Latest & greatest articles for type 2 diabetes

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Top results for type 2 diabetes

41. Do GLP-1RAs and SGLT-2is reduce cardiovascular events in black patients with type 2 diabetes? A systematic review and meta-analysis

Do GLP-1RAs and SGLT-2is reduce cardiovascular events in black patients with type 2 diabetes? A systematic review and meta-analysis While recent cardiovascular safety trials (CVST) concerning newer diabetes medications included mostly white participants, results are being generalized to all races in recent guidelines. This raises a controversial question regarding the appropriateness of applying CVST data to black patients with type 2 diabetes.We searched for randomized trials comparing (...) diabetes medications to placebo in type 2 diabetes and investigated three- or four-point major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Data concerning black patients were then extracted. As the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) updated their recommendations for patients with established cardiovascular risk based on the CVST showing cardiovascular benefit, we performed a sensitivity analysis by including those trials only.A total of 11 trials

2019 EvidenceUpdates

42. Adjunctive liraglutide treatment in patients with persistent or recurrent type 2 diabetes after metabolic surgery (GRAVITAS): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

Adjunctive liraglutide treatment in patients with persistent or recurrent type 2 diabetes after metabolic surgery (GRAVITAS): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial Many patients with type 2 diabetes do not achieve sustained diabetes remission after metabolic (bariatric) surgery for the treatment of obesity. Liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue, improves glycaemic control and reduces bodyweight in patients with type 2 diabetes. Our aim was to assess the safety (...) and efficacy of liraglutide 1·8 mg in patients with persistent or recurrent type 2 diabetes after metabolic surgery.In the GRAVITAS randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we enrolled adults who had undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or vertical sleeve gastrectomy and had persistent or recurrent type 2 diabetes with HbA1c levels higher than 48 mmol/mol (6·5%) at least 1 year after surgery from five hospitals in London, UK. Participants were randomly assigned (2:1) via a computer-generated

2019 EvidenceUpdates

43. Quality of dietary fat and genetic risk of type 2 diabetes: individual participant data meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Quality of dietary fat and genetic risk of type 2 diabetes: individual participant data meta-analysis. To investigate whether the genetic burden of type 2 diabetes modifies the association between the quality of dietary fat and the incidence of type 2 diabetes.Individual participant data meta-analysis.Eligible prospective cohort studies were systematically sourced from studies published between January 1970 and February 2017 through electronic searches in major medical databases (Medline (...) , Embase, and Scopus) and discussion with investigators.Data from cohort studies or multicohort consortia with available genome-wide genetic data and information about the quality of dietary fat and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in participants of European descent was sought. Prospective cohorts that had accrued five or more years of follow-up were included. The type 2 diabetes genetic risk profile was characterized by a 68-variant polygenic risk score weighted by published effect sizes. Diet

2019 BMJ

44. Role of diet in type 2 diabetes incidence: umbrella review of meta-analyses of prospective observational studies. (PubMed)

Role of diet in type 2 diabetes incidence: umbrella review of meta-analyses of prospective observational studies. To summarise the evidence of associations between dietary factors and incidence of type 2 diabetes and to evaluate the strength and validity of these associations.Umbrella review of systematic reviews with meta-analyses of prospective observational studies.PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase, searched up to August 2018.Systematic reviews with meta-analyses reporting summary risk (...) estimates for the associations between incidence of type 2 diabetes and dietary behaviours or diet quality indices, food groups, foods, beverages, alcoholic beverages, macronutrients, and micronutrients.53 publications were included, with 153 adjusted summary hazard ratios on dietary behaviours or diet quality indices (n=12), food groups and foods (n=56), beverages (n=10), alcoholic beverages (n=12), macronutrients (n=32), and micronutrients (n=31), regarding incidence of type 2 diabetes. Methodological

2019 BMJ

45. Dietary fats and mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes: analysis in two population based cohort studies. (PubMed)

Dietary fats and mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes: analysis in two population based cohort studies. To assess the association of dietary fatty acids with cardiovascular disease mortality and total mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes.Prospective, longitudinal cohort study.Health professionals in the United States.11 264 participants with type 2 diabetes in the Nurses' Health Study (1980-2014) and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2014).Dietary fat intake assessed (...) for other fats, isocalorically replacing 2% of energy from saturated fatty acids with total PUFAs or linoleic acid was associated with 13% (hazard ratio 0.87, 0.77 to 0.99) or 15% (0.85, 0.73 to 0.99) lower cardiovascular disease mortality, respectively. A 2% replacement of energy from saturated fatty acids with total PUFAs was associated with 12% (hazard ratio 0.88, 0.83 to 0.94) lower total mortality.In patients with type 2 diabetes, higher intake of PUFAs, in comparison with carbohydrates

2019 BMJ

46. Efficacy and safety of suspend-before-low insulin pump technology in hypoglycaemia-prone adults with type 1 diabetes (SMILE): an open-label randomised controlled trial

Efficacy and safety of suspend-before-low insulin pump technology in hypoglycaemia-prone adults with type 1 diabetes (SMILE): an open-label randomised controlled trial Hypoglycaemia unawareness and severe hypoglycaemia can increase fear of hypoglycaemia and the risk of subsequent hypoglycaemic events. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of insulin pump therapy with integrated continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and a suspend-before-low feature (Medtronic MiniMed 640G with SmartGuard (...) ) in hypoglycaemia-prone adults with type 1 diabetes.SMILE was an open-label randomised controlled trial done in people aged 24-75 years with type 1 diabetes for 10 years or longer, HbA1c values of 5·8-10·0% (40-86 mmol/mol), and at high risk of hypoglycaemia (recent severe hypoglycaemia or hypoglycaemia unawareness defined by a Clarke or Gold score ≥4). Participants were enrolled from 16 centres (eg, clinics, hospitals, or university medical centres) in Canada, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and the UK. After

2019 EvidenceUpdates

47. Addition of canagliflozin to insulin improves glycaemic control and reduces insulin dose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled trial

Addition of canagliflozin to insulin improves glycaemic control and reduces insulin dose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled trial The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of canagliflozin in reducing the required insulin dose and the risk of hypoglycaemia in type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study was conducted in patients with T2D treated with insulin. They were randomly assigned to the control (n = 17) and canagliflozin (n = 17, plus 100 mg/day

2019 EvidenceUpdates

48. Dapagliflozin Plus Saxagliptin Add-on Therapy Compared With Insulin in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Poorly Controlled by Metformin With or Without Sulfonylurea Therapy: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Dapagliflozin Plus Saxagliptin Add-on Therapy Compared With Insulin in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Poorly Controlled by Metformin With or Without Sulfonylurea Therapy: A Randomized Clinical Trial This study evaluated whether an oral combination of a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor and a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor achieved glycemic control similar to basal insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes, poorly controlled with metformin, without increasing hypoglycemia or body (...) weight.In a multinational, open-label, randomized, phase 3 trial (ClinicalTrials.gov reg. no. NCT02551874), adults with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on metformin, with or without sulfonylurea, were randomized (1:1) to receive dapagliflozin (DAPA) plus saxagliptin (SAXA) or titrated insulin glargine (INS). The primary end point was change in glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) from baseline to week 24. DAPA + SAXA treatment was tested for noninferiority versus INS.The efficacy data set included

2019 EvidenceUpdates

49. Changes in Visceral and Subcutaneous Fat in Youth With Type 2 Diabetes in the TODAY Study

Changes in Visceral and Subcutaneous Fat in Youth With Type 2 Diabetes in the TODAY Study In the Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) study, metformin plus rosiglitazone (M + R) maintained glycemic control better than metformin alone (M) or metformin plus lifestyle (M + L) in youth with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We hypothesized that changes in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) would explain the differential treatment effects (...) on glycemia.In 626 youth ages 11-17 years with T2D duration <2 years, VAT and SAT were estimated by DXA at baseline and at 6 and 24 months. Changes from baseline were analyzed in linear mixed models.Baseline mean age was 13.9 years, 66.4% were female, 72.2% were Hispanic/non-Hispanic black, and 20.3% were non-Hispanic white (NHW). Mean BMI was 33.7 kg/m2. VAT increased more in M + R (13.1%) than M + L (3.9%, P = 0.0006) or M (6.5%, P = 0.0146). SAT also increased more in M + R (13.3%) than in M + L (5.4%, P

2019 EvidenceUpdates

50. Determining the optimal fasting glucose target for patients with type 2 diabetes: results of the multicentre, open-label, randomized-controlled FPG GOAL trial

Determining the optimal fasting glucose target for patients with type 2 diabetes: results of the multicentre, open-label, randomized-controlled FPG GOAL trial The optimal fasting blood glucose (FBG) target of achieving HbA1c less than 7.0% in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients remains controversial. This open-label trial randomized (1:3:3) 947 adults with uncontrolled T2D (HbA1c >7% to ≤10.5%) who were using one to three oral antidiabetic drugs to achieve an FBG target of 3.9 < FBG ≤5.6 mmol/L (...) %; P < 0.001) but was not in Group 2 vs Group 3 (27.5% vs 23.3%; P = 0.177). Clinically important hypoglycaemia (glucose ≤3.0 mmol/L) was reported in 4.8%, 2.0% and 3.8% of patients in Groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. In conclusion, the optimal FBG target for most Chinese patients with T2D appears to be 3.9-6.1 mmol/L.© 2019 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

2019 EvidenceUpdates

51. Novel Smartphone Game Improves Physical Activity Behavior in Type 2 Diabetes

Novel Smartphone Game Improves Physical Activity Behavior in Type 2 Diabetes Many type 2 diabetes patients show insufficient levels of physical activity and are often unmotivated to change physical activity behaviors. This study investigated whether a newly developed smartphone game delivering individualized exercise and physical activity promotion through an elaborate storyline can generate sustained improvements in daily physical activity (steps/day).Thirty-six participants were enrolled (...) in this 24-week RCT between August 2016 and April 2018. After baseline assessment, participants were randomized in equal numbers to the intervention or control condition. Data analysis was performed in May-June 2018.Inactive, overweight type 2 diabetes patients, aged 45-70 years, were recruited through advertising and from hospitals and diabetes care centers in the Basel, Switzerland, metropolitan area.Participants were instructed to play the innovative smartphone game (intervention group

2019 EvidenceUpdates

52. Management of people with Type 2 diabetes shared between a specialized outpatient clinic and primary health care is noninferior to management in a specialized outpatient clinic: a randomized, noninferiority trial

Management of people with Type 2 diabetes shared between a specialized outpatient clinic and primary health care is noninferior to management in a specialized outpatient clinic: a randomized, noninferiority trial To evaluate whether management of people with Type 2 diabetes shared between a specialized outpatient clinic and primary health care has noninferior HbA1c outcomes compared with mono-sectorial management in a specialized outpatient clinic.A randomized controlled, noninferiority study (...) interval (CI) -1.3, 3.9] (0.1%, 90% CI -0.1, 0.4). Noninferiority was confirmed in both per protocol and intention to treat analyses.We found that our shared care programme was noninferior to specialized outpatient management in maintaining glycaemic control in this group of people with Type 2 diabetes. Shared care should be considered for the future diabetes management of Type 2 diabetes.© 2019 Diabetes UK.

2019 EvidenceUpdates

53. Triple therapy with low-dose dapagliflozin plus saxagliptin versus dual therapy with each monocomponent, all added to metformin, in uncontrolled type 2 diabetes

Triple therapy with low-dose dapagliflozin plus saxagliptin versus dual therapy with each monocomponent, all added to metformin, in uncontrolled type 2 diabetes To evaluate the efficacy and safety of triple therapy with low-dose dapagliflozin plus saxagliptin added to metformin in uncontrolled type 2 diabetes.This 24-week, double-blind trial (NCT02681094) randomized 883 patients (glycated haemoglobin [HbA1c] 7.5-10.0%) on metformin ≥1500 mg/d to add-on dapagliflozin 5 mg/d plus saxagliptin 5 mg (...) dapagliflozin 5 mg, saxagliptin 5 mg and metformin significantly improved glycaemic control versus dual therapy with either agent added to metformin in uncontrolled type 2 diabetes, and was generally well tolerated.© 2019 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

2019 EvidenceUpdates

54. Oral Semaglutide and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. (PubMed)

Oral Semaglutide and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Establishing cardiovascular safety of new therapies for type 2 diabetes is important. Safety data are available for the subcutaneous form of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist semaglutide but are needed for oral semaglutide.We assessed cardiovascular outcomes of once-daily oral semaglutide in an event-driven, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving patients at high cardiovascular risk (...) of 1592 (1.0%), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.35 to 1.57). Death from any cause occurred in 23 of 1591 patients (1.4%) in the oral semaglutide group and 45 of 1592 (2.8%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.84). Gastrointestinal adverse events leading to discontinuation of oral semaglutide or placebo were more common with oral semaglutide.In this trial involving patients with type 2 diabetes, the cardiovascular risk profile of oral semaglutide was not inferior

2019 NEJM

55. An Anti-CD3 Antibody, Teplizumab, in Relatives at Risk for Type 1 Diabetes. (PubMed)

An Anti-CD3 Antibody, Teplizumab, in Relatives at Risk for Type 1 Diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is a chronic autoimmune disease that leads to destruction of insulin-producing beta cells and dependence on exogenous insulin for survival. Some interventions have delayed the loss of insulin production in patients with type 1 diabetes, but interventions that might affect clinical progression before diagnosis are needed.We conducted a phase 2, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial (...) of teplizumab (an Fc receptor-nonbinding anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody) involving relatives of patients with type 1 diabetes who did not have diabetes but were at high risk for development of clinical disease. Patients were randomly assigned to a single 14-day course of teplizumab or placebo, and follow-up for progression to clinical type 1 diabetes was performed with the use of oral glucose-tolerance tests at 6-month intervals.A total of 76 participants (55 [72%] of whom were ≤18 years of age) underwent

2019 NEJM

56. Dulaglutide and renal outcomes in type 2 diabetes: an exploratory analysis of the REWIND randomised, placebo-controlled trial. (PubMed)

Dulaglutide and renal outcomes in type 2 diabetes: an exploratory analysis of the REWIND randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Two glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists reduced renal outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes at risk for cardiovascular disease. We assessed the long-term effect of the GLP-1 receptor agonist dulaglutide on renal outcomes in an exploratory analysis of the REWIND trial of the effect of dulaglutide on cardiovascular disease.REWIND was a multicentre (...) , randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial at 371 sites in 24 countries. Men and women aged at least 50 years with type 2 diabetes who had either a previous cardiovascular event or cardiovascular risk factors were randomly assigned (1:1) to either weekly subcutaneous injection of dulaglutide (1·5 mg) or placebo and followed up at least every 6 months for outcomes. Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratios (UACRs) and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) were estimated from urine and serum

2019 Lancet

57. Dulaglutide and cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes (REWIND): a double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial. (PubMed)

Dulaglutide and cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes (REWIND): a double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial. Three different glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists reduce cardiovascular outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk with high glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) concentrations. We assessed the effect of the GLP-1 receptor agonist dulaglutide on major adverse cardiovascular events when added to the existing antihyperglycaemic regimens (...) of individuals with type 2 diabetes with and without previous cardiovascular disease and a wide range of glycaemic control.This multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was done at 371 sites in 24 countries. Men and women aged at least 50 years with type 2 diabetes who had either a previous cardiovascular event or cardiovascular risk factors were randomly assigned (1:1) to either weekly subcutaneous injection of dulaglutide (1·5 mg) or placebo. Randomisation was done by a computer

2019 Lancet

58. Vitamin D Supplementation and Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes. (PubMed)

Vitamin D Supplementation and Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes. Observational studies support an association between a low blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and the risk of type 2 diabetes. However, whether vitamin D supplementation lowers the risk of diabetes is unknown.We randomly assigned adults who met at least two of three glycemic criteria for prediabetes (fasting plasma glucose level, 100 to 125 mg per deciliter; plasma glucose level 2 hours after a 75-g oral glucose load, 140 to 199 mg per (...) was 0.88 (0.95% confidence interval, 0.75 to 1.04; P = 0.12). The incidence of adverse events did not differ significantly between the two groups.Among persons at high risk for type 2 diabetes not selected for vitamin D insufficiency, vitamin D3 supplementation at a dose of 4000 IU per day did not result in a significantly lower risk of diabetes than placebo. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and others; D2d ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01942694

2019 NEJM

59. Oral semaglutide versus subcutaneous liraglutide and placebo in type 2 diabetes (PIONEER 4): a randomised, double-blind, phase 3a trial. (PubMed)

Oral semaglutide versus subcutaneous liraglutide and placebo in type 2 diabetes (PIONEER 4): a randomised, double-blind, phase 3a trial. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are effective treatments for type 2 diabetes, lowering glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and weight, but are currently only approved for use as subcutaneous injections. Oral semaglutide, a novel GLP-1 agonist, was compared with subcutaneous liraglutide and placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes.In this randomised (...) , double-blind, double-dummy, phase 3a trial, we recruited patients with type 2 diabetes from 100 sites in 12 countries. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, with HbA1c of 7·0-9·5% (53-80·3 mmol/mol), on a stable dose of metformin (≥1500 mg or maximum tolerated) with or without a sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor. Participants were randomly assigned (2:2:1) with an interactive web-response system and stratified by background glucose-lowering medication and country of origin, to once

2019 Lancet

60. Intensive Glucose Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes - 15-Year Follow-up. (PubMed)

Intensive Glucose Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes - 15-Year Follow-up. We previously reported that a median of 5.6 years of intensive as compared with standard glucose lowering in 1791 military veterans with type 2 diabetes resulted in a risk of major cardiovascular events that was significantly lower (by 17%) after a total of 10 years of combined intervention and observational follow-up. We now report the full 15-year follow-up.We observationally followed enrolled participants (...) of separation of the glycated hemoglobin curves (hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.70 to 0.99), but this benefit did not continue after equalization of the glycated hemoglobin levels (hazard ratio, 1.26; 95% CI, 0.90 to 1.75).Participants with type 2 diabetes who had been randomly assigned to intensive glucose control for 5.6 years had a lower risk of cardiovascular events than those who received standard therapy only during the prolonged period in which the glycated hemoglobin curves were separated

2019 NEJM