after surgery, particularly after discharge, is a major cause (...) of this problem. Chronic postsurgical pain, occurring in approximately 10% of patients who have surgery, typically begins as acute postoperative pain that is difficult to control, but soon transitions into a persistent pain condition with neuropathic features that are unresponsive to opioids. Research into how and why this transition occurs has led to a stronger appreciation of opioid-induced hyperalgesia, use of more effective and safer opioid-sparing analgesic regimens, and non-pharmacological interventions