Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

1. Impetigo: antimicrobial prescribing

T erms used in the guideline 11 Recommendation for research 13 1 Antiseptics compared with antibiotics for impetigo 13 Rationales 14 Advice to reduce the spread of impetigo 14 Initial treatment 14 Reassessment and further treatment 16 Referral and seeking specialist advice 17 Choice of antimicrobial 18 Context 21 Summary of the evidence 22 Antimicrobials 22 Choice of antibiotics 23 Course length 25 Route of administration 25 Other considerations 27 Medicines safety 27 Medicines adherence 27 (...) Resource implications 27 Impetigo: antimicrobial prescribing (NG153) © NICE 2020. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 3 of 28Overview Overview This guideline sets out an antimicrobial prescribing strategy for adults, young people and children aged 72 hours and over with impetigo. It aims to optimise antibiotic use and reduce antibiotic resistance. For managing other skin and soft tissue infections, see our web pages

2020 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

2. Leg ulcer infection: antimicrobial prescribing

26 Medicines safety 26 Medicines adherence 27 Resource implications 27 Leg ulcer infection: antimicrobial prescribing (NG152) © NICE 2020. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 3 of 28Overview Overview This guideline sets out an antimicrobial prescribing strategy for adults with leg ulcer infection. It aims to optimise antibiotic use and reduce antibiotic resistance. See a 2-page visual summary (...) antibiotic use. 1.1.4 Give oral antibiotics if the person can take oral medicines, and the severity of their condition does not require intravenous antibiotics. 1.1.5 If intravenous antibiotics are given, review by 48 hours and consider switching to oral antibiotics if possible. T o find out why the committee made the recommendations on treatment for adults with an infected leg ulcer, see the rationales. Leg ulcer infection: antimicrobial prescribing (NG152) © NICE 2020. All rights reserved. Subject

2020 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

3. Antibiotic Use for the Urgent Management of Dental Pain and Intra-oral Swelling Clinical Practice Guideline Full Text available with Trip Pro

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Telebriefing on today's drug-resistant health threats. ( Available at: ) . , x 16 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Joint Statement on Importance of Outpatient Antibiotics Stewardship From 12 National Health Organizations. ( Available at: ) . , x 17 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Antibiotic/antimicrobial resistance (AR/AMR): the AMR challenge. ( Available at: ) . , x 18 White House Office of the Press Secretary. Fact sheet: over 150 (...) Antibiotic Use for the Urgent Management of Dental Pain and Intra-oral Swelling Clinical Practice Guideline Evidence-based clinical practice guideline on antibiotic use for the urgent management of pulpal- and periapical-related dental pain and intraoral swelling - The Journal of the American Dental Association Email/Username: Password: Remember me Search Terms Search within Search Access provided by Volume 150, Issue 11, Pages 906–921.e12 Evidence-based clinical practice guideline

2020 American Dental Association Guidelines

4. Antimicrobial prescribing: ceftolozane with tazobactam for treating hospital-acquired pneumonia, including ventilator-associated pneumonia

for Antimicrobial Utilisation and Resistance (ESPAUR) Report 2018 to 2019 states that monitoring the use of new antibiotics and detecting emerging resistance to these medicines is a crucial component of antimicrobial usage surveillance to inform antimicrobial stewardship activities and preserve treatment effectiveness. Although susceptibility testing for ceftolozane with tazobactam is currently uncommon and selective (following resistance to first- and second-line antibiotics), resistance has nonetheless been (...) ) is Antimicrobial prescribing: ceftolozane with tazobactam for treating hospital-acquired pneumonia, including ventilator-associated pneumonia (ES22) © NICE 2020. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 5 of 6£402.18 (BNF, November 2019). The acquisition costs (excluding VAT) of many other IV antibiotics that are used for HAP and VAP (caused or suspected to be caused by Gram-negative pathogens) are lower than that of ceftolozane

2020 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Advice

5. Covid-19: Antimicrobial Copper Oxide–infused Textiles for Reducing Healthcare-associated Infection Risk

copper oxide–infused textiles. Clinical Literature We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, the Cochrane Library, and selected web-based resources for documents relevant to this topic and published between January 1, 2006, and February 5, 2019. Our search strategies included the following keywords: copper; fabric; textiles; bedding; clothing; antimicrobial; antibacterial; infection control. Please see the Selected References and Resources section for detailed search strategies. We included any (...) , labor, and laundry, expenses during period B.” “The use of biocidal copper oxide impregnated textiles in a long-term care ward may significantly reduce HAI, fever, antibiotic consumption, and related treatment costs.” CLINICAL EVIDENCE ASSESSMENT Antimicrobial Copper Oxide–infused Textiles for Reducing Healthcare-associated Infection Risk © February 2019 ECRI | 6 Selected References and Resources References Reviewed (PubMed and EMBASE search dates were January 1, 2006, through February 5, 2019) 1

2020 Covid-19 Ad hoc papers

6. Antimicrobial prescribing: meropenem with vaborbactam

/50) of people receiving Antimicrobial prescribing: meropenem with vaborbactam (ES21) © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 5 of 7meropenem with vaborbactam, and 44.0% (11/25) of people receiving best available antibiotic treatment. Adverse events leading to study treatment discontinuation occurred in 10.0% (5/50) and 12.0% (3/25) of people respectively. Statistical analyses were not reported for safety (...) for injection (Drug T ariff, October 2019). The cost of 1 day's treatment with 2 g (2 vials) every 8 hours is £106.68. The manufacturer of meropenem with vaborbactam (Menarini) anticipates that usage will be low, following the principles of good antimicrobial stewardship, and will be under the guidance of a microbiologist. A wide range of antibiotics, alone or in combination, are used for treating cUTI, acute pyelonephritis, cIAI, HAP and VAP , and regimens may be changed based on response to treatment

2019 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Advice

11. The Effect of Prolonged Postoperative Antibiotic Administration on the Rate of Infection in Patients Undergoing Posterior Spinal Surgery Requiring a Closed-Suction Drain: A Randomized Controlled Trial (Abstract)

The Effect of Prolonged Postoperative Antibiotic Administration on the Rate of Infection in Patients Undergoing Posterior Spinal Surgery Requiring a Closed-Suction Drain: A Randomized Controlled Trial Closed-suction drains are frequently used following posterior spinal surgery. The optimal timing of antibiotic discontinuation in this population may influence infection risk, but there is a paucity of evidence. The aim of this study was to determine whether postoperative antibiotic administration (...) for 72 hours (24 hours after drain removal as drains were removed on the second postoperative day) decreases the incidence of surgical site infection compared with postoperative antibiotic administration for 24 hours.Patients undergoing posterior thoracolumbar spinal surgery managed with a closed-suction drain were prospectively randomized into 1 of 2 groups of postoperative antibiotic durations: (1) 24 hours, or (2) 24 hours after drain removal (72 hours). Drains were discontinued on the second

2019 EvidenceUpdates

12. Antibiotics for treating osteomyelitis in people with sickle cell disease. (Abstract)

Antibiotics for treating osteomyelitis in people with sickle cell disease. Osteomyelitis (both acute and chronic) is one of the most common infectious complications in people with sickle cell disease. There is no standardized approach to antibiotic therapy and treatment is likely to vary from country to country. Thus, there is a need to identify the efficacy and safety of different antibiotic treatment approaches for people with sickle cell disease suffering from osteomyelitis (...) . This is an update of a previously published Cochrane Review.To determine whether an empirical antibiotic treatment approach (monotherapy or combination therapy) is effective and safe as compared to pathogen-directed antibiotic treatment and whether this effectiveness and safety is dependent on different treatment regimens, age or setting.We searched The Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register, which comprises references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearching of relevant

2019 Cochrane

13. Probiotics for Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Pediatrics: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines

Probiotics for Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Pediatrics: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Probiotics for Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Pediatrics: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines | CADTH.ca Find the information you need Probiotics for Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Pediatrics: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Probiotics for Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Pediatrics: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Last updated (...) : March 25, 2019 Project Number: RC1086-000 Product Line: Research Type: Drug Report Type: Summary with Critical Appraisal Result type: Report Question What is the clinical effectiveness of probiotics (with or without concurrent antibiotics) for preventing and treating antibiotic-associated diarrhea in the pediatric population? What are the evidence-based guidelines regarding the use of probiotics (with or without concurrent antibiotics) for the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated

2019 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

14. Biologics versus Immunomodulators or Antibiotics for the Management of Fistulizing Crohn’s Disease: A Review of Comparative Clinical Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness

Biologics versus Immunomodulators or Antibiotics for the Management of Fistulizing Crohn’s Disease: A Review of Comparative Clinical Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness Biologics versus Immunomodulators or Antibiotics for the Management of Fistulizing Crohn’s Disease: A Review of Comparative Clinical Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness | CADTH.ca Find the information you need Biologics versus Immunomodulators or Antibiotics for the Management of Fistulizing Crohn’s Disease: A Review (...) of Comparative Clinical Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness Biologics versus Immunomodulators or Antibiotics for the Management of Fistulizing Crohn’s Disease: A Review of Comparative Clinical Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness Last updated: March 29, 2019 Project Number: RC1107-000 - RD0051-000 Product Line: Research Type: Drug Report Type: Summary with Critical Appraisal Result type: Report Question What is the comparative clinical effectiveness of biologics (with or without concomitant immunomodulators

2019 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

15. Association of Use of the Neonatal Early-Onset Sepsis Calculator With Reduction in Antibiotic Therapy and Safety: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (Abstract)

Association of Use of the Neonatal Early-Onset Sepsis Calculator With Reduction in Antibiotic Therapy and Safety: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis The neonatal early-onset sepsis (EOS) calculator is a clinical risk stratification tool increasingly used to guide the use of empirical antibiotics for newborns. Evidence on the effectiveness and safety of the EOS calculator is essential to inform clinicians considering implementation.To assess the association between management of neonatal EOS (...) guided by the neonatal EOS calculator (compared with conventional management strategies) and reduction in antibiotic therapy for newborns.Electronic searches in MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were conducted from 2011 (introduction of the EOS calculator model) through January 31, 2019.All studies with original data that compared management guided by the EOS calculator with conventional management strategies for allocating antibiotic therapy to newborns suspected to have EOS were

2019 EvidenceUpdates

16. Pneumonia (hospital-acquired): antimicrobial prescribing

of 23Contents Contents Overview 4 Who is it for? 4 Recommendations 5 1.1 Managing hospital-acquired pneumonia 5 1.2 Choice of antibiotic 6 T erms used in the guideline 13 Hospital-acquired pneumonia 13 Summary of the evidence 14 Antibiotic prescribing strategies 14 Choice of antibiotics 15 Antibiotic course length, dosage and route of administration 22 Other considerations 23 Medicines adherence 23 Resource implications 23 Pneumonia (hospital-acquired): antimicrobial prescribing (NG139) © NICE 2019. All (...) rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 3 of 23Ov Overview erview This guideline sets out an antimicrobial prescribing strategy for adults, young people, children and babies aged 72 hours and over with a confirmed diagnosis of hospital-acquired pneumonia. It does not cover ventilator-associated pneumonia. It aims to optimise antibiotic use and reduce antibiotic resistance. See a 3-page visual summary of the recommendations

2019 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

17. Pneumonia (community-acquired): antimicrobial prescribing

37 Resource implications 37 Pneumonia (community-acquired): antimicrobial prescribing (NG138) © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 3 of 37Ov Overview erview This guideline sets out an antimicrobial prescribing strategy for adults, young people, children and babies aged 72 hours and over with a confirmed diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia. It aims to optimise antibiotic use and reduce antibiotic (...) disease or immunosuppression local antimicrobial resistance and surveillance data (such as flu and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection rates) recent antibiotic use recent microbiological results, including colonisation with multidrug-resistant bacteria. 1.1.2 Start antibiotic treatment as soon as possible after establishing a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia, and certainly within 4 hours (within 1 hour if the person has suspected sepsis and meets any of the high risk criteria for this – see

2019 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

18. Cellulitis and erysipelas: antimicrobial prescribing

. It aims to optimise antibiotic use and reduce antibiotic resistance. See a 3-page visual summary of the recommendations, including tables to support prescribing decisions. For managing other skin conditions, see our web page on skin conditions. NICE has also produced a guideline on antimicrobial stewardship: systems and processes for effective antimicrobial medicine use. Who is it for? Healthcare professionals People with cellulitis and erysipelas, their families and carers Cellulitis and erysipelas (...) Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) status if known. 1.1.5 Give oral antibiotics first line if the person can take oral medicines, and the severity of their condition does not require intravenous antibiotics. Cellulitis and erysipelas: antimicrobial prescribing (NG141) © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 5 of 361.1.6 If intravenous antibiotics are given, review by 48 hours and consider switching to oral antibiotics

2019 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

19. Antibiotic awareness: important messages on antibiotic use

Antibiotic awareness: important messages on antibiotic use Antibiotic awareness: important messages on antibiotic use - GOV.UK GOV.UK uses cookies which are essential for the site to work. We also use non-essential cookies to help us improve government digital services. Any data collected is anonymised. By continuing to use this site, you agree to our use of cookies. Accept cookies You’ve accepted all cookies. You can at any time. Hide Search Guidance Antibiotic awareness: important messages (...) on antibiotic use This document explains how to use antibiotics responsibly for patients, animal keepers, pet owners and prescribers. Published 23 September 2014 Last updated 7 October 2019 — From: Documents Ref: PHE publication gateway reference: GW-779 If you use assistive technology (such as a screen reader) and need a version of this document in a more accessible format, please email . Please tell us what format you need. It will help us if you say what assistive technology you use. Details PHE has

2019 Public Health England

20. Effect of Bismuth Subsalicylate vs Placebo on Use of Antibiotics Among Adult Outpatients With Diarrhea in Pakistan: A Randomized Clinical Trial Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of Bismuth Subsalicylate vs Placebo on Use of Antibiotics Among Adult Outpatients With Diarrhea in Pakistan: A Randomized Clinical Trial Many of the 4.5 billion annual episodes of diarrhea are treated unnecessarily with antibiotics; prevalence of antibiotic resistance among diarrheal pathogens is increasing. Knowledge-based antibiotic stewardship interventions typically yield little change in antibiotic use.To compare antibiotic use among adult outpatients with diarrhea given bismuth (...) assigned (1:1) to receive BSS or placebo for 48 hours or less.Use of systemic antibiotics within 5 days of enrollment. Secondary outcomes included measures of duration and severity of illness.Among eligible patients, 39 declined to participate, 440 enrolled, and 1 enrolled participant was lost to follow-up, for a total of 439 patients included in the analysis. Median (interquartile range) participant age was 32 (23-45) years and 187 (43%) were male. Two hundred twenty patients were randomized to BSS

2019 EvidenceUpdates