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ADHD (or Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) is a neurodevelopmental type mental disorder. It is characterised two main categories of two types of behavioural problems:
hyperactivity and impulsiveness
Most people with ADHD have problems that fall into both categories, but it doesn’t have to be the case. If a person just has inattentiveness it is referred to as attention deficit disorder (ADD).
Methylphenidate is a commonly used medication used to treat patients suffering from attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Methylphenidate is part of a group of drugs known as stimulants. Central nervous system stimulants help change the amounts of natural substances in the brain. But it is not the only intervention; others include Bupropion, exercise and CBT (Cognitive behavioural therapy).
Extensive ADHD research and case studies have been carried out over numerous years. Trip has unrivalled coverage of the evidence base including systematic reviews, clinical trials, clinical guidelines and case studies.
Studies are ongoing to assess the safety and effectiveness of stimulants used on children with ADHD and intellectual disabilities as well as in other populations and other interventions. Trip also includes ongoing controlled trials and ongoing systematic reviews (via the PROSPERO database).
M, Gasior M, Gao J, Giblin J. Effect size of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivitydisorder. Postgrad Med 2011; 123(2): 169-176. 16. Shire Development. A phase 4, randomized, double-blind, multi-center, placebocontrolled, parallel-group study evaluating the safety and efficacy of SPD489 on executive function (self-regulation) behaviors in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) reporting clinically significant impairment of real-world (...) executive function behavior: study SPD489-403; clinical study report [unpublished]. 2010. 17. Shire Development. A phase 4, randomized, double-blind, multi-center, placebo- controlled, parallel-group study evaluating the safety and efficacy of SPD489 on executive function (Self-regulation) behaviors in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) reporting clinically significant impairment of real-world executive function behavior: study SPD489-403; clinical study protocol [unpublished
a suboptimal response to stimulants. PBS listing Authority Required (Streamlined) On 1 March 2019, guanfacine (Intuniv) was listed on the PBS as an Authority Required (Streamlined) listing. It was listed as an adjunctive treatment to stimulant medicines in patients with attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD). , To receive subsidised treatment, patients must have residual moderate to severe symptoms despite receiving a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of dexamfetamine, methylphenidate (...) submission for guanfacine are summarised below. ADHD-RS-IV: The AttentionDeficitHyperactivityDisorder Rating Scale IV is an investigator-rated questionnaire. It consists of 18 items that measure ADHD symptoms according to DSM-IV criteria. Scores range from 0 (never) to 54 (always). A between-group minimally clinically important difference (MCID) has not been fully established, but a 30% mean total score change (or 5.2–7.7 points) has been suggested in some publications. CGI-S: For the Clinical Global
Clinical Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of Attention-Deficit/HyperactivityDisorder in Children and Adolescents Attention-deficit/hyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) is 1 of the most common neurobehavioral disorders of childhood and can profoundly affect children's academic achievement, well-being, and social interactions. The American Academy of Pediatrics first published clinical recommendations for evaluation and diagnosis of pediatric ADHD in 2000; recommendations (...) for treatment followed in 2001. The guidelines were revised in 2011 and published with an accompanying process of care algorithm (PoCA) providing discrete and manageable steps by which clinicians could fulfill the clinical guideline's recommendations. Since the release of the 2011 guideline, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders has been revised to the fifth edition, and new ADHD-related research has been published. These publications do not support dramatic changes to the previous
. However, from the perspective of a health system focused on quality improvement (QI), such large evidence reports with wide scope are difficult to implement within a QI initiative. Methods. We consulted with two health systems to identify a published EPC report on a topic of interest to future quality initiatives. After identifying the target report on attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD), we gathered feedback from the health system to determine what information on ADHD treatments (...) in a quality improvement initiative. 8 Abbreviations and Acronyms ADHDAttention-Deficit/HyperactivityDisorder EPC Evidence-based Practice Center QI Quality Improvement 9 References 1. Kemper AR, Maslow GR, Hill S, et al. AHRQ Comparative Effectiveness Reviews. AttentionDeficitHyperactivityDisorder: Diagnosis and Treatment in Children and Adolescents. Comparative Effectiveness Review No. 203. (Prepared by the Duke University Evidence-based Practice Center under Contract No. 290-2015- 00004-I.) AHRQ
found below this term in the MeSH hierarchy; [MAJR] = MeSH Major Topic; [TIAB] = Title or abstract; [TI] = Title; [AU] = Author; [TW] = Text Word; Systematic[SB] = Filter for retrieving systematic reviews; * = Truncation Search terms Items found Population: 1. “AttentionDeficit and DisruptiveBehaviorDisorders”/ 2747 2. AttentionDeficitDisorder with Hyperactivity/ 27226 3. "Attentiondeficit* ".ab,kw,ti. 27852 4. ("Attentiondeficit*" adj6 hyper*).ab,kw,ti. 24598 5. ("ADHD" or "ADDH").ab,kw,ti (...) found Population: 1. [mh “AttentionDeficit and DisruptiveBehaviorDisorders”] 2809 2. [mh “AttentionDeficitDisorder with Hyperactivity”] 2482 3. (“AttentionDeficitDisorder*”:ab,ti) 3751 4. ("Attentiondeficit*":ab,ti NEAR hyper*:ab,ti) 3529 5. (“adhd”:ti,ab,kw OR “addh”:ti,ab) 4168 6. 1 OR 2 OR 3 OR 4 OR 5 5506 7. [mh "Autistic Disorder"] 867 8. [mh "Autism Spectrum Disorder"] 1211 9. ("Autism" or Autist* or "ASD" OR "Autism spectrum*"):ti,ab 3467 10. 7 OR 8 OR 9 3523 11. 6 OR 10 8787
Suicidal behaviour among persons with attention-deficithyperactivitydisorder Persons diagnosed with attention-deficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) have been found to have an increased risk of suicidal behaviour, but the pathway remains to be thoroughly explored.AimsTo determine whether persons with ADHD are more likely to present with suicidal behaviour (i.e. suicide attempts and deaths by suicide) if they have a comorbid psychiatric disorder.Using nationwide registers covering the entire (...) suicidal outcomes were observed. This group was found to have an IRR of suicidal behaviour of 4.7 (95% CI, 4.3-5.1) compared with those without ADHD. Persons with ADHD only had a 4.1-fold higher rate (95% CI, 3.5-4.7) when compared with those without any psychiatric diagnoses. For persons with ADHD and comorbid disorders the IRR was higher yet (IRR: 10.4; 95% CI, 9.5-11.4).This study underlines the link between ADHD and an elevated rate of suicidal behaviour, which is significantly elevated by comorbid
Continued Benefits of Methylphenidate in ADHD After 2 Years in Clinical Practice: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Discontinuation Study The benefits of long-term use of methylphenidate treatment in children and adolescents with attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD), as frequently prescribed in clinical practice, are unclear. The authors investigated whether methylphenidate remains beneficial after 2 years of use.Ninety-four children and adolescents (ages 8-18 years) who had been (...) . The ADHD-RS inattention subscale and the CTRS-R:S ADHD index and hyperactivity subscale also deteriorated significantly more in the discontinuation group. The CGI-I indicated worsening in 40.4% of the discontinuation group, compared with 15.9% of the continuation group.Continued treatment with methylphenidate remains effective after long-term use. Some individual patients may, however, be withdrawn from methylphenidate without deterioration. This finding supports guideline recommendations that patients
Social skills training for attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) in children aged 5 to 18 years. Attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) in children is associated with hyperactivity and impulsivity, attention problems, and difficulties with social interactions. Pharmacological treatment may alleviate the symptoms of ADHD but this rarely solves difficulties with social interactions. Children with ADHD may benefit from interventions designed to improve their social skills. We (...) examined the benefits and harms of social skills training on social skills, emotional competencies, general behaviour, ADHD symptoms, performance in school of children with ADHD, and adverse events.To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of social skills training in children and adolescents with ADHD.In July 2018, we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, 4 other databases and two trials registers.We also searched online conference abstracts, and contacted experts in the field
Psychosis with Methylphenidate or Amphetamine in Patients with ADHD. The prescription use of the stimulants methylphenidate and amphetamine for the treatment of attentiondeficit-hyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) has been increasing. In 2007, the Food and Drug Administration mandated changes to drug labels for stimulants on the basis of findings of new-onset psychosis. Whether the risk of psychosis in adolescents and young adults with ADHD differs among various stimulants has not been extensively (...) studied.We used data from two commercial insurance claims databases to assess patients 13 to 25 years of age who had received a diagnosis of ADHD and who started taking methylphenidate or amphetamine between January 1, 2004, and September 30, 2015. The outcome was a new diagnosis of psychosis for which an antipsychotic medication was prescribed during the first 60 days after the date of the onset of psychosis. To estimate hazard ratios for psychosis, we used propensity scores to match patients who
Squeeze balls for people with attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder Squeeze balls and fidget devices - Health Technology Wales > Squeeze balls and fidget devices Squeeze balls and fidget devices Topic Status Incomplete Squeeze balls for people with attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder. Summary Health Technology Wales researchers searched for evidence on the effectiveness of squeeze balls or other fidget devices in adults with attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder. Insufficient
Cognitive behavioural therapy could benefit adults with attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) Cognitive behavioural therapy could benefit adults with ADHD Discover Portal Discover Portal Cognitive behavioural therapy could benefit adults with attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) Published on 21 August 2018 doi: Cognitive behavioural therapy improves the core symptoms of attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) in adults, compared with a range of other treatments (...) used a variety of outcome measures, which made it difficult to compare the interventions. Despite these limitations, the review provides evidence that reinforces current guidance and practice. Share your views on the research. Why was this study needed? Attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) is a group of behavioural symptoms which usually begin in childhood. While the symptoms of inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsiveness usually improve with age, they can continue into adulthood
Amphetamines probably the best first-choice treatment for adults with ADHD Amphetamines probably the best first-choice treatment for adults with ADHD Discover Portal Discover Portal Amphetamines probably the best first-choice treatment for adults with ADHD Published on 30 October 2018 doi: There is further evidence to support the amphetamines as the most effective group of drugs for treating adults with attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder in the short-term. Two of these drugs were shown (...) a quarter of the studies having low risk of bias. The network meta-analysis allowed the authors to compare different drugs with each other as well as with placebos (dummy pills). It strengthens the evidence behind NICE guidelines which recommend a trial of either the amphetamine lisdexamfetamine or another stimulant, methylphenidate, as first-line treatments. Share your views on the research. Why was this study needed? Attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) is a persistent pattern
of bias. But this study supports NICE guidance on the range of potential drug options to consider in conjunction with behavioural and support strategies for children and young people with attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder. Share your views on the research. Why was this study needed? Attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) is a condition that starts in childhood. Symptoms include inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity that occur at home and school, interfering with functioning (...) and Social Care; 2018. NICE. . NG87. London: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence; 2018. NICE. . Clinical Knowledge Summary. London: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence; 2018. Why was this study needed? Attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) is a condition that starts in childhood. Symptoms include inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity that occur at home and school, interfering with functioning or development. It is thought to affect around 5% of children
name or password? You are here Attention-deficit/hyperactivedisorder: missing the bull’s eye Article Text Letter Attention-deficit/hyperactivedisorder: missing the bull’s eye Chaithanya Leon , Ratna Sharma , Simran Kaur Statistics from Altmetric.com The article by Cortese and Coghill comprehensively highlights the recent advances in attention-deficit/hyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) research in terms of causes, diagnosis and treatment. 1 The effort to understand the current status of the research (...) Attention-deficit/hyperactivedisorder: missing the bull’s eye Attention-deficit/hyperactivedisorder: missing the bull’s eye | Evidence-Based Mental Health Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? Search for this keyword Search for this keyword Main menu Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user
AttentionDeficit-HyperactivityDisorder and Month of School Enrollment. Younger children in a school grade cohort may be more likely to receive a diagnosis of attentiondeficit-hyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) than their older peers because of age-based variation in behavior that may be attributed to ADHD rather than to the younger age of the children. Most U.S. states have arbitrary age cutoffs for entry into public school. Therefore, within the same grade, children with birthdays close (...) to the cutoff date can differ in age by nearly 1 year.We used data from 2007 through 2015 from a large insurance database to compare the rate of ADHD diagnosis among children born in August with that among children born in September in states with and states without the requirement that children be 5 years old by September 1 for enrollment in kindergarten. ADHD diagnosis was determined on the basis of diagnosis codes from the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision. We also used prescription
disorder or ADHD Share: Reading time approx. 6 minutes There are theories that different types of nutritional or dietary interventions, where specific food items are excluded from the diet or where nutritional supplements are added, may affect the symptoms of persons with AttentionDeficitHyperactivityDisorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder. This applies, for example, to gluten-free and casein-free diet, ketogenic diet (a strict option of a low carbohydrate diet) or diet where sugar or various (...) ): AHRQ (US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality); 2018. Catala-Lopez F, Hutton B, Nunez-Beltran A, Page MJ, Ridao M, Macias Saint-Gerons D, et al. The pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder in children and adolescents: A systematic review with network meta-analyses of randomised trials. PLoS One 2017;12:e0180355. Sonuga-Barke EJ, Brandeis D, Cortese S, Daley D, Ferrin M, Holtmann M, et al. Nonpharmacological interventions for ADHD
ADHD in children and youth: Part 3?Assessment and treatment with comorbid ASD, ID, or prematurity Attention-deficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder. Three position statements have been developed by the Canadian Paediatric Society, following systematic literature reviews. Statement objectives are to: 1) Summarize the current clinical evidence regarding ADHD, 2) Establish a standard for ADHD care, and 3) Assist Canadian clinicians in making well-informed (...) , evidence-based decisions to enhance care of children and youth with this condition. Specific topics reviewed in Part 3, which focuses on associated autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, and prematurity, include the challenges of diagnostic assessment, common presentations, the role of genetics, and treatment, including the benefits of physical activity. Recommendations are based on current guidelines, evidence from the literature, and expert consensus. Keywords: Autism; ADHD; Intellectual
ADHD in children and youth: Part 2?Treatment Attention-deficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder. Three position statements have been developed by the Canadian Paediatric Society, following systematic literature reviews. Statement objectives are to: 1) Summarize the current clinical evidence regarding ADHD, 2) Establish a standard for ADHD care, and 3) Assist Canadian clinicians in making well-informed, evidence-based decisions to enhance care of children (...) the literature, and expert consensus. Keywords: ADHD; Adverse effects; Combined interventions; Medication management
ADHD in children and youth: Part 1?Etiology, diagnosis, and comorbidity Attention-deficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder. Three position statements have been developed by the Canadian Paediatric Society, following systematic literature reviews. Statement objectives are to: 1) Summarize the current clinical evidence regarding ADHD, 2) Establish a standard for ADHD care, and 3) Assist Canadian clinicians in making well-informed, evidence-based decisions (...) Guidelines Network, and the Eunethydis European ADHD Guidelines Group, were reviewed. Because ADHD is a heterogeneous disorder, comprehensive medical assessment for ADHD should always include a complete history, a physical examination, and a thorough consideration of differential diagnosis and related comorbidities. Specific recommendations for information gathering, testing, and referral are offered. Keywords: Attention-deficithyperactivitydisorder; Comorbidity; Diagnosis; Etiology