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Latest & greatest articles for pneumonia
The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence. If you wanted the latest trusted evidence on pneumonia or other clinical topics then use Trip today.
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A cleaner burning biomass-fuelled cookstove intervention to prevent pneumonia in children under 5 years old in rural Malawi (the Cooking and Pneumonia Study): a cluster randomised controlled trial. WHO estimates exposure to air pollution from cooking with solid fuels is associated with over 4 million premature deaths worldwide every year including half a million children under the age of 5 years from pneumonia. We hypothesised that replacing open fires with cleaner burning biomass-fuelled (...) cookstoves would reduce pneumonia incidence in young children.We did a community-level open cluster randomised controlled trial to compare the effects of a cleaner burning biomass-fuelled cookstove intervention to continuation of open fire cooking on pneumonia in children living in two rural districts, Chikhwawa and Karonga, of Malawi. Clusters were randomly allocated to intervention and control groups using a computer-generated randomisation schedule with stratification by site, distance from health
Zinc supplementation for the prevention of pneumonia in children aged 2 months to 59 months. Pneumonia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children younger than five years of age. Most deaths occur during infancy and in low-income countries. Daily zinc supplements have been reported to prevent acute lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and reduce child mortality. This is an update of a review first published in 2010.To evaluate the effectiveness of zinc supplementation (...) in the prevention of pneumonia in children aged two to 59 months.We searched CENTRAL (Issue 21 October 2016), MEDLINE (1966 to October 2016), Embase (1974 to October 2016), LILACS (1982 to October 2016), CINAHL (1981 to October 2016), Web of Science (1985 to October 2016) and IMSEAR (1980 to October 2016).Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating zinc supplementation for the prevention of pneumonia in children aged from 2 months to 59 months.Two review authors independently assessed trial quality
Community acquired pneumonia incidence before and after proton pump inhibitor prescription: population based study. Objective To examine the risk of community acquired pneumonia before and after prescription of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) and assess whether unmeasured confounding explains this association.Design Cohort study and self controlled case series.Setting Clinical Practice Research Datalink (1990 to 2013) in UK.Participants Adult patients with a new prescription for a PPI individually (...) matched with controls.Main outcome measures Association of community acquired pneumonia with PPI prescription estimated by three methods: a multivariable Cox model comparing risk in PPI exposed patients with controls, corrected for potential confounders; a self controlled case series; and a prior event rate ratio (PERR) analysis over the 12 month periods before and after the first PPI prescription.Results 160 000 new PPI users were examined. The adjusted Cox regression showed a risk of community
Antibiotics for treating community-acquired pneumonia in people with sickle cell disease. As a consequence of their condition, people with sickle cell disease are at high risk of developing an acute infection of the pulmonary parenchyma called community-acquired pneumonia. Many different bacteria can cause this infection and antibiotic treatment is generally needed to resolve it. There is no standardized approach to antibiotic therapy and treatment is likely to vary from country to country (...) . Thus, there is a need to identify the efficacy and safety of different antibiotic treatment approaches for people with sickle cell disease suffering from community-acquired pneumonia. This is an update of a previously published Cochrane Review.To determine the efficacy and safety of the antibiotic treatment approaches (monotherapy or combined) for people with sickle cell disease suffering from community-acquired pneumonia.We searched The Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register (01 September
A semi-synthetic oligosaccharide conjugate vaccine candidate confers protection against Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3 infection The identification of immunogenic glycotopes that render glycoconjugate vaccines protective is key to improving vaccine efficacy. Synthetic oligosaccharides are an attractive alternative to the heterogeneous preparations of purified polysaccharides that most marketed glycoconjugate vaccines are based on. To investigate the potency of semi-synthetic (...) glycoconjugates, we chose the least-efficient serotype in the current pneumococcal conjugate vaccine Prevnar 13, Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3 (ST3). Glycan arrays containing synthetic ST3 repeating unit oligosaccharides were used to screen a human reference serum for antibodies and to define the recognition site of two ST3-specific protective monoclonal antibodies. The glycan array screens identified a tetrasaccharide that was selected for in-depth immunological evaluation. The tetrasaccharide-CRM197
Pathogen- and antibiotic-specific effects of prednisone in community-acquired pneumonia In a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of hospitalised patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), we demonstrated shorter time to clinical stability (TTCS) with adjunct corticosteroid therapy compared with placebo.We did a pre-planned, exploratory analysis of any association between microbiological diagnosis, antibiotic treatment and procalcitonin level and effect of prednisone (...) subgroups. We found evidence for a different prednisone response in patients with pneumococcal pneumonia in whom intravenous antibiotic duration was not shorter (interaction p=0.01) with prednisone, as was observed in the remaining study population. In patients without macrolide treatment, rehospitalisations were not lower with prednisone (interaction p=0.04). After adjustment for multiple testing, these subgroup effects were no longer significant.Prednisone was associated with shorter TTCS independent
Validation of risk scoring models for predicting stroke-associated pneumonia in patients with ischaemic stroke Various risk scoring models have been developed to predict stroke-associated pneumonia (SAP). We aim to determine whether these risk models could effectively predict SAP in Chinese patients with ischaemic stroke (IS).Consecutive patients with IS in West China hospital between January 2011 and September 2013 were included to assess the predictive performance of risk scoring models (...) , including Chumbler's score, A2DS2 and AISAPS. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was used to evaluate the performance of each risk model in predicting pneumonia.A total of 1569 consecutive patients with IS within 30 days of onset in West China hospital were included. The incidence of pneumonia is 15.3%. The AUROC of Chumbler's score, A2DS2 and AISAPS was 0.659, 0.728 and 0.758, respectively, and AISAPS had the highest AUROC.A2DS2 and AISAPS had acceptable discriminatory
Ventilator associated events should trump ventilator associated pneumonia 28979524 2019 01 16 1751-1437 17 4 2016 Nov Journal of the Intensive Care Society J Intensive Care Soc Ventilator associated events should trump ventilator associated pneumonia. 358 10.1177/1751143716651290 Thomas Matt M Intensive Care Medicine, North Bristol NHS Trust, Bristol, UK. eng Journal Article 2016 10 25 England J Intensive Care Soc 101538668 1751-1437 2017 10 6 6 0 2017 10 6 6 0 2017 10 6 6 1 ppublish 28979524
Oral hygiene care for critically ill patients to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is defined as pneumonia developing in people who have received mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours. VAP is a potentially serious complication in these patients who are already critically ill. Oral hygiene care (OHC), using either a mouthrinse, gel, toothbrush, or combination, together with aspiration of secretions, may reduce the risk of VAP (...) in these patients.To assess the effects of oral hygiene care on incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation in hospital intensive care units (ICUs).We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 17 December 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2015, Issue 11), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 17 December 2015), Embase Ovid (1980 to 17 December 2015), LILACS BIREME
Pneumococcal urinary antigen test use in diagnosis and treatment of pneumonia in seven Utah hospitals The pneumocococcal urine antigen test increases specific microbiological diagnosis over conventional culture methods in pneumonia patients. Data are limited regarding its yield and effect on antibiotic prescribing among patients with community-onset pneumonia in clinical practice. We performed a secondary analysis of 2837 emergency department patients admitted to seven Utah hospitals over 2 (...) years with international diagnostic codes version 9 codes and radiographic evidence of pneumonia. Mean age was 64.2 years, 47.2% were male and all-cause 30-day mortality was 9.6%. Urinary antigen testing was performed in 1110 (39%) patients yielding 134 (12%) positives. Intensive care unit patients were more likely to undergo testing, and have a positive result (15% versus 8.8% for ward patients; p<0.01). Patients with risk factors for healthcare-associated pneumonia had fewer urinary antigen tests
Oral Care and Mortality in Older Adults with Pneumonia in Hospitals or Nursing Homes: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis The objectives of the study were to compare the effect of intensified oral care interventions given by dental or nursing personnel on mortality from healthcare-associated pneumonia (HAP) in elderly adults in hospitals or nursing homes with the effect of usual oral care. Systematic literature searches were conducted in PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and the Health Technology
Subglottic secretion drainage for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia: A systematic review and meta-analysis PEDSCCM.org Criteria abstracted from series in Review Posted: founded 1995 Questions or comments?
Duration of Antibiotic Treatment in Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial The optimal duration of antibiotic treatment for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has not been well established.To validate Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society guidelines for duration of antibiotic treatment in hospitalized patients with CAP.This study was a multicenter, noninferiority randomized clinical trial performed at 4 teaching hospitals in Spain from
Predicting 2-Year Risk of Developing Pneumonia in Older Adults without Dementia To develop three prognostic indices of varying degree of required detail for 2-year pneumonia risk in older adults.Retrospective cohort study.Group Health (GH), an integrated healthcare delivery system.Community-dwelling dementia-free individuals aged 65 and older who had been GH members for at least 2 years before start of follow-up and were enrolled in the Adult Changes in Thought study (N = 3,375; development (...) cohort, n = 2,250; validation cohort, n = 1,125.Potential pneumonia risk factors were identified from questionnaire data and interviewer assessments of functional status, medical history, smoking and alcohol use, cognitive function, personal care, and problem solving. Risk factors were also identified based on physical measures such as grip strength and gait speed and administrative database information on comorbid illnesses, laboratory tests, and prescriptions dispensed. Incident community-acquired
The effect of reintubation on ventilator-associated pneumonia and mortality among mechanically ventilated patients with intubation: A systematic review and meta-analysis. This meta-analysis summarized the risks that reintubation impose on ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and mortality.Extubation failure increases the probability of poor clinical outcomes pertaining to mechanical ventilation.Literature published during a 15-year period was retrieved from PubMed, Web of Knowledge databases
Empiric antimicrobial therapy for ventilator-associated pneumonia after brain injury Issues regarding recommendations on empiric antimicrobial therapy for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) have emerged in specific populations.To develop and validate a score to guide empiric therapy in brain-injured patients with VAP, we prospectively followed a cohort of 379 brain-injured patients in five intensive care units. The score was externally validated in an independent cohort of 252 brain-injured
Inpatient rehabilitation improves functional capacity, peripheral muscle strength and quality of life in patients with community-acquired pneumonia: a randomised trial Among people who are hospitalised for community-acquired pneumonia, does an inpatient exercise-based rehabilitation program improve functional outcomes, symptoms, quality of life and length of hospital stay more than a respiratory physiotherapy regimen?Randomised trial with concealed allocation, intention-to-treat analysis