Latest & greatest articles for pneumonia

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Top results for pneumonia

741. Prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia relapse by pentamidine aerosol in zidovudine-treated AIDS patients. (PubMed)

Prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia relapse by pentamidine aerosol in zidovudine-treated AIDS patients. To examine the efficacy and tolerance of pentamidine aerosol in the prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) relapse in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) being treated with zidovudine, 51 patients who had had an episode of PCP in the previous 5 months were enrolled in a randomised controlled study. 25 patients (group I) received pentamidine

1989 Lancet

742. Safety and efficacy of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim chemoprophylaxis for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS. (PubMed)

Safety and efficacy of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim chemoprophylaxis for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS. The safety and efficacy of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in the prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were evaluated. Sixty patients with a new diagnosis of Kaposi's sarcoma and no history of opportunistic infections were randomly assigned to receive 800 mg of sulfamethoxazole and 160 mg of trimethoprim (...) twice per day or no therapy. None of the 30 patients receiving sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim developed P carinii pneumonia. Sixteen of the 30 patients receiving no suppressive therapy developed P carinii pneumonia. Development of P carinii pneumonia was associated with the stage of Kaposi's sarcoma, B subtype disease, and the presence of 0.20 X 10(9)/L (200/mm3) or fewer CD4 cells at study entry. The proportion of patients surviving and the mean length of survival were significantly greater

1988 JAMA

743. Trial of co-trimoxazole versus procaine penicillin with ampicillin in treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in young Gambian children. (PubMed)

Trial of co-trimoxazole versus procaine penicillin with ampicillin in treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in young Gambian children. 134 Gambian children under 5 years of age with severe pneumonia (as defined by the World Health Organisation classification of acute respiratory infections) were given either oral co-trimoxazole for 5 days, or a single intramuscular dose of fortified procaine penicillin and 5 days of oral ampicillin. At 2 weeks, there was no significant difference in outcome (...) between the two groups. Co-trimoxazole is much less expensive than ampicillin or procaine penicillin, requires only twice-daily administration, and can be given by health-care staff with little training. The results support the use of co-trimoxazole as the antibiotic of first choice in outpatient management of young children with pneumonia in developing countries.

1988 Lancet

744. Nosocomial pneumonia in intubated patients given sucralfate as compared with antacids or histamine type 2 blockers. The role of gastric colonization. (PubMed)

Nosocomial pneumonia in intubated patients given sucralfate as compared with antacids or histamine type 2 blockers. The role of gastric colonization. Gram-negative nosocomial pneumonia may result from retrograde colonization of the pharynx from the stomach, and this may be more likely when the gastric pH is relatively high. We studied the rate of nosocomial pneumonia among 130 patients given mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit who were receiving as prophylaxis for stress ulcer (...) ) in gastric aspirates, pharyngeal swabs, and tracheal aspirates than did patients in the antacid-H2-blocker group. The rate of pneumonia was twice as high in the antacid-H2 group as in the sucralfate group (95 percent confidence interval, 0.89 to 4.58; P = 0.11). Gram-negative bacilli were isolated more frequently from the tracheal aspirates of patients with pneumonia who were receiving antacids or H2 blockers. Mortality rates were 1.6 times higher in the antacid-H2 group than in the sucralfate group (95

1987 NEJM

745. Cost effectiveness of vaccination against pneumococcal pneumonia: an update

Cost effectiveness of vaccination against pneumococcal pneumonia: an update Cost effectiveness of vaccination against pneumococcal pneumonia: an update Cost effectiveness of vaccination against pneumococcal pneumonia: an update Sisk J E, Riegelman R K Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment (...) on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Vaccination for pneumococcal pneumonia. Type of intervention Primary prevention. Economic study type Cost-utility analysis. Study population Persons aged 65 years and over. Setting The study was carried out in the USA. Dates to which data relate Prices related to 1983. Source of effectiveness data Published studies. Modelling Epidemiological cohort model (model of survival and disease). Measure of benefits used in the economic analysis

1986 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

746. Chloramphenicol alone versus chloramphenicol plus penicillin for severe pneumonia in children. (PubMed)

Chloramphenicol alone versus chloramphenicol plus penicillin for severe pneumonia in children. 748 children with severe pneumonia in three hospitals in Papua New Guinea were randomised to receive intramuscular injections of either chloramphenicol alone or chloramphenicol plus penicillin. Sequential analysis showed no difference between the two treatments. 48 (13%) of the 377 children in the chloramphenicol alone group died, and 3 (0.8%) were changed to different treatment. 62 (17%) of the 371 (...) children in the chloramphenicol-plus-penicillin group died, and 6 (1.6%) were changed to different treatment. The difference in failure rates (death or withdrawal for change of treatment) was 4.8% +/- 5.2% (+/- 95% confidence limits). In children with severe pneumonia, treatment with chloramphenicol alone is as effective as treatment with chloramphenicol plus penicillin.

1985 Lancet

747. Cefazolin vs penicillin. Treatment of uncomplicated pneumococcal pneumonia. (PubMed)

Cefazolin vs penicillin. Treatment of uncomplicated pneumococcal pneumonia. Cefazolin sodium, 500 mg intramuscularly twice daily, was compared with penicillin G procaine, 600,000 units intramuscularly twice daily, in the treatment of 82 patients with pneumococcal pneumonia. Patients were randomly assigned except when there was a history of penicillin allergy. The patients received treatment for five days or until they were afebrile for 48 hours. No patients experienced side effects or allergic (...) reactions. All patients recovered satisfactorily without relapses. Cefazolin in the previously described dosage is as effective as penicillin in the treatment of pneumococcal pneumonia.

1979 JAMA

748. Case study: cost-effectiveness analysis of vaccination against pneumococcal pneumonia

Case study: cost-effectiveness analysis of vaccination against pneumococcal pneumonia Case study: cost-effectiveness analysis of vaccination against pneumococcal pneumonia Case study: cost-effectiveness analysis of vaccination against pneumococcal pneumonia Congress of the United States, Office of Technology Assessment Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods (...) , the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Vaccination for pneumococcal pneumonia. Type of intervention Primary prevention Economic study type Cost-utility analysis. Study population Persons aged 2-4; age 5-24; age 25-44; age 45-64 and aged 65+ years. Setting The study was carried out in the USA. Dates to which data relate It seems that price relates to 1978. Source of effectiveness data Single study

1979 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

749. Efficacy of chest physiotherapy and intermittent positive-pressure breathing in the resolution of pneumonia. (PubMed)

Efficacy of chest physiotherapy and intermittent positive-pressure breathing in the resolution of pneumonia. We undertook a randomized clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of chest physiotherapy and intermittent positive-pressure breathing in the treatment of pneumonia. The diagnosis of pneumonia required a compatible clinical history and x-ray confirmation. A total of 54 patients were assigned to treatment and control groups and were similar in age, smoking history, underlying lung disease (...) groups. Chest physiotherapy and intermittent positive-pressure breathing do not hasten the resolution of pneumonia.

1978 NEJM

750. High-dose penicillin therapy and pneumococcal pneumonia. (PubMed)

High-dose penicillin therapy and pneumococcal pneumonia. 4153372 1974 12 16 2016 10 17 0098-7484 230 3 1974 Oct 21 JAMA JAMA High-dose penicillin therapy and pneumococcal pneumonia. 409-13 Brewin A A Arango L L Hadley W K WK Murray J F JF eng Clinical Trial Journal Article Randomized Controlled Trial United States JAMA 7501160 0098-7484 0 Penicillins 17R794ESYN Penicillin G Procaine AIM IM Administration, Oral Adolescent Adult Aged Candida albicans isolation & purification Escherichia coli (...) isolation & purification Haemophilus influenzae isolation & purification Hospitalization Humans Injections, Intramuscular Klebsiella pneumoniae isolation & purification Middle Aged Penicillin G Procaine administration & dosage therapeutic use Penicillins administration & dosage therapeutic use Pneumococcal Infections drug therapy mortality Pneumonia drug therapy mortality Proteus isolation & purification Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolation & purification Serratia marcescens isolation & purification Sputum

1974 JAMA