Latest & greatest articles for acyclovir

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Top results for acyclovir

41. Cost effectiveness of early treatment with oral aciclovir in adult chickenpox

. Source of funding None stated. Bibliographic details Smith K J, Roberts M S. Cost effectiveness of early treatment with oral aciclovir in adult chickenpox. PharmacoEconomics 1998; 13(5 Part 2): 645-651 PubMedID Indexing Status Subject indexing assigned by NLM MeSH Acyclovir /economics /therapeutic use; Administration, Oral; Adult; Antiviral Agents /therapeutic use; Chickenpox /drug therapy; Cost-Benefit Analysis; Humans; Quality of Life; Quality-Adjusted Life Years AccessionNumber 21998008154 Date (...) Cost effectiveness of early treatment with oral aciclovir in adult chickenpox Cost effectiveness of early treatment with oral aciclovir in adult chickenpox Cost effectiveness of early treatment with oral aciclovir in adult chickenpox Smith K J, Roberts M S Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical

1998 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

42. Superior efficacy of oral ganciclovir over oral acyclovir for cytomegalovirus prophylaxis in kidney-pancreas and pancreas alone recipients

Superior efficacy of oral ganciclovir over oral acyclovir for cytomegalovirus prophylaxis in kidney-pancreas and pancreas alone recipients Superior efficacy of oral ganciclovir over oral acyclovir for cytomegalovirus prophylaxis in kidney-pancreas and pancreas alone recipients Superior efficacy of oral ganciclovir over oral acyclovir for cytomegalovirus prophylaxis in kidney-pancreas and pancreas alone recipients Somerville T, Hurst G, Alloway R, Gaber A, Shokouh-Amiri M H, Stratta R Record (...) Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Oral ganciclovir and oral acyclovir used as prophylaxis for patients who have previously received intravenous ganciclovir therapy following pancreas only (PO) or pancreas and kidney

1998 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

43. Treatment of herpes simplex gingivostomatitis with aciclovir in children: a randomised double blind placebo controlled study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Treatment of herpes simplex gingivostomatitis with aciclovir in children: a randomised double blind placebo controlled study. To examine the efficacy of aciclovir suspension for treating herpetic gingivostomatitis in young children.Randomised double blind placebo controlled study.Day care unit of a tertiary paediatric hospital.72 children aged 1-6 years with clinical manifestations of gingivostomatitis lasting less than 72 hours; 61 children with cultures positive for herpes simplex virus (...) finished the study.Duration of oral lesions, fever, eating and drinking difficulties, and viral shedding.Aciclovir suspension 15 mg/kg five times a day for seven days, or placebo.Children receiving aciclovir had oral lesions for a shorter period than children receiving placebo (median 4 v 10 days (difference 6 days, 95% confidence interval 4.0 to 8.0)) and earlier disappearance of the following signs and symptoms: fever (1 v 3 days (2 days, 0.8 to 3.2)); extraoral lesions (lesions around the mouth

1997 BMJ Controlled trial quality: predicted high

44. The effect of treating herpes zoster with oral acyclovir in preventing postherpetic neuralgia: a meta-analysis

The effect of treating herpes zoster with oral acyclovir in preventing postherpetic neuralgia: a meta-analysis The effect of treating herpes zoster with oral acyclovir in preventing postherpetic neuralgia: a meta-analysis The effect of treating herpes zoster with oral acyclovir in preventing postherpetic neuralgia: a meta-analysis Jackson J L, Gibbons R, Meyer G, Inouye L Authors' objectives To determine if treatment with oral acyclovir reduces the incidence of postherpetic neuralgia (...) in immunocompetent adults. Searching MEDLINE was searched from 1966 to 1996 for English language publications, using the MeSH terms 'acyclovir', 'herpes zoster' and 'randomised clinical trials'; it was also searched for citations using 'acyclovir' and 'herpes zoster', and articles thus identified were manually reviewed. In addition, a supplementary search was performed by a professional librarian, and the National Institute of Health database and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched for published

1997 DARE.

45. Comparison of valaciclovir and acyclovir for the treatment of herpes zoster in immunocompetent patients over 50 years of age: a cost-consequence model

Comparison of valaciclovir and acyclovir for the treatment of herpes zoster in immunocompetent patients over 50 years of age: a cost-consequence model Comparison of valaciclovir and acyclovir for the treatment of herpes zoster in immunocompetent patients over 50 years of age: a cost-consequence model Comparison of valaciclovir and acyclovir for the treatment of herpes zoster in immunocompetent patients over 50 years of age: a cost-consequence model Grant D M, Mauskopf J A, Bell L, Austin R (...) Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Valaciclovir and acyclovir in the treatment of herpes zoster. Type of intervention Treatment. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population Immunocompetent patients

1997 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

46. Acyclovir prophylaxis in late pregnancy to prevent neonatal herpes: a cost-effectiveness analysis

Acyclovir prophylaxis in late pregnancy to prevent neonatal herpes: a cost-effectiveness analysis Acyclovir prophylaxis in late pregnancy to prevent neonatal herpes: a cost-effectiveness analysis Acyclovir prophylaxis in late pregnancy to prevent neonatal herpes: a cost-effectiveness analysis Randolph A G, Hartshorn R M, Washington A E Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary (...) of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Antiviral (Acyclovir) prophylaxis in the prevention of neonatal herpes. Type of intervention Primary prevention. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population A hypothetical cohort of 10,000 pregnant women with at least one previously documented outbreak of genital herpes. Setting Hospital. The study was conducted in the USA

1996 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

47. Studies evaluating high-dose acyclovir, intravenous immune globulin, and cytomegalovirus hyperimmunoglobulin for prophylaxis against cytomegalovirus in kidney transplant recipients

Studies evaluating high-dose acyclovir, intravenous immune globulin, and cytomegalovirus hyperimmunoglobulin for prophylaxis against cytomegalovirus in kidney transplant recipients Studies evaluating high-dose acyclovir, intravenous immune globulin, and cytomegalovirus hyperimmunoglobulin for prophylaxis against cytomegalovirus in kidney transplant recipients Studies evaluating high-dose acyclovir, intravenous immune globulin, and cytomegalovirus hyperimmunoglobulin for prophylaxis against (...) cytomegalovirus in kidney transplant recipients Dickinson B I, Gora-Harper M L, McCraney S A, Gosland M Authors' objectives To critically analyse the studies evaluating the cost, safety, and efficacy of high-dose acyclovir, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and cyclomegalovirus hyperimmunoglobulin (CMVIG) for prophylaxis against CMV in kidney transplant recipients. Searching MEDLINE was searched using combinations of the following MeSH: 'immunoglobulins', 'intravenous' 'acyclovir' 'CMVIG' 'CMV infections

1996 DARE.

48. Acyclovir given as prophylaxis against oral ulcers in acute myeloid leukaemia: randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Acyclovir given as prophylaxis against oral ulcers in acute myeloid leukaemia: randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial. To evaluate (a) the prophylactic effect of the antiherpetic drug acyclovir on oral ulcers in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia receiving remission induction chemotherapy and thus (b), indirectly, the role of herpes simplex virus in the aetiology of these ulcers.Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial.74 herpes simplex virus seropositive patients aged (...) 18-84. Thirty seven patients received acyclovir (800 mg by mouth daily) and 37 placebo. The patients were examined daily for 28 days.Occurrence of herpes labialis, intraoral ulcers, and acute necrotising ulcerative gingivitis.The two populations were comparable in age, sex, type of antineoplastic treatment, and history of herpes labialis. Acute oral infections occurred in 25 of the acyclovir treated patients and 36 of the placebo treated patients (relative risk 0.69 (95% confidence interval 0.55

1995 BMJ Controlled trial quality: predicted high

49. Randomised comparison of ganciclovir and high-dose acyclovir for long-term cytomegalovirus prophylaxis in liver-transplant recipients. (Abstract)

Randomised comparison of ganciclovir and high-dose acyclovir for long-term cytomegalovirus prophylaxis in liver-transplant recipients. Despite current approaches to prophylaxis, cytomegalovirus (CMV) continues to be a common cause of infection and disease in solid-organ-transplant patients. Thus, we conducted a controlled trial comparing long-term administration of ganciclovir with high-dose acyclovir for prevention of CMV infection and disease in liver transplant recipients. At the time (...) of transplant, patients were randomised to receive either ganciclovir (6 mg/kg body weight per day intravenously from postoperative day 1 to day 30, then 6 mg/kg per day Monday through Friday until day 100) or acyclovir (10 mg/kg intravenously every 8 h from postoperative day 1 to day of discharge, then 800 mg orally four times a day until day 100). Patients were followed for development of CMV infection, CMV disease, and drug-related toxicity by frequent cultures, serological tests, laboratory measurements

1995 Lancet Controlled trial quality: uncertain

50. Cost-effectiveness of acyclovir for varicella infections in immunocompetent patients: a British perspective

Cost-effectiveness of acyclovir for varicella infections in immunocompetent patients: a British perspective Cost-effectiveness of acyclovir for varicella infections in immunocompetent patients: a British perspective Cost-effectiveness of acyclovir for varicella infections in immunocompetent patients: a British perspective Nathwani D, Macdonald T, Davey P Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains (...) a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology The use of oral acyclovir in the treatment of chickenpox in children and chickenpox and shingles in adults. Type of intervention Secondary prevention Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population The general population of Tayside in Scotland. Setting A combination of primary and community care

1995 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

51. Impact of long-term acyclovir on cytomegalovirus infection and survival after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. European Acyclovir for CMV Prophylaxis Study Group. (Abstract)

Impact of long-term acyclovir on cytomegalovirus infection and survival after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. European Acyclovir for CMV Prophylaxis Study Group. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Our aim was to study the prophylactic effect of high-dose intravenous acyclovir given around the time of BMT followed by oral acyclovir on CMV infection and survival. 310 BMT recipients at risk (...) of developing CMV infection were randomised to one of three regimens in a double-blind and double-dummy design: intravenous acylclovir (500 mg/m2, three times a day) for 1 month followed by oral acyclovir (800 mg four times a day for a further 6 months) (intravenous/oral group); intravenous acyclovir followed by oral placebo (intermediate group); or low-dose oral acyclovir (200 or 400 mg, four times a day) followed by placebo ("controls"). Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Intravenous acyclovir

1994 Lancet Controlled trial quality: predicted high

52. A randomized trial of acyclovir for 7 days or 21 days with and without prednisolone for treatment of acute herpes zoster. (Abstract)

A randomized trial of acyclovir for 7 days or 21 days with and without prednisolone for treatment of acute herpes zoster. Acyclovir given for 7 to 10 days is of proved benefit in acute herpes zoster, but studies of its effectiveness in preventing postherpetic neuralgia have had conflicting results. The role of corticosteroids in the treatment of herpes zoster is also controversial.We conducted a double-blind, controlled trial in patients with acute herpes zoster to determine whether either 21 (...) days of acyclovir therapy or the addition of prednisolone offered any improvement over 7 days of acyclovir therapy. Patients with a rash of less than 72 hours' duration were assigned to receive acyclovir (800 mg orally, five times daily) for 7 days with either prednisolone or placebo, or acyclovir for 21 days with either prednisolone or placebo. Prednisolone therapy was initiated at a dose of 40 mg per day and tapered over a three-week period. Patients were assessed frequently through day 28

1994 NEJM Controlled trial quality: predicted high

53. A controlled trial comparing vidarabine with acyclovir in neonatal herpes simplex virus infection. Infectious Diseases Collaborative Antiviral Study Group. (Abstract)

A controlled trial comparing vidarabine with acyclovir in neonatal herpes simplex virus infection. Infectious Diseases Collaborative Antiviral Study Group. Despite the use of vidarabine, herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in neonates continues to be a disease of high morbidity and mortality. We undertook a controlled trial comparing vidarabine with acyclovir for the treatment of neonatal HSV infection.Babies less than one month of age with virologically confirmed HSV infection were randomly (...) and blindly assigned to receive either intravenous vidarabine (30 mg per kilogram of body weight per day; n = 95) or acyclovir (30 mg per kilogram per day; n = 107) for 10 days. Actuarial rates of mortality and morbidity among the survivors after one year were compared overall and according to the extent of the disease at entry into the study (infection confined to the skin, eyes, or mouth; encephalitis; or disseminated disease).After adjustment for differences between groups in the extent of disease

1991 NEJM Controlled trial quality: predicted high

54. Prolonged continuous acyclovir treatment of normal adults with frequently recurring genital herpes simplex virus infection. The Acyclovir Study Group. (Abstract)

Prolonged continuous acyclovir treatment of normal adults with frequently recurring genital herpes simplex virus infection. The Acyclovir Study Group. In this 3-year study of suppressive acyclovir for recurrent genital herpes, patients with more than six recurrences per year were randomized initially to 400 mg of acyclovir or placebo orally two times per day, with recurrences treated with 200 mg of acyclovir five times per day for 5 days. In the second year of the study, all patients received (...) acyclovir as a daily suppressive or intermittent acute therapy; in the third year, all received daily acyclovir. Among 525 patients completing 3 study years, 289 received 3 years of suppressive therapy and 236 received 1 year of acute therapy followed by 2 years of suppressive therapy. Of those who completed the third year, 61% were recurrence free that year; 25% of the suppressive therapy-only group were recurrence free for all 3 years. The annual recurrence rate dropped from more than 12 recurrences

1991 JAMA Controlled trial quality: uncertain

55. A controlled trial comparing foscarnet with vidarabine for acyclovir-resistant mucocutaneous herpes simplex in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The AIDS Clinical Trials Group. (Abstract)

A controlled trial comparing foscarnet with vidarabine for acyclovir-resistant mucocutaneous herpes simplex in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Most strains of herpes simplex virus that are resistant to acyclovir are susceptible in vitro to both foscarnet and vidarabine. We conducted a randomized trial to compare foscarnet with vidarabine in 14 patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and mucocutaneous herpetic lesions that had been (...) unresponsive to intravenous therapy with acyclovir for a minimum of 10 days. The patients were randomly assigned to receive either foscarnet (40 mg per kilogram of body weight intravenously every 8 hours) or vidarabine (15 mg per kilogram per day intravenously) for 10 to 42 days. In the isolates of herpes simplex virus we documented in vitro resistance to acyclovir and susceptibility to foscarnet and vidarabine.The lesions in all eight patients assigned to foscarnet healed completely after 10 to 24 days

1991 NEJM Controlled trial quality: uncertain

56. A controlled trial of acyclovir for chickenpox in normal children. (Abstract)

A controlled trial of acyclovir for chickenpox in normal children. Chickenpox, the primary infection caused by the varicella-zoster virus, affects more than 3 million children a year in the United States. Although usually self-limited, chickenpox can cause prolonged discomfort and is associated with infrequent but serious complications.To evaluate the effectiveness of acyclovir for the treatment of chickenpox, we conducted a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving 815 (...) healthy children 2 to 12 years old who contracted chickenpox. Treatment with acyclovir was begun within the first 24 hours of rash and was administered by the oral route in a dose of 20 mg per kilogram of body weight four times daily for five days.The children treated with acyclovir had fewer varicella lesions than those given placebo (mean number, 294 vs 347; P less than 0.001), and a smaller proportion of them had more than 500 lesions (21 percent, as compared with 38 percent with placebo; P less

1991 NEJM Controlled trial quality: predicted high

57. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of oral acyclovir for the prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in recipients of renal allografts. (Abstract)

A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of oral acyclovir for the prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in recipients of renal allografts. Cytomegalovirus is a major viral pathogen in patients who undergo renal transplantation, and cytomegalovirus disease is difficult to treat. We therefore conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of acyclovir for the prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in recipients of renal allografts from cadavers. Acyclovir was given orally in doses (...) of 800 to 3200 mg per day, according to the patients' estimated level of renal function. Patients took the first dose of either acyclovir or placebo six hours before transplantation and continued to take the assigned medication for 12 weeks. Of 118 patients enrolled in the study, 104 completed at least 30 days on the study medication and were included in our analysis of the results. During the first year after transplantation, 4 of 53 patients (7.5 percent) in the acyclovir group had symptomatic

1989 NEJM Controlled trial quality: predicted high

58. Oral acyclovir for treatment of first-episode herpes simplex virus proctitis. (Abstract)

Oral acyclovir for treatment of first-episode herpes simplex virus proctitis. Twenty-nine patients with first-episode rectal herpes simplex virus infection were enrolled in a double-blind trial of oral acyclovir, 400 mg five times daily, vs placebo treatment. Eighty percent of those receiving acyclovir compared with 25% of placebo recipients no longer had herpes simplex virus isolated from their rectal lesions three days after onset of therapy. The median duration of rectal lesions and viral (...) excretion from rectal lesions (median, five and zero days, respectively) was significantly shorter in patients treated with acyclovir than in placebo-treated patients (14 and 11 days, respectively). Durations of local signs and symptoms of proctitis, such as rectal pain, discharge, and friability, were shorter in acyclovir recipients than in placebo recipients, but these differences were not statistically significant. Daily administration of 2 g of oral acyclovir for ten days alleviates some

1988 JAMA Controlled trial quality: uncertain

59. Acyclovir treatment of the chronic fatigue syndrome. Lack of efficacy in a placebo-controlled trial. (Abstract)

Acyclovir treatment of the chronic fatigue syndrome. Lack of efficacy in a placebo-controlled trial. Twenty-seven adults with a diagnosis of the chronic fatigue syndrome were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of acyclovir therapy. The patients had had debilitating fatigue for an average of 6.8 years, accompanied by persisting antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus early antigens (titers greater than or equal to 1:40) or undetectable levels of antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus (...) nuclear antigens (titers less than 1:2) or both. Each course of treatment consisted of intravenous placebo or acyclovir (500 mg per square meter of body-surface area) administered every eight hours for seven days. The same drug was then given orally for 30 days (acyclovir, 800 mg four times daily). There were six-week observation periods before, between, and after the treatments. Three patients had acyclovir-induced nephrotoxicity and were withdrawn from the study. Of the 24 patients who completed

1988 NEJM

60. Dosage and safety of long-term suppressive acyclovir therapy for recurrent genital herpes. (Abstract)

Dosage and safety of long-term suppressive acyclovir therapy for recurrent genital herpes. 131 patients with frequently recurring genital herpes were treated for 1 year with reducing doses of oral acyclovir. The time to first recurrence in patients who commenced therapy on 400 mg twice a day was statistically significantly shorter than those on 200 mg four times a day (p less than 0.02) and as the total daily dose and frequency of therapy were lowered so the time to first recurrence (...) was shortened. By the end of 60 days on 200 mg once a day (the lowest daily dose) 56% of patients had recurrences. Patients showed a marked reduction in the frequency of recurrence during therapy (from a mean of 1.1 per 28 days before to 0.11 during treatment, p = 0.0001). After stopping treatment the frequency of recurrences (0.71 per 28 days) was significantly less than the pre-treatment period (p = 0.001). No important side-effects were seen. It is concluded that long-term suppression with acyclovir

1988 Lancet Controlled trial quality: uncertain