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ADHD (or Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) is a neurodevelopmental type mental disorder. It is characterised two main categories of two types of behavioural problems:
hyperactivity and impulsiveness
Most people with ADHD have problems that fall into both categories, but it doesn’t have to be the case. If a person just has inattentiveness it is referred to as attention deficit disorder (ADD).
Methylphenidate is a commonly used medication used to treat patients suffering from attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Methylphenidate is part of a group of drugs known as stimulants. Central nervous system stimulants help change the amounts of natural substances in the brain. But it is not the only intervention; others include Bupropion, exercise and CBT (Cognitive behavioural therapy).
Extensive ADHD research and case studies have been carried out over numerous years. Trip has unrivalled coverage of the evidence base including systematic reviews, clinical trials, clinical guidelines and case studies.
Studies are ongoing to assess the safety and effectiveness of stimulants used on children with ADHD and intellectual disabilities as well as in other populations and other interventions. Trip also includes ongoing controlled trials and ongoing systematic reviews (via the PROSPERO database).
and intervention programmes for ADHD did not improve children's outcomes at age 10 Statistics from Altmetric.com Question Question How do early school-based screening and educational interventions affect the long-term outcomes for children at risk for attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD)? Patients 487 children (age 10–11) from 308 schools who had been screened for ADHD symptoms between 4 and 5 years of age. Initially 68 711 children aged 4–5 years old were screened in 2040 schools from 24 local (...) education authority (LEA) areas in England; 7570 children were identified as having high teacher-rated hyperactivity/inattention scores (six or more ADHD symptoms as defined in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition criteria). These schools were randomised to receive one of four interventions (see Intervention below). The current study asked a sample of 549 schools from the 20 LEA areas with ≥20 participating schools, and 1662 children (and their parents) from these schools to participate
Comparing the efficacy of stimulants for ADHD in children and adolescents using meta-analysis Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.
is the prevalence of psychopathology in girls with and without attention-deficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) followed into young adulthood? Population: A total of 262 girls aged between 6 and 18 years were recruited from various from various psychiatric and paediatric sources. Out of these, 140 girls had DSM-III-R ADHD, and 122 did not (controls). Exclusion criteria: being adopted, nuclear family not available for participation, major sensorimotor disabilities, psychosis, autism, full-scale IQ<80 (...) , or inadequate ability with the English language. Setting: USA; time period not stated. Prognostic factors: Diagnosis of ADHD. Outcomes: Lifetime and previous-year DSM-IV psychopathology, including composite categories of antisocial disorders, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, developmental disorder, and substance-dependence disorders. Diagnoses were assessed in interviews with the participants and their mothers using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and modules of the DSM-IV modified Schedule
Cognitive behavioral therapy vs relaxation with educational support for medication-treated adults with ADHD and persistent symptoms: a randomized controlled trial. Attention-deficit/hyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) in adulthood is a prevalent, distressing, and impairing condition that is not fully treated by pharmacotherapy alone and lacks evidence-based psychosocial treatments.To test cognitive behavioral therapy for ADHD in adults treated with medication but who still have clinically significant (...) support (which is an attention-matched comparison).The primary measures were ADHD symptoms rated by an assessor (ADHD rating scale and Clinical Global Impression scale) at baseline, posttreatment, and at 6- and 12-month follow-up. The assessor was blinded to treatment condition assignment. The secondary outcome measure was self-report of ADHD symptoms.Cognitive behavioral therapy achieved lower posttreatment scores on both the Clinical Global Impression scale (magnitude -0.0531; 95% confidence
Duration of effect of oral long-acting stimulant medications for ADHD throughout the day Duration of effect of oral long-acting stimulant medications for ADHD throughout the day Duration of effect of oral long-acting stimulant medications for ADHD throughout the day Brams M, Moon E, Pucci M, Lopez FA CRD summary This review found that most long-acting stimulants conferred benefits in populations with attention-deficit/hyperactivitydisorder for up to 12 hours as measured by mathematics tests (...) . Methodological flaws and a lack of information about the quality of the studies mean that the results should be interpreted with some caution and made the reliability of the authors' conclusions unclear. Authors' objectives To determine the duration of effect of long-acting stimulant treatment in patients with attention-deficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) using analogue classroom protocols. Searching MEDLINE, BIOSYS and EMBASE were searched to June 2009 for relevant published studies; search terms were
health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health. Bupropion for adults with attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder: a review of the clinical effectiveness and harms of misuse . Ottawa: Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH). 2010 Authors' conclusions RCTs examining the efficacy of bupropion in adult ADHD frequently reported (...) Bupropion for adults with attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder: a review of the clinical effectiveness and harms of misuse Bupropion for adults with attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder: a review of the clinical effectiveness and harms of misuse Bupropion for adults with attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder: a review of the clinical effectiveness and harms of misuse Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published
with attentiondeficit and hyperactivitydisorder (ADHD). The authors concluded that adding an ECG to screening might be cost-effective, especially when referral to cardiology was based on this alone. The benefits arose mainly from children avoiding competitive sports. The methods were valid and various areas of uncertainty were considered. The authors’ conclusions appear to be robust. Type of economic evaluation Cost-utility analysis Study objective This study examined the cost-effectiveness of screening (...) , before stimulant medication, using an electrocardiogram (ECG), to reduce the risk of sudden cardiac death, in children with attentiondeficit and hyperactivitydisorder (ADHD). Interventions There were three strategies. In strategy one, a history and physical examination were performed and children were referred to cardiology if the findings were abnormal. This was the usual care. In strategy two, a history and physical examination were performed, with an ECG if the findings were normal and referral
make up AttentionDeficitHyperactivityDisorder 1 (ADHD) and Hyperkinetic Disorder 2 (HKD) are the most widely researched in child and adolescent mental health, but there is continuing development of the definition of these disorders and their management. The core symptoms of ADHD and HKD have a significant impact on a child’s development, including social, emotional and cognitive functioning and they are responsible for considerable morbidity and dysfunction for the child or young person (...) physical anomalies is part of an overall physical evaluation. Standardised assessment schedules are available. 4 assessMent3 10 ManageMent of attentiondeficit and hyperkinetic disorders in children and young people ; Clinical examination of children and young people presenting with ADHD/HKD should include a systems inquiry, details of previous health problems, current drug treatment, and physical examination. vision and hearing should be assessed and formally tested if indicated. 4.8 ancillary
Evaluating dopamine reward pathway in ADHD: clinical implications. Attention-deficit/hyperactivitydisorder (ADHD)--characterized by symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity--is the most prevalent childhood psychiatric disorder that frequently persists into adulthood, and there is increasing evidence of reward-motivation deficits in this disorder.To evaluate biological bases that might underlie a reward/motivation deficit by imaging key components of the brain dopamine reward (...) with ADHD (95% CI, 0.10-0.56; P = .005) and differences in D(2)/D(3) in the hypothalamic region, with controls having a mean of 0.12 vs 0.05 for those with ADHD (95% CI, 0.02-0.12; P = .004). Ratings of attention correlated with D(2)/D(3) in the accumbens (r = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.15-0.52; P = .001), midbrain (r = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.14-0.52; P = .001), caudate (r = 0.32; 95% CI, 0.11-0.50; P = .003), and hypothalamic (r = 0.31; CI, 0.10-0.49; P = .003) regions and with DAT in the midbrain (r = 0.37; 95% CI
, Starreveld JS, et al. Melatonin for treatment of sleeping disorders in children with attentiondeficit/hyperactivitydisorder: a preliminary open label study. Eur J Pediatr 2003;162:554–5. Van der Heijden KB, Smits MG, Van Someren EJ, et al. Effect of melatonin on sleep, behavior, and cognition in ADHD and chronic sleep-onset insomnia. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2007;46:233–41. Betancourt-Fursow de Jimenez YM, Jimenez-Leon JC, Jimenez-Betancourt CS. Attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder (...) Part Question In [children with ADHD] does [melatonin] improve [sleep pattern]? Clinical Scenario Adam is an 8-year-old boy with attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) who you see with his mother in your paediatric outpatient clinic. She explains that life is being made increasingly stressful for the whole family as Adam is having difficulty getting off to sleep. It often takes him several hours to calm down and go to sleep, and the next day he gets angry and seems to be tired all the time
-group study was conducted. Patients underwent stratification according to age (6-11 years [N = 111] or 12-17 years [N = 90]) and were assigned randomly to receive treatment with the study drug or placebo (in a 2:1 ratio). The primary efficacy variable was latency to persistent sleep between weeks 3 and 6. Secondary efficacy variables also were assessed, and behavioral and cognitive components of attention-deficit/hyperactivitydisorder were monitored. Safety was assessed on the basis of reports (...) Controlled clinical trial of zolpidem for the treatment of insomnia associated with attention-deficit/ hyperactivitydisorder in children 6 to 17 years of age The goal was to evaluate the hypnotic efficacy of zolpidem at 0.25 mg/kg per day (maximum of 10 mg/day), compared with placebo, in children 6 through 17 years of age who were experiencing insomnia associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.An 8-week, North American, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel
Risperidone for attention-deficithyperactivitydisorder in people with intellectual disabilities. Attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) is increasingly recognised as occurring in people with intellectual disability (ID), although treatment of ADHD in this population has not ben tested widely. Risperidone has been used to treat ADHD in people with ID, although the evidence for its effectiveness is unclear.To examine the effectiveness of risperidone for the treatment of attention (...) deficithyperactivitydisorder in people with intellectual disabilities.In February 2009, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, AMED, ISI Web of Science and WorldCat Dissertations were searched using an extensive list of synonyms for ADHD and ID. CENTRAL, CCDPLP, Current Controlled Trials meta-register (mRCT), CenterWatch, NHS National Research Register, clinicaltrials.gov were searched, pharmaceutical companies and experts in the field were contacted. Reference lists of review articles were examined
Amfetamine for attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder in people with intellectual disabilities. Attention-deficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) is increasingly recognised as occurring in people with intellectual disability (ID), although treatment of ADHD in this population has not been tested widely. Amfetamine has been used to treat ADHD in people with and without ID, although the evidence for its efficacy in people with ID is unclear.To examine the effectiveness of amfetamine (...) for the treatment of attentiondeficithyperactivitydisorder in people with intellectual disabilities.MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, AMED, ISI Web of Science and WorldCat Dissertations were searched using an extensive list of synonyms for ADHD and ID. CENTRAL, Current Controlled Trials meta-register (mRCT), CenterWatch, NHS National Research Register, clinicaltrials.gov were searched in August 2007. Pharmaceutical companies and experts in the field were contacted. Reference lists of review articles were examined
Extended-release medications for children and adolescents with attention-deficithyperactivitydisorderAttention-deficithyperactivitydisorder (ADHD) affects one in 20 Canadian children, and is associated with unfavourable academic and employment records, high rates of injury and substance abuse, poor interpersonal relationships, poor mental health outcomes and poor quality of life. Medications have been shown to be efficacious in treating ADHD symptoms in controlled trials (...) to all children and youth with ADHD. Key Words: Atomoxetine; Attention-deficithyperactivitydisorder; Effectiveness; Extended-release; Immediate-release; Mixed amphetamine salt; OROS methylphenidate; Quality of life
Antidepressants in the treatment of adult attention-deficithyperactivitydisorder: a systematic review Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.