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The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence. If you wanted the latest trusted evidence on public health or other clinical topics then use Trip today.
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Patient and public involvement in health literacy interventions: a mapping review If people can read, understand and act on health information to better their health and reduce illness, they are thought to have "adequate" health literacy. Poor health literacy can mean people are less able to access health care and manage their health. Health literacy tends to worsen as adults get older, and is especially poor in adults age 65 and over. Ideally, health literacy interventions target people before (...) age 65, to establish good skills and habits before people have many health problems associated with ageing. It is also good if researchers consult ordinary people, including patients and the public (PPI) when planning a programme to try to improve health literacy. This may help ensure individual needs are catered for.We therefore looked for studies that described any role of patient or public representatives in the research planning stages. We explored how the representatives contributed to each
Transparency about the outcomes of mental health services (IAPT approach): an analysis of public data. Internationally, the clinical outcomes of routine mental health services are rarely recorded or reported; however, an exception is the English Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) service, which delivers psychological therapies recommended by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence for depression and anxiety disorders to more than 537 000 patients in the UK each (...) year. A session-by-session outcome monitoring system ensures that IAPT obtains symptom scores before and after treatment for 98% of patients. Service outcomes can then be reported, along with contextual information, on public websites.We used publicly available data to identify predictors of variability in clinical performance. Using β regression models, we analysed the outcome data released by National Health Service Digital and PublicHealth England for the 2014-15 financial year (April 1, 2014
Histology and Cytopathology Capacity in the PublicHealth Sector in Kenya Histology and cytopathology services are necessary for cancer diagnosis and treatment. However, the current capacity of Kenya's pathology laboratories is unknown. A national survey was conducted among public sector pathology laboratories to assess their capacity to perform histology, fine-needle aspiration, and bone marrow aspiration.Between April and June 2017, we identified all public hospitals that provide pathology (...) accreditation, but only for clinical pathology services.This study describes the current status of histology and cytopathology capacity in Kenya's public sector hospitals. It provides useful baseline information needed by the Ministry of Health to develop necessary capacity building and referral-strengthening interventions. A high proportion of hospitals are working to achieve accreditation points toward their commitment to providing quality services to the Kenyan public.
The future of publichealth research The future of publichealth research Summary report of a workshop held 20-21 July 2017 The Academy of Medical Sciences The Academy of Medical Sciences The Academy of Medical Sciences is the independent body in the UK representing the diversity of medical science. Our mission is to promote medical science and its translation into benefits for society. The Academy’s elected Fellows are the United Kingdom’s leading medical scientists from hospitals, academia (...) , industry and the public service. We work with them to promote excellence, influence policy to improve health and wealth, nurture the next generation of medical researchers, link academia, industry and the NHS, seize international opportunities and encourage dialogue about the medical sciences. Opinions expressed in this report do not necessarily represent the views of all participants at the event, the Academy of Medical Sciences or its Fellows, the NIHR, or the Faculty of PublicHealth. All web
Identifying and Addressing the PublicHealth Risks of Splash Parks IDENTIFYING AND ADDRESSING THE PUBLICHEALTH RISKS OF SPLASH PARKS KEY MESSAGES • Recirculating splash parks have caused several large gastrointestinal outbreaks in recent years. • Outbreaks are typically linked to failure of the chlorination/ filtration systems and/or lack of secondary disinfection, such as ultraviolet light, but may also derive from user behaviour as well as design and operating conditions. • This document (...) . 1,2 Splash parks may take one of two basic designs, which influences the associated publichealth risks. Non-recirculating or flow-through parks discharge the water directly to waste and present a relatively low risk to their users as the design is based on using fresh potable water (Figure 1a). In contrast, recirculating parks collect water in an underground tank, apply some form of water treatment, and re-use the water again (Figure 1b). This presents an increased risk of contamination
Association of PublicHealth Initiatives With Outcomes for Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest at Home and in Public Locations Little is known about the influence of comprehensive publichealth initiatives according to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) location, particularly at home, where resuscitation efforts and outcomes have historically been poor.To describe temporal trends in bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and first-responder defibrillation for OHCAs stratified by home vs (...) public location and their association with survival and neurological outcomes.This observational study reviewed 8269 patients with OHCAs (5602 [67.7%] at home and 2667 [32.3%] in public) for whom resuscitation was attempted using data from the Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival (CARES) from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2014. The setting was 16 counties in North Carolina.Patients were stratified by home vs public OHCA. Publichealth initiatives to improve bystander and first
Predictors and consequences of rural clientsâ€™ satisfaction level in the district public-private mixed health system of Bangladesh We investigated predictors of the rural clients' satisfaction level (CSL), and interlinks between perceived specific service quality (PSSQ), perceived utility value (PUV), CSL, and clients' reactions (CR) towards current and future utilization of providers and facilities in the public-private mixed health system of Bangladesh.A quantitative study using interviewer (...) -administered questionnaire was conducted among 400 rural patients. CSL was measured both directly and indirectly. Clients' opinions of PSSQ relating to healthcare structure and process features were measured for indirectly assessing their satisfaction. PUV and CR were also measured indirectly. 5-point Likert scales were used to measure PSSQ, PUV, CSL and CR. Multiple regression and mediation were the models.Clients' satisfaction was low in both health sectors with significantly lower in the public than
Civil rights as determinants of publichealth and racial and ethnic health equity: Health care, education, employment, and housing in the United States This essay examines how civil rights and their implementation have affected and continue to affect the health of racial and ethnic minority populations in the United States. Civil rights are characterized as social determinants of health. A brief review of US history indicates that, particularly for Blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians (...) be considered a powerful arena for publichealth theorizing, research, policy, and action.
My Signals - Publichealth My Signals - Publichealth collection Search this site or Dissemination Centre My Signals - Publichealth collection In My Signals , health and social care staff and service users tell us what research is important to them and why they feel others need to know about it. Join the conversation on Twitter and tell us which Signals have interested, excited or surprised you, using #MySignals. You can find out more or read the latest on the . In this collection (...) , ( ), Director of PublicHealth at Doncaster Council, explains the role of research evidence in publichealth, and highlights NIHR Signals of particular interest to people working to improve publichealth. Evidence use in publichealth Since April 2013, local authorities in England have regained their role in leading the local publichealth system. Whilst the transfer of publichealth from the NHS is a key part of this, it is worth remembering that local government was already working to improve social
Transport and publichealth in China: the road to a healthy future. Transportation-related risk factors are a major source of morbidity and mortality in China, where the expansion of road networks and surges in personal vehicle ownership are having profound effects on publichealth. Road traffic injuries and fatalities have increased alongside increased use of motorised transport in China, and accident injury risk is aggravated by inadequate emergency response systems and trauma care. National (...) air quality standards and emission control technologies are having a positive effect on air quality, but persistent air pollution is increasingly attributable to a growing and outdated vehicle fleet and to famously congested roads. Urban design favours motorised transport, and physical activity and its associated health benefits are hindered by poor urban infrastructure. Transport emissions of greenhouse gases contribute substantially to regional and global climate change, which compound public
HIV and Chronic Pain, Part 2: Addressing the Opioid PublicHealth Crisis 29662723 2018 11 14 2168-3808 35 4 2017 Oct Rehabilitation oncology (American Physical Therapy Association. Oncology Section) Rehabil Oncol HIV and Chronic Pain, Part 2: Addressing the Opioid PublicHealth Crisis. 197-198 Pullen Sara D SD Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322. eng P30 AI050409 AI NIAID NIH HHS United States Journal Article United States Rehabil Oncol
A PublicHealth Preparedness Logic Model: Assessing Preparedness for Cross-border Threats in the European Region Improving preparedness in the European region requires a clear understanding of what European Union (EU) member states should be able to do, whether acting internally or in cooperation with each other or the EU and other multilateral organizations. We have developed a preparedness logic model that specifies the aims and objectives of publichealth preparedness, as well (...) as the response capabilities and preparedness capacities needed to achieve them. The capabilities, which describe the ability to effectively use capacities to identify, characterize, and respond to emergencies, are organized into 5 categories. The first 3 categories-(1) assessment; (2) policy development, adaptation, and implementation; and (3) prevention and treatment services in the health sector-represent what the publichealth system must accomplish to respond effectively. The fourth and fifth categories
Beyond pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria disease: do extra-pulmonary forms represent an emerging clinical and publichealth threat? Pulmonary and extra-pulmonary diseases caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria: new clinical and publichealth threats http://ow.ly/87Dm30eMFd9.
Investment for health and well-being: a review of the social return on investment from publichealth policies to support implementing the Sustainable Development Goals by building on Health 2020 HEALTH EVIDENCE NETWORK SYNTHESIS REPORT 51 Investment for health and well-being: a review of the social return on investment from publichealth policies to support implementing the Sustainable Development Goals by building on Health 2020 Mariana Dyakova | Christoph Hamelmann | Mark A. Bellis | Elodie (...) Besnier Charlotte N.B. Grey | Kathryn Ashton | Anna Schwappach | Christine ClarThe Health Evidence Network HEN – the Health Evidence Network – is an information service for publichealth decision-makers in the WHO European Region, in action since 2003 and initiated and coordinated by the WHO Regional Office for Europe under the umbrella of the European Health Information Initiative (a multipartner network coordinating all health information activities in the WHO European Region). HEN supports public
The tyranny of the averages and the indiscriminate use of risk factors in publichealth: The case of coronary heart disease Modern medicine is overwhelmed by a plethora of both established risk factors and novel biomarkers for diseases. The majority of this information is expressed by probabilistic measures of association such as the odds ratio (OR) obtained by calculating differences in average "risk" between exposed and unexposed groups. However, recent research demonstrates that even ORs (...) , in publichealth, we use the OR to calculate the population attributable fraction (PAF), although this measure fails to consider the DA of the risk factor it represents. Therefore, focusing on CHD and applying measures of DA, we re-examine the role of individual demographic characteristics, risk factors, novel biomarkers and PAFs in publichealth and epidemiology. In so doing, we also raise a more general criticism of the traditional risk factors' epidemiology. We investigated a cohort of 6103 men
Tea, talk and technology: patient and public involvement to improve connected health â€˜wearablesâ€™ research in dementia There are a growing number of mobile phones, watches and electronic devices which can be worn on the body to track aspects of health and well-being, such as daily steps, sleep and exercise. Dementia researchers think that these devices could potentially be used as part of future research projects, for example to help spot changes in daily activity that may signal the early (...) , researchers are recognising the potential for connected health devices, including smartphones and smartwatches, to generate high resolution data about patterns of daily activity and health outcomes. One aim of the Dementias Platform UK (DPUK) project is to provide researchers with a secure means to collect, collate and link data generated by such devices, thereby accelerating this type of research in the field of dementia. We aimed to involve members of the public in discussions about the acceptability
Evolutionary publichealth: introducing the concept. The emerging discipline of evolutionary medicine is breaking new ground in understanding why people become ill. However, the value of evolutionary analyses of human physiology and behaviour is only beginning to be recognised in the field of publichealth. Core principles come from life history theory, which analyses the allocation of finite amounts of energy between four competing functions-maintenance, growth, reproduction, and defence (...) . A central tenet of evolutionary theory is that organisms are selected to allocate energy and time to maximise reproductive success, rather than health or longevity. Ecological interactions that influence mortality risk, nutrient availability, and pathogen burden shape energy allocation strategies throughout the life course, thereby affecting diverse health outcomes. Publichealth interventions could improve their own effectiveness by incorporating an evolutionary perspective. In particular, evolutionary