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Latest & greatest articles for thyroid
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Thymic Involution After Radioiodine Therapy for Graves Disease: Relationships With Serum Thyroid Hormones and TRAb The mechanisms of thymic hyperplasia in Graves disease and its involution after radioiodine (I-131) therapy remain unknown.To examine whether computed tomography (CT) findings of the thymus in patients with Graves disease change before and 6 months after I-131 therapy and to elucidate factors that affect these changes.A retrospective, single-center study was conducted. Thymic (...) and thyroid volumes and thymic density were measured on CT. The associations of thymic volume or density with the following factors before I-131 therapy were examined: age; serum triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody (TRAb) levels; and thyroid volume. The changes in thymic volume and density and TRAb levels before and after I-131 therapy, and the correlations of thymic volume with T3 and T4 decline rates and TRAb changing rate and age were examined.We
Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis Set Point Alterations Are Associated With Body Composition in Androgen-Deprived Men Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) given to men with prostate cancer is associated with metabolically adverse changes in body composition leading to insulin resistance, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We investigated prospectively whether androgen deprivation or its consequences may be associated with alterations in thyroid function in men.We performed (...) a prespecified secondary analysis of a prospective case control study.We prospectively followed men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer newly commencing ADT (n = 34) and age-matched controls (n = 29) for 12 months. We assessed secondary outcomes on thyrotropin (TSH) and thyroid hormones using a linear mixed model to determine mean adjusted differences (MADs) between groups.After a 12-month follow-up period, TSH increased in cases compared with control subjects [MAD, 0.69 mIU/L; 95% confidence interval (CI
Screening for Thyroid Cancer: Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. The incidence of detected thyroid cancer cases has been increasing in the United States since 1975. The majority of thyroid cancers are differentiated cancers with excellent prognosis and long-term survival.To systematically review the benefits and harms associated with thyroid cancer screening and treatment of early thyroid cancer in asymptomatic adults to inform the US (...) morbidity and mortality, test accuracy to detect thyroid nodules or thyroid cancer, and harms resulting from screening (including overdiagnosis) or treatment of thyroid cancer.Of 10 424 abstracts, 707 full-text articles were reviewed, and 67 studies were included for this review. No fair- to good-quality studies directly examined the benefit of thyroid cancer screening. In 2 studies (n = 354), neck palpation was not sensitive to detect thyroid nodules. In 2 methodologically limited studies (n = 243
Screening for Thyroid Cancer: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. The incidence of thyroid cancer detection has increased by 4.5% per year over the last 10 years, faster than for any other cancer, but without a corresponding change in the mortality rate. In 2013, the incidence rate of thyroid cancer in the United States was 15.3 cases per 100 000 persons. Most cases of thyroid cancer have a good prognosis; the 5-year survival rate for thyroid cancer overall is 98.1 (...) %.To update the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for thyroid cancer.The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on the benefits and harms of screening for thyroid cancer in asymptomatic adults, the diagnostic accuracy of screening (including neck palpation and ultrasound), and the benefits and harms of treatment of screen-detected thyroid cancer.The USPSTF found inadequate direct evidence on the benefits of screening but determined that the magnitude of the overall benefits
Teprotumumab for Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy. Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy, a condition commonly associated with Graves' disease, remains inadequately treated. Current medical therapies, which primarily consist of glucocorticoids, have limited efficacy and present safety concerns. Inhibition of the insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) is a new therapeutic strategy to attenuate the underlying autoimmune pathogenesis of ophthalmopathy.We conducted a multicenter, double-masked (...) (scores range from 0 to 7, with a score of ≥3 indicating active thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy) and a reduction of 2 mm or more in proptosis at week 24. Secondary end points, measured as continuous variables, included proptosis, the Clinical Activity Score, and results on the Graves' ophthalmopathy-specific quality-of-life questionnaire. Adverse events were assessed.In the intention-to-treat population, 29 of 42 patients who received teprotumumab (69%), as compared with 9 of 45 patients who
Direct Estimation of Reference Intervals for Thyroid Parameters in the Republic of Srpska The aim of this study was to determine the reference values for thyrotropin (TSH), thyroid hormones (total and free thyroxine, T4 and fT4; total and free triiodothyronine, T3 and fT3), thyroglobulin (Tg) and thyroid antibodies (thyroid peroxidase, TPOAb and thyroglobulin antibody, TgAb) in the population of the Republic of Srpska.A total of 250 euthyroid subjects were enrolled in this study. A direct (...) method for choosing reference subjects was used to establish reference intervals. The hormones and thyroid antibodies were measured by an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay method (ECLIA, Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany). We calculated the reference intervals by MedCalc, version 188.8.131.52 (MedCalc software, Belgium) as recommended by the IFCC (CLSI C28-A3).Using guidelines recommended by the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) and based on standard statistical approaches
Caprelsa for Medullary Thyroid Cancer – Details Caprelsa for Medullary Thyroid Cancer – Details | CADTH.ca Find the information you need Caprelsa for Medullary Thyroid Cancer – Details Caprelsa for Medullary Thyroid Cancer – Details Project Number pCODR 10090 Brand Name Caprelsa Generic Name Vandetanib Strength 100 mg and 300 mg tablets Tumour Type Endocrine Indication Medullary Thyroid Cancer Funding Request For the treatment of symptomatic and/or progressive medullary thyroid cancer in adult
Renal Transplantâ€“Associated Thyroid Tuberculosis Tuberculosis is common among solid-organ transplant recipients, including renal transplants. Tuberculosis of the thyroid gland is a rare diagnosis. We report on a renal transplant recipient with subacute fever associated with a neck mass diagnosed as thyroid tuberculosis. No prior publication has reported a case of posttransplant thyroid tuberculosis. This is an important diagnostic consideration, in addition to malignant transformation
Effect of Vitamin D on Thyroid Autoimmunity: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial Among Ethnic Minorities Autoimmune thyroid disorders have been linked to vitamin D deficiency, but an effect of vitamin D supplementation is not established.Our objective was to test whether vitamin D compared with placebo could reduce thyroid autoantibodies.Predefined additional analyses from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.The study was conducted in different community centers (...) in Oslo, Norway.A total of 251 presumed healthy men and women, aged 18 to 50 years, with backgrounds from South Asia, the Middle East, and Africa were included.Daily supplementation with 25 µg (1000 IU) vitamin D3, 10 µg (400 IU) vitamin D3, or placebo for 16 weeks.Difference in preintervention and postintervention antithyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) levels. Additional outcomes were differences in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free fraction of thyroxine (fT4).There were no differences
Rising Thyroid Cancer Incidence in Southern India: An Epidemic of Overdiagnosis? Thyroid cancer incidence is rising in high-income countries. This increase in disease burden is attributed to the phenomenon of overdiagnosis.We aimed to investigate trends in thyroid cancer rates in India, focusing on the state of Kerala in southern India, which has reported a high incidence of the disease.Population-based study using data from the National Cancer Registry Program.We used data from the Population (...) Based Cancer Registries for Thiruvananthapuram (capital of Kerala state), Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore, and Chennai. We used data for three reporting periods from 2005 to 2014 (represented as 2006, 2009, and 2012).We reported the age-adjusted incidence rate (AARi) and mortality rate (AARm) per 100,000 women and the proportion of thyroid cancers diagnosed in females per 100 cancer cases.During 2006, the AARi for thyroid cancer in women in Thiruvananthapuram was 6.9 per 100,000, rising to 10 in 2009
Thyroid Hormone Therapy for Older Adults with Subclinical Hypothyroidism. The use of levothyroxine to treat subclinical hypothyroidism is controversial. We aimed to determine whether levothyroxine provided clinical benefits in older persons with this condition.We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial involving 737 adults who were at least 65 years of age and who had persisting subclinical hypothyroidism (thyrotropin level, 4.60 to 19.99 mIU per liter (...) ; free thyroxine level within the reference range). A total of 368 patients were assigned to receive levothyroxine (at a starting dose of 50 μg daily, or 25 μg if the body weight was <50 kg or the patient had coronary heart disease), with dose adjustment according to the thyrotropin level; 369 patients were assigned to receive placebo with mock dose adjustment. The two primary outcomes were the change in the Hypothyroid Symptoms score and Tiredness score on a thyroid-related quality-of-life
Trends in Thyroid Cancer Incidence and Mortality in the United States, 1974-2013. Thyroid cancer incidence has increased substantially in the United States over the last 4 decades, driven largely by increases in papillary thyroid cancer. It is unclear whether the increasing incidence of papillary thyroid cancer has been related to thyroid cancer mortality trends.To compare trends in thyroid cancer incidence and mortality by tumor characteristics at diagnosis.Trends in thyroid cancer incidence (...) and incidence-based mortality rates were evaluated using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-9 (SEER-9) cancer registry program, and annual percent change in rates was calculated using log-linear regression.Tumor characteristics.Annual percent changes in age-adjusted thyroid cancer incidence and incidence-based mortality rates by histologic type and SEER stage for cases diagnosed during 1974-2013.Among 77 276 patients (mean [SD] age at diagnosis, 48  years; 58 213 [75%] women
Pitfalls of exome sequencing: a case study of the attribution of HABP2 rs7080536 in familial non-medullary thyroid cancer Next-generation sequencing using exome capture is a common approach used for analysis of familial cancer syndromes. Despite the development of robust computational algorithms, the accrued experience of analyzing exome data sets and published guidelines, the analytical process remains an ad hoc series of important decisions and interpretations that require significant (...) oversight. Processes and tools used for sequence data generation have matured and are standardized to a significant degree. For the remainder of the analytical pipeline, however, the results can be highly dependent on the choices made and careful review of results. We used primary exome sequence data, generously provided by the corresponding author, from a family with highly penetrant familial non-medullary thyroid cancer reported to be caused by HABP2 rs7080536 to review the importance of several key
Knockdown of lncRNA-PANDAR suppresses the proliferation, cell cycle and promotes apoptosis in thyroid cancer cells Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been found to show important regulatory roles in various human cancers. Lnc-RNA PANDAR is a novel identified lncRNA that was previously reported to show abnormal expression pattern in various cancers. However, little is known of its expression and biological function in thyroid cancer. Here, we used the quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR (...) ) to determine the expression of PANDAR in 64 thyroid cancer tissues. We found that expression of PANDAR was up-regulated in thyroid cancer tissues compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues. Functional assays in vitro demonstrated that knockdown of PANDAR could inhibit proliferation, cell cycle progression, induces the apoptosis, inhibit invasion of thyroid cancer cells. Thus, our study provides evidence that PANDAR may function as a potential target for treatment for patients with thyroid cancer.
Concurrent Intrathyroidal Thyroid Cancer and Thyroid Cancer in Struma Ovarii: A Case Report and Literature Review The presence of differentiated thyroid cancer in mature cystic teratomas in the ovaries is rare, and usually incidentally found on surgical pathology specimens. We present a case of simultaneous intrathyroidal thyroid cancer and thyroid cancer within a struma ovarii, presenting specific diagnostic challenges.A 55-year-old woman had an intrathyroidal, encapsulated 1.2-cm papillary (...) thyroid carcinoma, follicular variant, which was resected. Laboratory studies showed an elevated thyroglobulin level of 35 ng/mL while on suppressive levothyroxine therapy. During preparation for radioactive iodine ablation, thyroglobulin increased dramatically to 3490 ng/mL. A pretreatment whole-body scan showed residual tracer uptake in the thyroid bed and increased radiotracer uptake in the pelvis that raised concern for a pelvic metastasis, given the marked thyroglobulin elevation. After ablation
Restoring Radioiodine Uptake in BRAF V600Eâ€“Mutated Papillary Thyroid Cancer This image illustrates a multimodal therapeutic strategy for an iodine-refractory BRAF-mutated metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma with reversed radioiodine resistance using BRAF inhibitors.
Thyroid hormone treatment among pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism: US national assessment. To estimate the effectiveness and safety of thyroid hormone treatment among pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism. Retrospective cohort study. Large US administrative database between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2014. 5405 pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism, defined as untreated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration 2.5-10 mIU/L. Thyroid hormone therapy (...) . Pregnancy loss and other pre-specified maternal and fetal pregnancy related adverse outcomes. Among 5405 pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism, 843 with a mean pre-treatment TSH concentration of 4.8 (SD 1.7) mIU/L were treated with thyroid hormone and 4562 with a mean baseline TSH concentration of 3.3 (SD 0.9) mIU/L were not treated (P<0.01). Pregnancy loss was significantly less common among treated women (n=89; 10.6%) than among untreated women (n=614; 13.5%) (P<0.01). Compared
Identification of Thyroid-Associated Serum microRNA Profiles and Their Potential Use in Thyroid Cancer Follow-Up Trends toward more conservative management of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) diminish the primacy of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) assays as a posttreatment surveillance tool.To identify thyroid tumor-associated microRNAs (miRNAs) in the serum with potential for development as unique biomarkers of PTC recurrence.We measured expression of 754 miRNAs in serum samples collected from 11 (...) patients with PTC before and 30 days after thyroidectomy. Major candidates were then re-evaluated by absolute quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis in an independent cohort of patients with PTC (n = 44) or benign nodules and 20 healthy controls (HCs). The 2 miRNAs most significantly associated with thyroid tumors were then assessed in matched serum samples (before and 30 days and 1 to 2 years after surgery) from the 20 PTC patients with complete follow-up datasets and results correlated
Risk of Hematologic Malignancies After Radioiodine Treatment of Well-Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Purpose To investigate the risk and outcomes of second hematologic malignancies (SHMs) in a population-based cohort of patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC) treated or not with radioactive iodine (RAI). Methods Patients with WDTC were identified from SEER registries. Competing risk regression analysis was performed to calculate the risks of SHMs that occurred after WDTC treatment
Afirma thyroid FNA analysis (Veracyte) Afirma thyroid FNA analysis (Veracyte) Afirma thyroid FNA analysis (Veracyte) HAYES, Inc Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation HAYES, Inc. Afirma thyroid FNA analysis (Veracyte) Lansdale: HAYES, Inc. Genetic Testing Publication. 2017 Authors' conclusions In recent years, significant advances in understanding (...) the genetic mechanisms of thyroid cancer have changed the way thyroid nodules are treated clinically. Several molecular targets have been associated with malignancy, including microRNA (miRNA), a noncoding endogenous form of RNA that helps regulate gene expression. Previous investigations have detected the dysregulation of miRNAs in malignant thyroid nodules, identifying the potential role of miRNAs in differentiating benign thyroid nodules from malignant ones. The Afirma Thyroid FNA Analysis