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Tobacco carcinogen research to aid understanding of cancer risk and influence policy Education regarding the health effects associated with tobacco use has made important progress worldwide over the last few decades. Still, tobacco remains a significant cause of cancer and other diseases. As a result, significant worldwide morbidity and mortality is still attributable to tobacco use in modern times. Research into tobacco products, the carcinogens they contain, and how users metabolize them
Using strategic information for action: lessons from the HIV/AIDS response in Vietnam 30294455 2018 11 14 2059-7908 3 5 2018 BMJ global health BMJ Glob Health Using strategic information for action: lessons from the HIV/AIDS response in Vietnam. e000793 10.1136/bmjgh-2018-000793 Son Vo Hai VH Vietnam Administration on HIV/AIDS Control, Vietnam Ministry of Health, Hanoi, Vietnam. Abdul-Quader Abu A Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hanoi, Viet Nam. Suthar
Factors associated with knowledge and awareness of HIV/AIDS among married women in Bangladesh: evidence from a nationally representative survey Women in Bangladesh share a greater risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/AcquiredImmuneDeficiencySyndrome (AIDS) infection compared to men. Levels of knowledge and awareness largely contribute to the prevalence of the HIV epidemic and its consequences. So, it is required to conduct studies based on most recent data to explore the determinants (...) of HIV awareness. Therefore, we aimed to find the awareness level and factors influencing HIV related awareness among the married women in Bangladesh. We used data from 2014 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS). About two-third of total respondents who heard about the HIV/AIDS were selected and interviewed successfully (n = 12,593) about 11 basic questions related to individual's awareness. A score of the respondent's knowledge and awareness was determined based on these questions. We used
0 2018 9 21 6 0 2018 9 21 6 1 epublish 30233834 10.1136/bmjgh-2018-000940 bmjgh-2018-000940 PMC6135478 Pediatrics. 2005 Feb;115(2):e167-72 15687425 J Infect Dis. 2016 Apr 1;213(7):1057-64 26265780 Pediatrics. 1971 Dec;48(6):902-6 5129451 J AcquirImmune Defic Syndr. 2006 Apr 1;41(4):509-13 16652061 Demography. 2013 Apr;50(2):421-44 23151996 Lancet. 2004 Oct 2-8;364(9441):1236-43 15464184 Demography. 2015 Dec;52(6):2053-6 26527470 Am Econ Rev. 2017 May;107(5):541-5 29558066 Soc Sci Med. 1983;17(6 (...) The sex gap in neonatal mortality and the AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa 30233834 2018 11 14 2059-7908 3 5 2018 BMJ global health BMJ Glob Health The sex gap in neonatal mortality and the AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. e000940 10.1136/bmjgh-2018-000940 Yaya Sanni S 0000-0002-4876-6043 School of International Development and Global Studies, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Diarra Setou S Department of Economics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Mabeu Marie
Severe acute respiratory distress syndrome in a patient with AIDS successfully treated with venoâ€venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: a case report and literature review Several successful uses of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with novel HIV/AIDS infection have been reported; however, the therapeutic keys have not always been discussed.A 47-year-old man was admitted with progressive shortness of breath. He (...) was successfully decannulated and was eventually discharged.In acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with HIV/AIDS refractory to treatment, ECMO should be considered. Post-ECMO antiretroviral therapy could improve outcomes.
and is found worldwide. HIV-2 is found mainly in West Africa but has also (...) progress rapidly to AIDS ( AcquiredImmuneDeficiencySyndrome ) within 1–2 years, while others may remain immunocompetent more than 10 years later. AIDS is the advanced stage of HIV infection when the number of CD4 cells is very low (less than 200 cells/uL). When the immune system is impaired to this extent certain opportunistic infections and malignancies can develop, such as pneumocystis pneumonia and Kaposi’s sarcoma (...) infection and acquiredimmunedeficiencysyndrome ( HIV/ AIDS ) is a spectrum of conditions caused by with the (HIV (...) ). Following initial infection, a person may not notice any symptoms or may experience a brief period of . Typically, this is followed by a prolonged period with no symptoms. As the infection progresses, it interferes more with the , increasing the risk of common infections like , as well as other , and that rarely affect people who have working immune systems. These late symptoms
Violence, abuse and discrimination: key factors militating against control of HIV/AIDS among the LGBTI sector The Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Intersex (LGBTI) South Africans continue to face considerable challenges, including societal stigma, homophobic violence (particularly corrective rape), and high rates of sexually transmitted diseases and infections (particularly Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/AIDS) even when discrimination based on sexual orientation was outlawed by South (...) African's post-apartheid constitution. This study was conducted to ascertain violence, abuse and discrimination against the LGBTI sector as key factors that hinder the smooth implementation of HIV/AIDS programme among sexually minority (LGBTI) group in Walter Sisulu University, South Africa. The self-structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The study involved 3048 purposively selected participants (1285 male and 1763 female) aged 17-38 years. About 70.5% of the participants witnessed physical
Association of Viral Suppression With Lower AIDS-Defining and Non-AIDS-Defining Cancer Incidence in HIV-Infected Veterans: A Prospective Cohort Study. Viral suppression is a primary marker of HIV treatment success. Persons with HIV are at increased risk for AIDS-defining cancer (ADC) and several types of non-AIDS-defining cancer (NADC), some of which are caused by oncogenic viruses.To determine whether viral suppression is associated with decreased cancer risk.Prospective cohort.Department
Hearing Aids and Health-Related Quality of Life in Adults With Hearing Loss. Are hearing aids associated with improved health-related quality of life in adults with mild to moderate hearing loss?Compared with no hearing aids, the provision of hearing aids was associated with improvements in hearing-specific and general health-related quality of life.
of Science, and Sociological Abstracts with no restriction on publication date, for articles in English language. Sample search terms included: HIV infections OR HIV OR AIDS OR acquiredimmunodeficiencysyndrome OR human immunodeficiency virus AND social capital OR social control, informal OR social participation OR social cohesion OR generalized trust OR social trust OR collective efficacy OR community mob* OR civic participation.We identified 1581 unique manuscripts and reviewed 13 based on eligibility (...) Social capital and HIV/AIDS in the United States: Knowledge, gaps, and future directions Social capital is a well-established predictor of several behavioral health outcomes. However, we know less about the relationship with prevention, transmission, and treatment of HIV/AIDS outcomes in the United States (US).In 2017, we conducted a scoping review of empirical studies investigating the relationships between social capital and HIV/AIDS in the US by searching PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Web
Spending on health and HIV/AIDS: domestic health spending and development assistance in 188 countries, 1995-2015. Comparable estimates of health spending are crucial for the assessment of health systems and to optimally deploy health resources. The methods used to track health spending continue to evolve, but little is known about the distribution of spending across diseases. We developed improved estimates of health spending by source, including development assistance for health (...) , and, for the first time, estimated HIV/AIDS spending on prevention and treatment and by source of funding, for 188 countries.We collected published data on domestic health spending, from 1995 to 2015, from a diverse set of international agencies. We tracked development assistance for health from 1990 to 2017. We also extracted 5385 datapoints about HIV/AIDS spending, between 2000 and 2015, from online databases, country reports, and proposals submitted to multilateral organisations. We used spatiotemporal
Collaborative case management to aid return to work after long-term sickness absence: a pilot randomised controlled trial Collaborative case management to aid return to work after long-term sickness absence: a pilot randomised controlled trial Collaborative case management to aid return to work after long-term sickness absence: a pilot randomised controlled trial Kenning C, Lovell K, Hann M, Agius R, Bee P E, Chew-Graham C, Coventry P A, van der Feltz-Cornelis C M, Gilbody S, Hardy G, Kellett S (...) , Kessler D, McMillan D, Reeves D, Rick J, Sutton M & Bower P Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Kenning C, Lovell K, Hann M, Agius R, Bee P E, Chew-Graham C, Coventry P A, van der Feltz-Cornelis C M, Gilbody S, Hardy G, Kellett S, Kessler D, McMillan D, Reeves D, Rick J, Sutton M & Bower P. Collaborative case management to aid return
Cross-country Association of Press Freedom and LGBT freedom with prevalence of persons living with HIV: implication for global strategy against HIV/AIDS Human behaviors are affected by attitudes and beliefs, which in turn are shaped by higher-level values to which we have ascribed. In this study, we explore the relationship between two higher-level values, press freedom and LGBT freedom, and HIV infection with national data at the population level.Data were the number of persons living with HIV
HIV/AIDS and older adults in Cameroon: Emerging issues and implications for caregiving and policy-making The burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquiredimmunedeficiencysyndrome (AIDS) on the elderly population in three divisions within the Northwest Region of Cameroon was examined. Data for this paper were extracted from a larger study which had been conducted concerning the burden of HIV infection and AIDS on the older adults in the Northwest Region of Cameroon (...) . Using in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs), data were collected from 36 participants who were purposively selected from the three divisions which had been chosen randomly. 6 FGD sessions were held with 30 women aged 60 years and above and who were affected by HIV infection and AIDS, while IDIs sessions were held with 6 male community leaders. The results revealed that HIV infection and AIDS has added another dimension to the role of older persons. HIV infection and AIDS
Accounting for youth audiencesâ€™ resistances to HIV and AIDS messages in the television drama Tsha Tsha in South Africa Theoretical debates and literature on E-E efforts in Africa have largely focussed on understanding how and why interventions on HIV and AIDS are effective in influencing behaviour change among target communities. Very few studies have sought to investigate and understand why a substantial number of targeted audiences resist the preferred readings that are encoded into E-E (...) interventions on HIV and AIDS. Using cultural studies as its conceptual framework and reception analysis as its methodology, this study investigated and accounted for the oppositional readings that subaltern black South African youths negotiate from Tsha Tsha, an E-E television drama on HIV and AIDS in South Africa. Results from the study show that HIV and AIDS messages in Tsha Tsha face substantial resistances from situated youth viewers whose social contexts of consumption, shared identities, quotidian
Development and External Validation of an Automated Computer-Aided Risk Score for Predicting Sepsis in Emergency Medical Admissions Using the Patient`s First Electronically Recorded Vital Signs and Blood Test Results To develop a logistic regression model to predict the risk of sepsis following emergency medical admission using the patient's first, routinely collected, electronically recorded vital signs and blood test results and to validate this novel computer-aided risk of sepsis model (...) ; Northern Lincolnshire and Goole Hospital: 21.4% = 612/2,864). The C-statistic for computer-aided risk of sepsis in York Hospital (all sepsis 0.78; sepsis: 0.73; severe sepsis: 0.80) was similar in an external hospital setting (Northern Lincolnshire and Goole Hospital: all sepsis 0.79; sepsis: 0.70; severe sepsis: 0.81). A cutoff value of 0.2 gives reasonable performance.We have developed a novel, externally validated computer-aided risk of sepsis, with reasonably good performance for estimating
[Decision aid for biomarker tests in breast cancer - addendum to commission D14-01] Entscheidungshilfe zu biomarker-tests bei brustkrebs: addendum zum auftrag D14-01; auftrag P17-03; version 1.1 [Decision aid for biomarker tests in breast cancer - addendum to commission D14-01] Entscheidungshilfe zu biomarker-tests bei brustkrebs: addendum zum auftrag D14-01; auftrag P17-03; version 1.1 [Decision aid for biomarker tests in breast cancer - addendum to commission D14-01] Institut für Qualität und (...) Wirtschaftlichkeit im Gesundheitswesen Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Institut für Qualität und Wirtschaftlichkeit im Gesundheitswesen. Entscheidungshilfe zu biomarker-tests bei brustkrebs: addendum zum auftrag D14-01; auftrag P17-03; version 1.1. [Decision aid for biomarker tests in breast cancer - addendum to commission D14-01] Cologne
[Invitation and decision aid for cervical cancer screening] Einladungsschreiben und entscheidungshilfen zum zervixkarzinom-screening: abschlussbericht; auftrag P15-02 [Invitation and decision aid for cervical cancer screening] Einladungsschreiben und entscheidungshilfen zum zervixkarzinom-screening: abschlussbericht; auftrag P15-02 [Invitation and decision aid for cervical cancer screening] Institut für Qualität und Wirtschaftlichkeit im Gesundheitswesen Record Status This is a bibliographic (...) record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Institut für Qualität und Wirtschaftlichkeit im Gesundheitswesen. Einladungsschreiben und entscheidungshilfen zum zervixkarzinom-screening: abschlussbericht; auftrag P15-02. [Invitation and decision aid for cervical cancer screening] Cologne: Institut fuer Qualitaet und Wirtschaftlichkeit im Gesundheitswesen (IQWiG). IQWiG-Berichte
Cryptococcal choroiditis in advanced AIDS with clinicopathologic correlation To describe a case of disseminated cryptococcal meningitis with multifocal choroiditis and provide optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings correlated with described histopathology in a patient with advanced acquiredimmunodeficiencysyndrome (AIDS).The patient was a 54-year-old man with AIDS who presented with dyspnea and headache followed by acute vision loss. OCT demonstrated a lesion with a small area of fluid (...) of cryptococcal choroiditis and provides a review of the updated treatment recommendations for disseminated infection in a patient with advanced AIDS. Although currently fundoscopy has proven most useful in directing the diagnostic algorithm in choroiditis in the setting of advanced immunosuppression, OCT may provide insight into the spread of Cryptococcus within the eye.