Latest & greatest articles for type 2 diabetes

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Top results for type 2 diabetes

121. A randomized, multicentre trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of fast-acting insulin aspart in continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in adults with type 1 diabetes (onset 5)

A randomized, multicentre trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of fast-acting insulin aspart in continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in adults with type 1 diabetes (onset 5) To evaluate the efficacy and safety of fast-acting insulin aspart (faster aspart) vs insulin aspart (IAsp) used in continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in participants with type 1 diabetes (T1D).This was a double-blind, treat-to-target, randomized, 16-week trial investigating CSII treatment with faster (...) % confidence interval [CI] 0.14; 1.87) or 0.09% (95% CI 0.01; 0.17; P < 0.001) for non-inferiority (0.4% margin; P < 0.02 for statistical significance in favour of IAsp). Faster aspart was superior to IAsp in change from baseline in 1-hour postprandial glucose (PPG) increment after a meal test (ETD -0.91 mmol/L [95% CI -1.43; -0.39] or -16.4 mg/dL [95% CI -25.7; -7.0]; P = 0.001), with statistically significant reductions also at 30 minutes and 2 hours. The improvement in PPG was reflected in the change

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2019 EvidenceUpdates

122. Comparative effectiveness and harms of long-acting insulins for type 1 and type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Comparative effectiveness and harms of long-acting insulins for type 1 and type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis To review evidence comparing benefits and harms of long-acting insulins in patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes.MEDLINE and two Cochrane databases were searched during February 2018. Two authors selected studies meeting inclusion criteria and assessed their quality. Comparative studies of adult or paediatric patients with diabetes treated with insulin degludec (...) , detemir or glargine were included. Meta-analysis was used to combine results of similar studies, and the I2 statistic calculated to assess statistical heterogeneity.Of 2534 citations reviewed, 70 studies met the inclusion criteria. No statistically significant differences in HbA1c were seen between any two insulins or formulations. Hypoglycaemia was less probable with degludec than with glargine, including nocturnal hypoglycaemia in type 1 (rate ratio 0.68, 95% CI 0.56-0.81) and type 2 diabetes (rate

2019 EvidenceUpdates

123. The effects of incretin-based therapies on beta-cell function and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and network meta-analysis combining 360 trials

The effects of incretin-based therapies on beta-cell function and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and network meta-analysis combining 360 trials To evaluate the comparative effects of incretin-based therapies, including glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4Is), on β-cell function and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library

2019 EvidenceUpdates

124. Effect of Resveratrol on Blood Lipid Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Effect of Resveratrol on Blood Lipid Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Few studies have considered the effect of resveratrol on blood lipid levels, and the results of these studies are inconsistent. In this study, the first meta-analysis on the effect of resveratrol on blood lipid levels in patients with type 2 diabetes was conducted.This study used keywords such as type 2 diabetes, total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein, low (...) -density lipoprotein, and resveratrol and their abbreviations, free words, and related words to search PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to evaluate the risk of bias, and Review Manager 5.3 and Stata 13.0 were used for data merging and statistical analysis.Ten randomized controlled trials involving a total of 363 patients with type 2 diabetes were included in the analysis. The results show that longer resveratrol intervention time (≥6 months) can reduce TG

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2019 EvidenceUpdates

125. Canagliflozin and Stroke in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Canagliflozin and Stroke in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Background and Purpose- This study reports the detailed effects of canagliflozin on stroke, stroke subtypes, and vascular outcomes in participants with and without cerebrovascular disease (stroke or transient ischemic attack) at baseline from the CANVAS (Canagliflozin Cardiovascular Assessment Study) Program. Methods- The CANVAS Program, comprising 2 similarly designed and conducted clinical trials, randomly assigned 10 142 participants (...) with type 2 diabetes mellitus and high cardiovascular risk to canagliflozin or placebo. Its primary outcome was a composite of major adverse cardiovascular events. The main outcome of interest for this report was fatal or nonfatal stroke. Additional exploratory outcomes were stroke subtypes and other vascular outcomes defined according to standard criteria. Results- There were 1 958 (19%) participants with prior stroke or transient ischemic attack at baseline. These individuals were older, more

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2019 EvidenceUpdates

126. A whey/guar "preload" improves postprandial glycaemia and glycated haemoglobin levels in type 2 diabetes: A 12-week, single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

A whey/guar "preload" improves postprandial glycaemia and glycated haemoglobin levels in type 2 diabetes: A 12-week, single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial To evaluate the effects of 12 weeks of treatment with a whey/guar preload on gastric emptying, postprandial glycaemia and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM).A total of 79 people with T2DM, managed on diet or metformin (HbA1c 49 ± 0.7 mmol/mol [6.6 ± 0.1%]), were randomized, in single-blind

2019 EvidenceUpdates

127. Pegbelfermin (BMS-986036), PEGylated FGF21, in Patients with Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: Results from a Randomized Phase 2 Study

Pegbelfermin (BMS-986036), PEGylated FGF21, in Patients with Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: Results from a Randomized Phase 2 Study Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are risk factors for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. This study assessed pegbelfermin (BMS-986036), recombinant PEGylated human fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), in patients with obesity and T2DM predisposed to fatty liver.In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled

2019 EvidenceUpdates

128. Implementation of a Health Plan Program for Switching From Analogue to Human Insulin and Glycemic Control Among Medicare Beneficiaries With Type 2 Diabetes. (PubMed)

Implementation of a Health Plan Program for Switching From Analogue to Human Insulin and Glycemic Control Among Medicare Beneficiaries With Type 2 Diabetes. Prices for newer analogue insulin products have increased. Lower-cost human insulin may be effective for many patients with type 2 diabetes.To evaluate the association between implementation of a health plan-based intervention of switching patients from analogue to human insulin and glycemic control.A retrospective cohort study using (...) hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels estimated over three 12-month periods: preintervention (baseline) in 2014, intervention in 2015, and postintervention in 2016. Secondary outcomes included rates of serious hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia using ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM diagnostic codes.Over 3 years, 14 635 members (mean [SD] age: 72.5 [9.8] years; 51% women; 93% with type 2 diabetes) filled 221 866 insulin prescriptions. The mean HbA1c was 8.46% (95% CI, 8.40%-8.52%) at baseline and decreased at a rate of -0.02

2019 JAMA

129. Fewer large babies are born to pregnant woman with type 1 diabetes if their glucose was monitored continuously

Fewer large babies are born to pregnant woman with type 1 diabetes if their glucose was monitored continuously Fewer large babies are born to pregnant woman with type 1 diabetes if their glucose was monitored continuously Discover Portal Discover Portal Fewer large babies are born to pregnant woman with type 1 diabetes if their glucose was monitored continuously Published on 12 December 2017 doi: Pregnant women with type 1 diabetes who used a continuous glucose monitoring system were half (...) , only improved slightly. This may be unsurprising because HbA1c results are less reliable in pregnancy and women found it hard to stick to the continuous monitoring protocol. Strict control of blood glucose levels during pregnancy reduces the risk for women with type 1 diabetes, and their babies are less likely to be large or need treatment for low blood glucose. Continuous monitoring provides many readings but requires the user to deliver insulin accordingly. Motivated women may find continuous

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

130. Type 2 diabetes can be reversed with a low-calorie diet

Type 2 diabetes can be reversed with a low-calorie diet Type 2 diabetes can be reversed with a low-calorie diet Discover Portal Discover Portal Type 2 diabetes can be reversed with a low-calorie diet Published on 13 February 2018 doi: Nearly half of people given a formula replacement diet of 830 calories per day for three to five months, followed by food reintroduction, went into remission from type 2 diabetes. They were supported to achieve and maintain weight reduction by primary care nurses (...) or dieticians. This trial involved 298 adults who had been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes within six years. Those that stuck with the program were more likely to lose weight (average 10kg was lost) and to go into remission compared to usual care. More than two-thirds of them were also able to stop both diabetic and high blood pressure tablets. These results were seen after one year. The challenge will be to see if the results can be maintained over the planned four year follow-up period. If successful

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

131. Type 2 diabetes is becoming more common in children

Type 2 diabetes is becoming more common in children Type 2 diabetes is becoming more common in children Discover Portal Discover Portal Type 2 diabetes is becoming more common in children Published on 25 July 2017 doi: The number of children being diagnosed with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes is rising, but new cases of type 2 diabetes, the form associated with being overweight, has risen five-fold in about five years. New analysis in this NIHR-supported study suggest that type 2 diabetes now (...) accounts for up to a third of diabetes diagnoses in children. Amongst 100,000 school age children about six new cases of type 2 diabetes a year could be expected in the 1990s. This increased to about 33 new cases per year by the end of the next decade (2009 to 2013). Data was taken from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, a primary care database of electronic health records. Children who are obese have about a four times greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared with those of a normal

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

132. Insulin pumps not much better than multiple injections for intensive control of type 1 diabetes

though, costing around £2-3,000, with another £1,500 per year in consumables, and have a life span of four to eight years. About 6% of UK adults with type I diabetes use pumps, which is lower than in many countries. Proponents of pumps suggest more people should be offered them. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of pumps with multiple daily injections. What did this study do? The Relative Effectiveness of Pumps Over MDI and Structured Education (REPOSE) randomised controlled (...) Insulin pumps not much better than multiple injections for intensive control of type 1 diabetes Insulin pumps not much better than multiple injections for intensive control of type 1 diabetes Discover Portal Discover Portal Insulin pumps not much better than multiple injections for intensive control of type 1 diabetes Published on 11 July 2017 doi: People with type 1 diabetes offered insulin pumps did not achieve better blood glucose control compared with those using multiple daily injections

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

133. Continuous insulin pumps may help manage poorly controlled type 2 diabetes

Continuous insulin pumps may help manage poorly controlled type 2 diabetes Continuous insulin pumps may help manage poorly controlled type 2 diabetes Discover Portal Discover Portal Continuous insulin pumps may help manage poorly controlled type 2 diabetes Published on 18 July 2017 doi: Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusions, or pumps, reduced the amount of daily insulin required by 24 units for people with advanced type 2 diabetes compared to multiple daily insulin injections. Average (...) weight did not differ between treatments. This review compared the two treatments in 590 people from five trials and found that the pumps were linked to slightly better control for people on higher doses of insulin and those with poorer glucose control. However, looking at all the people with diabetes in these studies, there was no difference in overall control between the different forms of treatment. One main challenge in controlling type 2 diabetes is the low adherence to treatment. Other studies

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

134. Nine different drug classes reviewed for type 2 diabetes

Nine different drug classes reviewed for type 2 diabetes Nine different drug classes reviewed for type 2 diabetes Discover Portal Discover Portal Nine different drug classes reviewed for type 2 diabetes Published on 17 January 2017 doi: Metformin worked best at keeping blood sugar levels under control and remains a good first choice as single therapy. Overall, the nine classes of blood sugar-lowering drugs had similar effect on risk of death from cardiovascular causes and overall mortality (...) , though estimates are imprecise because so few people died in these studies. Risk of other side effects, such as weight gain or risk of low blood sugar did vary between treatments. This very large systematic review of 301 trials compared the drugs given alone or in combination to treat type 2 diabetes against each other. The researchers analysed data from direct comparisons and from studies with dummy treatment arms together. Until now it has been unclear if there are reasons to use one treatment

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

135. Flu vaccine reduces deaths for people with type 2 diabetes

Flu vaccine reduces deaths for people with type 2 diabetes Flu vaccine reduces deaths for people with type 2 diabetes Discover Portal Discover Portal Flu vaccine reduces deaths for people with type 2 diabetes Published on 18 October 2016 doi: Flu vaccination helps prevent some deaths, serious strokes, heart failure and pneumonia in people with type 2 diabetes. Vaccination is linked to less hospital admissions for these reasons, but there is no link to rates of admissions for heart attack (...) . The results come from a reliable population-based study that looked back at the general practice and hospital records of almost 125,000 adults with type 2 diabetes in England. Outcome rates were compared between those who had and hadn’t received the flu vaccine over seven successive flu seasons. The researchers carefully adjusted for things like the seasonal change in flu numbers. The findings strongly support current recommendations that people with chronic medical conditions such as diabetes receive

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

136. Sulfonylureas can be considered safe for those with type 2 diabetes

Sulfonylureas can be considered safe for those with type 2 diabetes Sulfonylureas can be considered safe for those with type 2 diabetes Discover Portal Discover Portal Sulfonylureas can be considered safe for those with type 2 diabetes Published on 20 July 2016 doi: This large review finds that sulfonylurea drugs are not associated with an increased risk of death, heart attack or stroke when compared with placebo, diet control or other diabetes drugs. Sulfonylureas are commonly used (...) in the treatment of adults with type 2 diabetes. The drugs in this class are relatively cheap and have been available for many decades, but there have been conflicting views on their safety. The trials in this review were large enough and sufficiently long to pick up relatively rare harmful events like death. Therefore the researchers were confident that, even if there is a small risk, less than one in 200 people treated with sulfonylureas are likely to be harmed. These findings provide reassuring evidence

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

137. ‘Artificial pancreas’ improves glucose control in hospital patients with type 2 diabetes

‘Artificial pancreas’ improves glucose control in hospital patients with type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes control improves with 'artificial pancreas' Discover Portal Discover Portal ‘Artificial pancreas’ improves glucose control in hospital patients with type 2 diabetes Published on 13 November 2018 doi: Closed-loop insulin pumps, which continuously monitor blood glucose and administer insulin accordingly, can improve blood glucose control among patients with type 2 diabetes admitted to hospital (...) for non-critical care. Those using the system spent about six hours longer in the target range, and this could hasten their recovery and reduce staff workload. The number of hospitalised patients with type 2 diabetes is increasing. Glucose control often worsens during illness. Closed-loop pumps have been shown to improve blood glucose control in type 1 diabetes and in critical care settings. This two-centre study included 136 patients with type 2 diabetes on general hospital wards. Patients using

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

138. The benefits and harms of aspirin for people with type 2 diabetes are finely balanced

The benefits and harms of aspirin for people with type 2 diabetes are finely balanced Aspirin benefits and harms balanced in type 2 diabetes Discover Portal Discover Portal The benefits and harms of aspirin for people with type 2 diabetes are finely balanced Published on 4 December 2018 doi: Daily aspirin reduced the risk of serious vascular events among people with diabetes, while increasing the risk of major bleeding to a similar extent. Aspirin prevented one person in every 100 from having (...) be prescribed to people with diabetes who do not have existing cardiovascular disease. Share your views on the research. Why was this study needed? Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the UK. It accounted for 152,465 deaths in 2016, of which 66,076 deaths were from coronary heart disease and 37,771 from stroke. Around 4 million people in the UK have diabetes, mostly type 2. Adults with diabetes are two to three times more likely to develop cardiovascular disease, and nearly twice

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

139. Self-monitoring of blood glucose provides no important benefit for most people with type 2 diabetes

Self-monitoring of blood glucose provides no important benefit for most people with type 2 diabetes Self-monitoring of blood glucose provides no important benefit for most people with type 2 diabetes Discover Portal Discover Portal Self-monitoring of blood glucose provides no important benefit for most people with type 2 diabetes Published on 23 October 2018 doi: Patients with type 2 diabetes who monitor their blood glucose themselves may see small, short-term improvements in blood sugar (...) control. This is not enough to be clinically important or outweigh the costs and personal inconvenience of long-term self-testing. Self-monitoring is a well-established strategy for type 1 diabetes and for people with type 2 who need insulin. The benefit for all people with type 2 is debatable. This review pooled 24 randomised controlled trials comparing self-monitoring with any control strategy for people not taking insulin. Self-monitoring gave a 0.3 percentage point reduction in glycated

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre

140. Motivational interviewing may encourage healthy eating in people with type 2 diabetes

Motivational interviewing may encourage healthy eating in people with type 2 diabetes Motivational interviewing may encourage healthy eating in people with type 2 diabetes Discover Portal Discover Portal Motivational interviewing may encourage healthy eating in people with type 2 diabetes Published on 15 March 2016 doi: A motivational communication approach may help people with type 2 diabetes eat more healthily, but may be no better than usual care for changing other behaviours or improving (...) doesn’t support the wide adoption of motivational interviewing, as described in this review because it is not known yet why many studies showed no effect. Next steps could be to identify which components of the interventions worked, how intensive they need to be and what the impact of prior skill and training in delivery of the intervention was. Share your views on the research. Why was this study needed? Diabetes affects around four million people living in the UK. Around 90% have type 2 diabetes

2019 NIHR Dissemination Centre