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Latest & greatest articles for tuberculosis
The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence. If you wanted the latest trusted evidence on tuberculosis or other clinical topics then use Trip today.
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Rapid urine-based screening for tuberculosis in HIV-positive patients admitted to hospital in Africa (STAMP): a pragmatic, multicentre, parallel-group, double-blind, randomised controlled trial. Current diagnostics for HIV-associated tuberculosis are suboptimal, with missed diagnoses contributing to high hospital mortality and approximately 374 000 annual HIV-positive deaths globally. Urine-based assays have a good diagnostic yield; therefore, we aimed to assess whether urine-based screening (...) in HIV-positive inpatients for tuberculosis improved outcomes.We did a pragmatic, multicentre, double-blind, randomised controlled trial in two hospitals in Malawi and South Africa. We included HIV-positive medical inpatients aged 18 years or more who were not taking tuberculosis treatment. We randomly assigned patients (1:1), using a computer-generated list of random block size stratified by site, to either the standard-of-care or the intervention screening group, irrespective of symptoms
Post-migration follow-up programme for migrants at increased risk of developing tuberculosis: a cohort study Following pre-migration screening for tuberculosis (TB), migrants who are deemed to be at a high risk of developing TB must attend post-entry follow-up in Australia. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of post-migration TB follow-up in the state of New South Wales to diagnose TB in these high-risk migrants. In this retrospective cohort study, we assessed the risk of TB in migrants who
Prevention of M. tuberculosis Infection with H4:IC31 Vaccine or BCG Revaccination. Recent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection confers a predisposition to the development of tuberculosis disease, the leading killer among global infectious diseases. H4:IC31, a candidate subunit vaccine, has shown protection against tuberculosis disease in preclinical models, and observational studies have indicated that primary bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination may offer partial protection against (...) infection.In this phase 2 trial, we randomly assigned 990 adolescents in a high-risk setting who had undergone neonatal BCG vaccination to receive the H4:IC31 vaccine, BCG revaccination, or placebo. All the participants had negative results on testing for M. tuberculosis infection on the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-tube assay (QFT) and for the human immunodeficiency virus. The primary outcomes were safety and acquisition of M. tuberculosis infection, as defined by initial conversion on QFT that was performed
Isoniazid-Rifapentine for Latent Tuberculosis Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Latent tuberculosis infection diagnosis and treatment is a strategic priority for eliminating tuberculosis in the U.S. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended the short-course regimen of 3-month isoniazid-rifapentine administered by directly observed therapy. However, longer-duration regimens remain the most widely prescribed latent tuberculosis infection treatments. Limitation (...) on adoption of 3-month isoniazid-rifapentine in the U.S. might be because of patients' preference for self-administered therapy, providers' lack of familiarity with 3-month isoniazid-rifapentine, or lack of resources to support directly observed therapy. This review examines the most recent evidence regarding 3-month isoniazid-rifapentine's effectiveness, safety, and treatment completion when directly compared with other latent tuberculosis infection regimens primarily comprising 9-month isoniazid
Epidemiology of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence, determinants and treatment outcome The emergence of MDR-TB remained a major public health threat particularly in developing countries. With increased prevalence and complexity of treatment, the burden of MDR-TB challenged the country. It is of an important; the epidemiology of drug resistant TB is not well understood. There are few studies conducted to assess
Rapid diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis by combined molecular and immunological methods Diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) may be delayed until culture results become available.We ascertained the accuracy of a stepwise diagnostic algorithm for the rapid diagnosis of pulmonary TB by GeneXpert from sputum and/or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) followed by a Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific BAL ELISPOT assay in patients with a suspected diagnosis of pulmonary TB at a clinical referral centre (...) in Germany.Among 166 patients with a presumptive diagnosis of pulmonary TB, 81 cases were confirmed by M. tuberculosis culture from sputum and/or BAL. In 66 out of 81 (81.5%) cases, patients initially had M. tuberculosis detected by GeneXpert from sputum; in addition, six out of 81 (7.4%) cases were diagnosed by GeneXpert on BAL fluid (together 72 out of 81 (88.9%) patients). Out of the remaining nine patients with negative GeneXpert results from sputum and BAL, BAL ELISPOT identified eight patients
Towards the elimination of paediatric tuberculosis in high-income, immigrant-receiving countries: a 25-year conventional and molecular epidemiological case study The epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in high-income countries is increasingly dictated by immigration. The influence of this trend on paediatric TB and TB elimination are not well defined. We undertook a 25-year conventional and molecular epidemiologic study of paediatric TB in Alberta, one of four major immigrant-receiving provinces (...) in Canada. All isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were DNA fingerprinted using standard methodology. Between 1990 and 2014, 176 children aged 0-14 years were diagnosed with TB. Foreign-born children or Canadian-born children of foreign-born parents accounted for an increasingly large proportion of total cases during the study period (from 32.1% to 89.5%). Of the 78 culture-positive cases, 35 (44.9%) had a putative source case identified by conventional epidemiology, with 34 (97.1%) having
F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/ Computed Tomography Findings of Isolated Gastric Tuberculosis mimicking Gastric Cancer and Lymphoma Tuberculosis (TB) infection is still a challenging health issue, especially in developing countries. Diagnosing extrapulmonary infections, especially isolated organ involvement, is difficult in most cases even with the radiological, endoscopic, and histopathological examinations done for accurate diagnosis. Here we describe a case of isolated (...) Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Findings of Isolated Gastric Tuberculosis mimicking Gastric Cancer and Lymphoma. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2018;8(1):93-96.
Predicting pulmonary tuberculosis in immigrants: a retrospective cohort study Our objective was to investigate whether pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) can be predicted from features of a targeted medical history and basic laboratory investigations in immigrants. A retrospective cohort of 391 foreign-born adults referred to the Edmonton Tuberculosis Clinic (Edmonton, AB, Canada) was studied using multiple logistic regression analysis to predict PTB. Seven characteristics of disease were used
Risk of tuberculosis transmission among healthcare workers Data from a prospective molecular-epidemiological study (1997-2015) of patients with culture-confirmed tuberculosis in Hamburg, Germany, were evaluated to assess the occupational risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex transmission in a low-incidence setting. Isolates of M. tuberculosis complex were genotyped using IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Results of structured questionnaires, geographical mapping (...) period was found to be strongly associated with working in a healthcare facility. Although clusters also include many "imported" strains from abroad or regional highly prevalent M. tuberculosis strains with no evident epidemiological connection, routine molecular-epidemiological survey is indispensable to optimising and controlling the effectiveness of TB control strategies in German healthcare settings.
Rapid tests for diagnosing drug resistant tuberculosis are accurate and may be cost effective Rapid tests for diagnosing drug resistant tuberculosis are accurate and may be cost effective Discover Portal Discover Portal Rapid tests for diagnosing drug resistant tuberculosis are accurate and may be cost effective Published on 9 November 2015 doi: This NIHR funded systematic review and economic evaluation found that three rapid tests for diagnosing drug resistant tuberculosis were highly accurate (...) health risk of tuberculosis. Share your views on the research. Why was this study needed? A 2014 Public Health England report showed that tuberculosis (TB) rates in the UK continue to be among the highest of West European countries. There were 7,892 cases of TB recorded in the UK in 2013, around 12 per 100,000 people. TB that does not respond to two of the standard treatments, called multidrug resistant TB, is becoming more common in the UK. Between 2004 and 2011, the proportion of cases
Daily vs Intermittent Antituberculosis Therapy for Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Patients With HIV: A Randomized Clinical Trial The benefit of daily over thrice-weekly antituberculosis therapy among HIV-positive patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) who are receiving antiretroviral therapy remains unproven.To compare the efficacy and safety of daily, part-daily, and intermittent antituberculosis therapy regimens in the treatment of HIV-associated pulmonary TB.This open-label, randomized (...) clinical trial was conducted by the National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis, south India. Adults infected with HIV with newly diagnosed, culture-positive, pulmonary TB were enrolled between September 14, 2009, and January 18, 2016.Patients were randomized to daily, part-daily, and intermittent antituberculosis therapy regimens, stratified by baseline CD4 lymphocyte count and sputum smear grade. Antiretroviral therapy was initiated as per national guidelines. Clinical and sputum microbiological
The impact of digital health technologies on tuberculosis treatment: a systematic review Digital technologies are increasingly harnessed to support treatment of persons with tuberculosis (TB). Since in-person directly observed treatment (DOT) can be resource intensive and challenging to implement, these technologies may have the potential to improve adherence and clinical outcomes. We reviewed the effect of these technologies on TB treatment adherence and patient outcomes.We searched several
Peritoneal Tuberculosis After Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy with Extended Lymph Node Dissection Background: Peritoneal tuberculosis (TB) is a relatively uncommon presentation of extrapulmonary TB. Early diagnosis of peritoneal TB is difficult because of its nonspecific clinical manifestation such as abdominal pain, fever, or ascites. Especially early after surgery of abdomen or pelvis, these symptoms can be misdiagnosed as septic peritonitis. There are few reports of peritoneal TB (...) . Bacterial infection of a lymphocele was considered, and cefmetazole 2 g/day for 3 days was prescribed. Despite antibacterial therapy, fever persisted. Polymerase chain reaction testing of ascitic fluid was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The patient was effectively treated with anti-TB therapy. Conclusion: This is the first report of peritoneal TB as a postoperative complication of RALP with extended lymph node dissection. His preoperative chest CT showed granular shadows in left upper lung
Discovery of a unique Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein throughÂ proteomic analysis of urine from patients with activeÂ tuberculosis Identification of pathogen-specific biomarkers present in patients' serum or urine samples can be a useful diagnostic approach. In efforts to discover Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) biomarkers we identified by mass spectroscopy a unique 21-mer Mtb peptide sequence (VVLGLTVPGGVELLPGVALPR) present in the urines of TB patients from Zimbabwe. This peptide has 100
Physicians' perspectives on communication and decision making in clinical encounters for treatment of latent tuberculosis infection The aim of the study was to explore the views of tuberculosis (TB) physicians on treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI), focusing on decision making and communication in clinical practice. 20 Australian TB physicians participated in a semistructured interview in person or over the telephone. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically
Potential Application of Digitally Linked Tuberculosis Diagnostics for Real-Time Surveillance of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis Transmission: Validation and Analysis of Test Results Tuberculosis (TB) is the highest-mortality infectious disease in the world and the main cause of death related to antimicrobial resistance, yet its surveillance is still paper-based. Rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB) is an urgent public health crisis. The World Health Organization has, since 2010, endorsed a series
OMNIgene.SPUTUM suppresses contaminants while maintaining Mycobacterium tuberculosis viability and obviates cold-chain transport Tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics are centralised, requiring long-distance transportation of specimens in most resource-limited settings. We evaluated the ability of OMNIgene.SPUTUM (OM-S) to obviate cold-chain transport of TB specimens. A two-arm (same-day and after 5 days sample processing) study was conducted to assess contamination rates and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (...) viability in OM-S-treated samples against the standard decontamination procedure (SDP) in Mozambique, using Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) and mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture and molecular bacterial load assay. 270 specimens were processed using OM-S and SDP in same-day and 5-day arms. Contamination was lower in OM-S-treated than SDP-treated cultures: 12% versus 15% and 2% versus 27% in the same-day and 5-day arms, respectively. M. tuberculosis recovery in OM-S-treated LJ cultures was 10
Longitudinal analysis of HIV risk behaviour patterns and their predictors among public primary care patients with tuberculosis in South Africa The goal of this study was to identify various HIV risk behaviours among tuberculosis (TB) patients in a longitudinal study design in South Africa. In 42 public primary healthcare facilities in three districts in three provinces, adult new TB and TB retreatment patients with hazardous or harmful alcohol use were interviewed within 1 month of initiation
Leveraging tuberculosis case relative locations to enhance case detection and linkage to care in Swaziland In Swaziland, as in many high HIV/TB burden settings, there is not information available regarding the household location of TB cases for identifying areas of increased TB incidence, limiting the development of targeted interventions. Data from "Butimba", a TB REACH active case finding project, was re-analyzed to provide insight into the location of TB cases surrounding Mbabane (...) = -0.57, p = 0.17) or the population adjusted TB cases (Spearman rho = 0.14, p = 0.75) per Tinkhundla.Reducing TB incidence in high-burden settings demands novel analytic approaches to study TB case locations. We demonstrated the feasibility of linking relative locations to more precise geographical areas, enabling data-driven guidance for National Tuberculosis Programs' resource allocation. In collaboration with the Swazi National Tuberculosis Control Program, this analysis highlighted opportunities