Latest & greatest articles for alzheimer

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Alzheimer’s disease

Alzheimer’s disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disease responsible for the majority of cases of dementia. This progressive disease disrupts memory and thinking due to an accumulation of plaques and tangles in the brain. As the disease progresses, these get progressively worse.

What causes Alzheimer’s diseases is poorly understood, although there is a strong genetic component which could account for the majority (~70%) of the risk. Other risk factors have been identified, such as depression, head injuries and hypertension. Alzheimer’s disease is typically a disease of older people.

Although Alzheimer’s disease cannot currently be cured but it can be managed. With cholinesterase inhibitors being a common intervention as well as memantine (an NMDA receptor antagonist) and psychosocial interventions.

Trip has an extensive collection of research evidence and articles relating to Alzheimer’s disease including clinical guidelines, systematic reviews, synopses, clinical trials and case reports.

Top results for alzheimer

1. Diagnosis and Treatment of Clinical Alzheimer’s-Type Dementia

Diagnosis and Treatment of Clinical Alzheimer’s-Type Dementia Diagnosis and Treatment of Clinical Alzheimer’s-Type Dementia: A Systematic Review Comparative Effectiveness Review Number 223 RComparative Effectiveness Review Number 223 Diagnosis and Treatment of Clinical Alzheimer’s-Type Dementia: A Systematic Review Prepared for: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 5600 Fishers Lane Rockville, MD 20857 www.ahrq.gov Contract No. 290-2015-00008-I (...) , M.F.A. Nancy L. Greer, Ph.D. Kerry M. Sheets, M.D. Timothy J. Wilt, M.D., M.P.H. Mary Butler, Ph.D., M.B.A. AHRQ Publication No. 20-EHC003 April 2020 Key Messages Purpose of Review To summarize evidence on cognitive test accuracy for clinical Alzheimer’s-type dementia (CATD) in suspected cognitive impairment; biomarker accuracy for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in dementia; and effects of CATD drug treatment. Key Messages • Many brief cognitive tests were highly (>0.8) sensitive and specific

2020 Effective Health Care Program (AHRQ)

2. A Significant Association Exists Between Periodontal Disease and Alzheimer’s Disease

A Significant Association Exists Between Periodontal Disease and Alzheimer’s Disease UTCAT3403, Found CAT view, CRITICALLY APPRAISED TOPICs University: | | ORAL HEALTH EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE PROGRAM View the CAT / Title A Significant Association Exists Between Periodontal Disease and Alzheimer’s Disease Clinical Question Is a patient with periodontal disease at higher risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease, compared to an individual without periodontal disease? Clinical Bottom Line (...) A significant association exists between periodontitis and Alzheimer’s disease, proposing that patients with periodontal disease are at higher risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. This proposal is supported by a systematic review and robustly powered retrospective matched-cohort study. Based on the findings of these references, it can be postulated that patients with severe periodontitis who have been exposed to the disease for a minimum of 10 years are at greatest risk for developing Alzheimer’s disease

2019 UTHSCSA Dental School CAT Library

3. Mini-Cog for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease dementia and other dementias within a secondary care setting. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mini-Cog for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease dementia and other dementias within a secondary care setting. The diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease dementia and other dementias relies on clinical assessment. There is a high prevalence of cognitive disorders, including undiagnosed dementia in secondary care settings. Short cognitive tests can be helpful in identifying those who require further specialist diagnostic assessment; however, there is a lack of consensus around the optimal tools (...) to use in clinical practice. The Mini-Cog is a short cognitive test comprising three-item recall and a clock-drawing test that is used in secondary care settings.The primary objective was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the Mini-Cog for detecting Alzheimer's disease dementia and other dementias in a secondary care setting. The secondary objectives were to investigate the heterogeneity of test accuracy in the included studies and potential sources of heterogeneity. These potential sources

2019 Cochrane

4. ADDENDUM: Genetic counseling and testing for Alzheimer disease: joint practice guidelines of the American College of Medical Genetics and the National Society of Genetic Counselors

ADDENDUM: Genetic counseling and testing for Alzheimer disease: joint practice guidelines of the American College of Medical Genetics and the National Society of Genetic Counselors ADDENDUM: Genetic counseling and testing for Alzheimer disease: joint practice guidelines of the American College of Medical Genetics and the National Society of Genetic Counselors Jill S. Goldman, MS, MPhil 1,2 , Susan E. Hahn, MS 3 , Jennifer Williamson Catania, MS, MPH 1,2 , Susan LaRusse-Eckert, MS 2 , Melissa (...) the following considerations in reaffirming this document: 1. To use the phrase “pathogenic variant” rather than the word “mutation” in discussing pathogenic variants related to autosomal dominant early-onset Alzheimer disease. This would be consistent with current ACMG/AMP Guidelines for Variant Interpretation and Reporting 1 . 2. Because this document no longer meets the criteria for an evidence-based practice guideline by either the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) or National

2019 American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics

5. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on cognitive function and blood Abeta-related biomarkers in older adults with Alzheimer`s disease: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (Abstract)

Effects of vitamin D supplementation on cognitive function and blood Abeta-related biomarkers in older adults with Alzheimer`s disease: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial Our study aimed to assess the effect of a 12-month vitamin D supplementation on cognitive function and amyloid beta (Aβ)-related biomarkers in subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS : This was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. 210 AD patients were randomly divided

2019 EvidenceUpdates

6. Drugs for Alzheimer's disease: reduction in the number of prescriptions is too slow

Drugs for Alzheimer's disease: reduction in the number of prescriptions is too slow Prescrire IN ENGLISH - Spotlight ''Drugs for Alzheimer's disease: reduction in the number of prescriptions is too slow'', 1 May 2019 {1} {1} {1} | | > > > Drugs for Alzheimer's disease: reduction in the number of prescriptions is too slow Spotlight Every month, the subjects in Prescrire’s Spotlight. 100 most recent :  |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |  (...)  |  Spotlight Drugs for Alzheimer's disease: reduction in the number of prescriptions is too slow A study conducted by the independent French medical journal Prescrire shows a reduction of only around 26% in the number of patients in France exposed to at least one Alzheimer's disease drug between 2012 and 2017. In approximately 3 out of 4 newly exposed patients, treatment lasted for more than 6 months, despite the proven harms. In France, as far back as 2011, the pharmacoeconomic committee

2019 Prescrire

7. INTREPAD: A randomized trial of naproxen to slow progress of presymptomatic Alzheimer disease Full Text available with Trip Pro

INTREPAD: A randomized trial of naproxen to slow progress of presymptomatic Alzheimer disease To evaluate the safety and efficacy of low-dose naproxen for prevention of progression in presymptomatic Alzheimer disease (AD) among cognitively intact persons at risk.Investigation of Naproxen Treatment Effects in Pre-symptomatic Alzheimer's Disease (INTREPAD), a 2-year double-masked pharmaco-prevention trial, enrolled 195 AD family history-positive elderly (mean age 63 years) participants screened (...) carefully to exclude cognitive disorder (NCT-02702817). These were randomized 1:1 to naproxen sodium 220 mg twice daily or placebo. Multimodal imaging, neurosensory, cognitive, and (in ∼50%) CSF biomarker evaluations were performed at baseline, 3, 12, and 24 months. A modified intent-to-treat analysis considered 160 participants who remained on-treatment through their first follow-up examination. The primary outcome was rate of change in a multimodal composite presymptomatic Alzheimer Progression Score

2019 EvidenceUpdates

8. Scam Awareness Related to Incident Alzheimer Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Prospective Cohort Study. (Abstract)

Scam Awareness Related to Incident Alzheimer Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Prospective Cohort Study. Decreased scam awareness may be an early indicator of impending Alzheimer dementia and its precursor, mild cognitive impairment, but prior studies have not systematically examined the associations between scam awareness and adverse cognitive outcomes.To test the hypothesis that low scam awareness is associated with increased risk for incident Alzheimer dementia, mild cognitive (...) impairment, and Alzheimer disease pathology in the brain.Prospective cohort study of aging.Community-based study in the greater Chicago metropolitan area.935 older persons initially free of dementia.Scam awareness was measured via questionnaire, incident Alzheimer dementia and mild cognitive impairment were documented in detailed annual cognitive and clinical evaluations, and Alzheimer disease neuropathology was quantified after death among a subset of persons who died (n = 264). Proportional hazards

2019 Annals of Internal Medicine

9. Randomized Trial of Verubecestat for Prodromal Alzheimer's Disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Randomized Trial of Verubecestat for Prodromal Alzheimer's Disease. Prodromal Alzheimer's disease offers an opportunity to test the effect of drugs that modify the deposition of amyloid in the brain before the onset of dementia. Verubecestat is an orally administered β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE-1) inhibitor that blocks production of amyloid-beta (Aβ). The drug did not prevent clinical progression in a trial involving patients with mild-to-moderate dementia due (...) to Alzheimer's disease.We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 104-week trial to evaluate verubecestat at doses of 12 mg and 40 mg per day, as compared with placebo, in patients who had memory impairment and elevated brain amyloid levels but whose condition did not meet the case definition of dementia. The primary outcome was the change from baseline to week 104 in the score on the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale-Sum of Boxes (CDR-SB; scores range from 0 to 18, with higher scores

2019 NEJM Controlled trial quality: predicted high

10. Use of postmenopausal hormone therapy and risk of Alzheimer's disease in Finland: nationwide case-control study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Use of postmenopausal hormone therapy and risk of Alzheimer's disease in Finland: nationwide case-control study. To compare the use of hormone therapy between Finnish postmenopausal women with and without a diagnosis for Alzheimer's disease.Nationwide case-control study.Finnish national population and drug register, between 1999 and 2013.All postmenopausal women (n=84 739) in Finland who, between 1999 and 2013, received a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease from a neurologist or geriatrician (...) , and who were identified from a national drug register. Control women without a diagnosis (n=84 739), matched by age and hospital district, were traced from the Finnish national population register.Data on hormone therapy use were obtained from the Finnish national drug reimbursement register.Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for Alzheimer's disease, calculated with conditional logistic regression analysis.In 83 688 (98.8%) women, a diagnosis for Alzheimer's disease was made at the age of 60

2019 BMJ

11. Enrichment factors for clinical trials in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Enrichment factors for clinical trials in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease. Heterogeneity of outcomes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) clinical trials necessitates large sample sizes and contributes to study failures. This analysis determined whether mild-to-moderate AD populations could be enriched for cognitive decline based on apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 genotype, family history of AD, and amyloid abnormalities.Modeling estimated the number of randomized patients needed to detect a 2-point

2019 Alzheimer's & dementia (New York, N. Y.) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12. Plasma exchange for Alzheimer's disease Management by Albumin Replacement (AMBAR) trial: Study design and progress. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Plasma exchange for Alzheimer's disease Management by Albumin Replacement (AMBAR) trial: Study design and progress. Preliminary studies have shown that treatment with plasma exchange (PE) plus therapeutic albumin replacement in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) induced mobilization of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amyloid β protein, associated with an improvement in memory and language functions, as well as the stabilization of brain perfusion, which persisted after treatment

2019 Alzheimer's & dementia (New York, N. Y.) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

13. Moderate- to high-intensity exercise does not modify cortical β-amyloid in Alzheimer's disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Moderate- to high-intensity exercise does not modify cortical β-amyloid in Alzheimer's disease. Animal models of Alzheimer's disease show that exercise may modify β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition. We examined the effect of a 16-week exercise intervention on cortical Aβ in patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease.Thirty-six patients with Alzheimer's disease were randomized to either one hour of aerobic exercise three times weekly for 16 weeks or usual care. Pre and post intervention

2019 Alzheimer's & dementia (New York, N. Y.) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

14. The Alzheimer's Prevention Initiative Generation Program: Study design of two randomized controlled trials for individuals at risk for clinical onset of Alzheimer's disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Alzheimer's Prevention Initiative Generation Program: Study design of two randomized controlled trials for individuals at risk for clinical onset of Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, including the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) species and tau pathology, begins decades before the onset of cognitive impairment. This long preclinical period provides an opportunity for clinical trials designed to prevent or delay the onset of cognitive impairment due to AD. Under (...) the umbrella of the Alzheimer's Prevention Initiative Generation Program, therapies targeting Aβ, including CNP520 (umibecestat), a β-site-amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE-1) inhibitor, and CAD106, an active Aβ immunotherapy, are in clinical development in preclinical AD.The Alzheimer's Prevention Initiative Generation Program comprises two pivotal (phase 2/3) studies that assess the efficacy and safety of umibecestat and CAD106 in cognitively unimpaired individuals with high risk

2019 Alzheimer's & dementia (New York, N. Y.) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

15. Magnetic resonance imaging measures of brain atrophy from the EXPEDITION3 trial in mild Alzheimer's disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Magnetic resonance imaging measures of brain atrophy from the EXPEDITION3 trial in mild Alzheimer's disease. Solanezumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that preferentially binds to soluble amyloid β and promotes its clearance from the brain in preclinical studies. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of solanezumab in slowing global and anatomically localized brain atrophy as measured by volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).In the EXPEDITION3 phase 3 trial (...) , participants with mild Alzheimer's disease were randomized to receive intravenous infusions of either 400 mg of solanezumab or placebo every 4 weeks for 76 weeks. Volumetric MRI scans were acquired at baseline and at 80 weeks from 275 MRI facilities using a standardized imaging protocol. A subset of 1462 patients who completed both MRI and 14-item Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale assessments at both time points were selected for analysis. Longitudinal MRI volume changes were analyzed

2019 Alzheimer's & dementia (New York, N. Y.) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

16. A 24-week double-blind placebo-controlled study of the efficacy and safety of the AMPA modulator S47445 in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease and depressive symptoms. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A 24-week double-blind placebo-controlled study of the efficacy and safety of the AMPA modulator S47445 in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease and depressive symptoms. S47445 is a novel positive allosteric modulator of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid receptors that may emerge as a favorable candidate for the symptomatic treatment of cognitive and depressive disorders in patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) of mild to moderate severity (...) and with depressive symptoms.For this double-blind, placebo-controlled 24-week phase II trial, 520 outpatients aged between 55 and 85 years, with probable AD at mild to moderate stages (a Mini-Mental State Examination score of 24-15 inclusive) and exhibiting depressive symptoms (Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia [CSDD] ≥ 8) were recruited in twelve countries and randomized to 3 doses of S47445 (5-15-50 mg) or placebo. The primary end point was the change from baseline in the 11-item Alzheimer's Disease

2019 Alzheimer's & dementia (New York, N. Y.) Controlled trial quality: predicted high

17. Treatment of epilepsy for people with Alzheimer's disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Treatment of epilepsy for people with Alzheimer's disease. Any type of seizure can be observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Antiepileptic drugs seem to prevent the recurrence of epileptic seizures in most people with AD. There are pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for epilepsy in people with AD. There are no current systematic reviews to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of these treatments; this review aims to review those different modalities. This is an updated version

2018 Cochrane

18. Nilvadipine in mild to moderate Alzheimer disease: A randomised controlled trial Full Text available with Trip Pro

Nilvadipine in mild to moderate Alzheimer disease: A randomised controlled trial This study reports the findings of the first large-scale Phase III investigator-driven clinical trial to slow the rate of cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease with a dihydropyridine (DHP) calcium channel blocker, nilvadipine. Nilvadipine, licensed to treat hypertension, reduces amyloid production, increases regional cerebral blood flow, and has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-tau activity in preclinical (...) studies, properties that could have disease-modifying effects for Alzheimer disease. We aimed to determine if nilvadipine was effective in slowing cognitive decline in subjects with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease.NILVAD was an 18-month, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial that randomised participants between 15 May 2013 and 13 April 2015. The study was conducted at 23 academic centres in nine European countries. Of 577 participants screened, 511 were eligible and were randomised

2018 EvidenceUpdates Controlled trial quality: predicted high

19. Discriminative Accuracy of [18F]flortaucipir Positron Emission Tomography for Alzheimer Disease vs Other Neurodegenerative Disorders. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Discriminative Accuracy of [18F]flortaucipir Positron Emission Tomography for Alzheimer Disease vs Other Neurodegenerative Disorders. The positron emission tomography (PET) tracer [18F]flortaucipir allows in vivo quantification of paired helical filament tau, a core neuropathological feature of Alzheimer disease (AD), but its diagnostic utility is unclear.To examine the discriminative accuracy of [18F]flortaucipir for AD vs non-AD neurodegenerative disorders.In this cross-sectional study, 719

2018 JAMA

20. Alzheimer's dementia

Alzheimer's dementia Alzheimer's dementia - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Alzheimer's dementia Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: September 2018 Summary Chronic, progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterised by a global, non-reversible impairment in cerebral functioning. Characterised by memory loss, loss of social and occupational functioning, diminished executive function, speech (...) support groups are beneficial to caregivers and should be considered, where available. Definition Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease with an insidious onset and progressive but slow decline. AD is the most common type of dementia. Grossman H, Bergmann C, Parker S. Dementia: a brief review. Mt Sinai J Med. 2006 Nov;73(7):985-92. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17195884?tool=bestpractice.com Hebert LE, Scherr PA, Bienias JL, et al. Alzheimer disease in the US population

2018 BMJ Best Practice