Latest & greatest articles for pneumonia

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Top results for pneumonia

101. Community-acquired pneumonia

Community-acquired pneumonia Community-acquired pneumonia - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Community-acquired pneumonia Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: February 2019 Summary Risk factors relate to environment, lifestyle factors, patient status, and comorbidities. Typically characterised by a new lung infiltrate on chest x-ray, together with one or more of the following: fever, chills, cough (...) , sputum production, dyspnoea, myalgia, arthralgia, pleuritic pain. Diagnosis should include a chest x-ray, although this has been challenged by studies using CT scanning. Initial treatment is empirical with antibiotics, following international guidelines and local epidemiology. Definition Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is defined as pneumonia acquired outside hospital or healthcare facilities. Clinical diagnosis is based on a group of signs and symptoms related to lower respiratory tract infection

2018 BMJ Best Practice

102. Atypical pneumonia

Atypical pneumonia Atypical pneumonia - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Atypical pneumonia Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: May 2018 Summary Community-acquired and often seen in young adults living in close proximity. Diagnosis is mostly clinical. Molecular-based diagnosis of throat swabs or sputum can be performed. Serology can be used to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment is often outpatient (...) based with a macrolide antibiotic or doxycycline. Extrapulmonary manifestations may occur, especially in M pneumoniae infections. Definition Atypical bacterial pneumonia is caused by atypical organisms that are not detectable on Gram stain and cannot be cultured using standard methods. The most common organisms are Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Chlamydophila pneumoniae , and Legionella pneumophila . Atypical bacterial pneumonia generally is characterised by a symptom complex that includes headache, low

2018 BMJ Best Practice

103. Overview of pneumonia

Overview of pneumonia Overview of pneumonia - Summary of relevant conditions | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Overview of pneumonia Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: June 2018 Introduction Pneumonia is inflammation of the lungs with consolidation or interstitial lung infiltrates, most often categorised according to the causative organism. Typical symptoms might include fever, cough, dyspnoea, and chest pain. Because each (...) specific type of pneumonia may result from a different aetiology and pathogenic mechanism, each subtype also has its characteristic risk factors, signs, and symptoms. Related conditions Condition Description Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is defined as pneumonia acquired outside hospital or healthcare facilities. Older patients in particular are often afebrile and may present with confusion and worsening of underlying diseases. The most common cause is Streptococcus pneumoniae (also known

2018 BMJ Best Practice

104. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection

Chlamydia pneumoniae infection Chlamydia pneumoniae infection - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Chlamydia pneumoniae infection Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: January 2018 Summary A bacterial respiratory pathogen that is a frequent cause of community-acquired pneumonia in children and adults. An obligate intracellular parasite that can only be isolated in tissue culture, although culture (...) is not widely available. Pneumonia due to Chlamydia pneumoniae cannot be differentiated clinically from pneumonia due to other atypical organisms, especially Mycoplasma pneumoniae . Serological diagnosis is complicated by the requirement for paired sera and the lack of FDA-approved serological assays. Treatment with macrolides, quinolones, or tetracyclines appears equally effective. Definition Chlamydia pneumoniae (an obligate intracellular bacterium) is a frequent respiratory pathogen in humans that occurs

2018 BMJ Best Practice

105. Hospital-acquired pneumonia

Hospital-acquired pneumonia Hospital-acquired pneumonia - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Hospital-acquired pneumonia Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: June 2018 Summary Most cases are caused by bacteria, especially aerobic gram-negative bacilli, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae , and Acinetobacter species. Patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia (...) . Definition Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is an acute lower respiratory tract infection that is by definition acquired after at least 48 hours of admission to hospital and is not incubating at the time of admission. Kalil AC, Metersky ML, Klompas M, et al. Management of adults with hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonia: 2016 clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Thoracic Society. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;63:e61-e111. http

2018 BMJ Best Practice

106. Primary care: Hypoxia and signs of increased work of breathing are most strongly associated with radiographic pneumonia in children

Primary care: Hypoxia and signs of increased work of breathing are most strongly associated with radiographic pneumonia in children Hypoxia and signs of increased work of breathing are most strongly associated with radiographic pneumonia in children | BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine We use cookies to improve our service and to tailor our content and advertising to you. You can manage your cookie settings via your browser at any time. To learn more about how we use cookies, please see our . Log (...) in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? Search for this keyword Search for this keyword Main menu Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? You are here Hypoxia and signs of increased work of breathing are most strongly associated with radiographic pneumonia in children Article Text

2018 Evidence-Based Medicine (Requires free registration)

107. Burden of Culture-Confirmed Pediatric Pneumococcal Pneumonia in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Burden of Culture-Confirmed Pediatric Pneumococcal Pneumonia in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Pneumococcal pneumonia (PP) causes almost one in five deaths in children younger than 5 years worldwide. In Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), pneumonia causes 14% of all deaths. Although pneumococcal disease is a vaccine-preventable disease that accounts for a significant proportion of this burden, the decision-making process to introduce pneumococcal

2017 Value in health regional issues

108. Corticosteroids for pneumonia. (PubMed)

Corticosteroids for pneumonia. Pneumonia is a common and potentially serious illness. Corticosteroids have been suggested for the treatment of different types of infection, however their role in the treatment of pneumonia remains unclear. This is an update of a review published in 2011.To assess the efficacy and safety of corticosteroids in the treatment of pneumonia.We searched the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS on 3 (...) inclusion to inpatients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), with or without healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP). We assessed the risk of selection bias and attrition bias as low or unclear overall. We assessed performance bias risk as low for nine trials, unclear for one trial, and high for seven trials. We assessed reporting bias risk as low for three trials and high for the remaining 14 trials.Corticosteroids significantly reduced mortality in adults with severe pneumonia (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.40

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2017 Cochrane

109. Influence of environmental conditions and pollution on the incidence of Streptococcus pneumoniae infections (PubMed)

Influence of environmental conditions and pollution on the incidence of Streptococcus pneumoniae infections Fossil fuel derived pollutants (SO2, NO), dry air and cold increase the incidence of S. pneumoniae infections http://ow.ly/RnLW30gogb1.

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2017 ERJ open research

110. Cost of treating ventilator-associated pneumonia post cardiac surgery in the National Health Service: Results from a propensity-matched cohort study (PubMed)

Cost of treating ventilator-associated pneumonia post cardiac surgery in the National Health Service: Results from a propensity-matched cohort study Ventilator-associated pneumonia is associated with significant morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. Most of the cost data that are available relate to general intensive care patients in privately remunerated institutions. This study assessed the cost of managing ventilator-associated pneumonia in a cardiac intensive care unit in the National (...) Health Service in the United Kingdom.Propensity-matched study of prospectively collected data from the cardiac surgical database between April 2011 and December 2014 in all patients undergoing cardiac surgery (n = 3416). Patients who were diagnosed as developing ventilator-associated pneumonia, as per the surveillance definition for ventilator-associated pneumonia (n = 338), were propensity score matched with those who did not (n = 338). Costs of treating post-op cardiac surgery patients in intensive

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2017 Journal of the Intensive Care Society

111. Evaluation of severity score-guided approaches to macrolide use in community-acquired pneumonia

Evaluation of severity score-guided approaches to macrolide use in community-acquired pneumonia International guidelines including those in the UK, Japan, Australia and South Africa recommend the avoidance of macrolides in patients with low-severity community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We hypothesised that severity scores are poor predictors of atypical pneumonia and response to macrolide therapy, and thus, inadequate tools for guiding antibiotic prescriptions.Secondary analysis of four (...) independent prospective CAP datasets was conducted. The predictive values of the CURB-65 and pneumonia severity index (PSI) for clinically important groups of causative pathogens were evaluated. The effect of macrolide use according to risk class was assessed by multivariable analysis. Patients (3297) were evaluated, and the predictive values of CURB-65 and PSI for atypical pathogens were poor (AUC values of 0.37 and 0.42, respectively). No significant differences were noted among the effects of macrolide

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2017 EvidenceUpdates

112. Short-course versus long-course intravenous therapy with the same antibiotic for severe community-acquired pneumonia in children aged two months to 59 months. (PubMed)

Short-course versus long-course intravenous therapy with the same antibiotic for severe community-acquired pneumonia in children aged two months to 59 months. Pneumonia is a leading cause of childhood mortality from infectious disease, responsible for an estimated 1.3 million deaths annually in children under five years of age, many of which are in low-income countries. The World Health Organization recommends intravenous antibiotics for five days as first-line treatment for children (...) with severe pneumonia. Although controversy exists regarding the specific clinical features used to diagnose pneumonia, the criteria for diagnosis of severe pneumonia are better defined and are widely used to triage children for referral and second-line therapy.In 2011 it was estimated that approximately 120 million new cases of pneumonia occur globally each year in children under five years of age, of which 14 million become severe episodes. Hospitalisation for severe pneumonia in children places

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2017 Cochrane

113. Bacteremia Prediction Model for Community-acquired Pneumonia: External Validation in a Multicenter Retrospective Cohort

Bacteremia Prediction Model for Community-acquired Pneumonia: External Validation in a Multicenter Retrospective Cohort Many studies have described constructing a prediction model for bacteremia in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), but these studies were not validated in external heterogeneous groups. The objective of this study was to test the generalizability of a previous bacteremia prediction model for CAP by external validation.This multicenter retrospective cohort analysis was performed

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2017 EvidenceUpdates

114. Are new antibiotics better than beta-lactams for non-critical inpatients with community-acquired pneumonia?

Are new antibiotics better than beta-lactams for non-critical inpatients with community-acquired pneumonia? Treatment for community-acquired pneumonia in immunocompetent adults is mainly empirical. Beta-lactam antibiotics have been traditionally considered first-line therapy. New antibiotics could be more effective but the evidence is not clear until now, and its use could entail greater costs, an increase in bacterial resistance and other adverse effects. Searching in Epistemonikos database (...) , which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified six systematic reviews including 36 randomized trials addressing this question. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded new antibiotics are not better than beta-lactam antibiotics for the treatment of non-critical inpatients with community-acquired pneumonia in relation to clinical failure or adverse effects.

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2017 Medwave

115. Spotlight: Pneumocystis Pneumonia in a Patient Without AIDS, A Clinical Vignette

Spotlight: Pneumocystis Pneumonia in a Patient Without AIDS, A Clinical Vignette Spotlight: Pneumocystis Pneumonia in a Patient Without AIDS, A Clinical Vignette – Clinical Correlations Search Spotlight: Pneumocystis Pneumonia in a Patient Without AIDS, A Clinical Vignette September 20, 2017 6 min read By Martin Fried, MD Peer reviewed Learning Objectives Why does impaired cellular immunity increase the risk for Pneumocystis jiroveci Pneumonia (PJP)? How do acquired humoral immune deficiencies (...) of 92% on ambient air. The physical exam was notable for fine crackles and bronchial breath sounds over the right mid-lower lung field. Initial labs revealed white blood cell count of 21.9 K/uL with 80% neutrophils but was otherwise unremarkable. A rapid HIV test was negative. Chest XR demonstrated right middle and lower lobe consolidations and left basilar hazy opacities consistent with multifocal pneumonia. He was started on antibiotics for community acquired pneumonia and admitted to the hospital

2017 Clinical Correlations

116. Nebulized Versus IV Amikacin as Adjunctive Antibiotic for Hospital and Ventilator-Acquired Pneumonia Postcardiac Surgeries: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Nebulized Versus IV Amikacin as Adjunctive Antibiotic for Hospital and Ventilator-Acquired Pneumonia Postcardiac Surgeries: A Randomized Controlled Trial Nebulized antibiotics offer high efficacy due to significant local concentrations and safety with minimal blood levels. This study evaluates the efficacy and nephrotoxicity of nebulized versus IV amikacin in postcardiothoracic surgical patients with nosocomial pneumonia caused by multidrug-resistant Gram- negative bacilli.Prospective (...) , randomized, controlled study on surgical patients divided into two groups.Postcardiac surgery ICU.The first gtroup was administered IV amikacin 20 mg/kg once daily. The second group was prescribed amikacin nebulizer 400 mg twice daily. Both groups were co-administered IV piperacillin/tazobactam empirically.Recruited patients were diagnosed by either hospital-acquired pneumonia or ventilator-associated pneumonia where 56 (42.1%) patients were diagnosed with hospital-acquired pneumonia, 51 (38.34

2017 EvidenceUpdates

117. It is possible to replace chest X-rays with pulmonary ultrasound in the diagnose of pneumonia in children?

It is possible to replace chest X-rays with pulmonary ultrasound in the diagnose of pneumonia in children? ¿Puede la ecografía pulmonar sustituir a la radiografía, para diagnosticar la neumonía en niños? - Evidencias en pediatría Buscando, por favor espere. Mostrar menú Gestión de biblioteca Aún no ha añadido ningún artículo a su biblioteca. | Buscar Toma de decisiones clínicas basadas en pruebas científicas Toma de decisiones clínicas basadas en pruebas científicas Mostrar menú Gestión de (...) Críticamente Boursiani C, Tsolia M, Koumanidou C, Malagari A, Vakaki M, Karapostolakis G, et al . Lung ultrasound as first-line examination for the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia in children. Revisores: Albi Rodríguez M.S 1 , Martínez Rubio M.V 2 . 1 Sección de Neumología y Alergia Infantil. Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre. Madrid. España. 2 CS Los Fresnos. Torrejón de Ardoz. Madrid. España. Correspondencia: María Salomé Albi Rodríguez. Correo electrónico: Fecha de recepción: 07/06/2017

2017 Evidencias en Pediatría

118. Can we predict which children with pneumonia will have a severe prognosis?

Can we predict which children with pneumonia will have a severe prognosis? ¿Podemos predecir qué niños con neumonía van a tener un pronóstico grave? - Evidencias en pediatría Buscando, por favor espere. Mostrar menú Gestión de biblioteca Aún no ha añadido ningún artículo a su biblioteca. | Buscar Toma de decisiones clínicas basadas en pruebas científicas Toma de decisiones clínicas basadas en pruebas científicas Mostrar menú Gestión de biblioteca Aún no ha añadido ningún artículo a su (...) , Harrell FE Jr, Reed C, et al . Predicting Severe Pneumonia Outcomes in Children. Revisores: Orejón de Luna G 1 , Cuestas Montañés E 2 . 1 CS General Ricardos. Madrid. España. 2 Servicio de Pediatría y Neonatología. Hospital Privado. Centro Formador. Facultad de Ciencias Médicas. Universidad Nacional de Córdoba. Córdoba. Argentina. Correspondencia: Gloria Orejón de Luna. Correo electrónico: Fecha de recepción: 23/03/2017 Fecha de aceptación: 30/03/2017 Fecha de publicación: 05/04/2017 Resumen

2017 Evidencias en Pediatría

119. Does This Child Have Pneumonia?: The Rational Clinical Examination Systematic Review. (PubMed)

Does This Child Have Pneumonia?: The Rational Clinical Examination Systematic Review. Pneumonia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children. It is important to identify the clinical symptoms and physical examination findings associated with pneumonia to improve timely diagnosis, prevent significant morbidity, and limit antibiotic overuse.To systematically review the accuracy of symptoms and physical examination findings in identifying children with radiographic pneumonia.MEDLINE (...) and Embase (1956 to May 2017) were searched, along with reference lists from retrieved articles, to identify diagnostic studies of pediatric pneumonia across a broad age range that had to include children younger than age 5 years (although some studies enrolled children up to age 19 years); 3644 unique articles were identified, of which 23 met inclusion criteria.Two authors independently abstracted raw data and assessed methodological quality. A third author resolved disputes.Likelihood ratios (LRs

2017 JAMA

120. Advances in the diagnosis of pneumonia in children. (PubMed)

Advances in the diagnosis of pneumonia in children. Pneumonia remains a major cause of childhood mortality and morbidity globally. Accurate diagnosis and attribution of the causes of pneumonia are important for measuring the burden of disease, implementing appropriate preventive or treatment strategies, and developing more effective interventions. This review summarizes recent diagnostic advances in radiological techniques, specimen collection, and laboratory methods. Although chest ultrasound (...) and chest magnetic resonance imaging are promising modalities for radiological diagnosis, their role in clinical management and their impact on outcomes need further study. Rapid, highly sensitive, multiplex laboratory tests performed on upper respiratory tract samples or induced sputum can detect nucleic acid from potential pathogens in most children with pneumonia. However, it may be difficult to attribute causality because it is often impossible to distinguish between organisms colonizing

2017 BMJ