Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

1. Secondary bacterial infection of eczema and other common skin conditions: antimicrobial prescribing

bath emollient compared with non-antiseptic bath emollient for infected eczema 14 Rationales 15 Treatment 15 Advice 17 Reassessment 18 Referral and seeking specialist advice 19 Choice of antibiotic 19 Treatment 21 Context 22 Summary of the evidence 23 Antimicrobials 23 Choice of antibiotics 26 Course length 27 Route of administration 27 Other considerations 28 Medicines safety 28 Medicines adherence 28 Resource implications 28 Secondary bacterial infection of eczema and other common skin conditions (...) in conjunction with CG57. Overview Overview This guideline sets out an antimicrobial prescribing strategy for secondary bacterial infection of eczema, and covers infection of other common skin conditions. It aims to optimise antibiotic use and reduce antibiotic resistance. The recommendations are for adults, young people and children aged 72 hours and over. They do not cover diagnosis. This guideline updates and replaces some recommendations on managing infections in the NICE guideline on atopic eczema

2021 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

2. Delayed Antibiotic Prescription for Children With Respiratory Infections: A Randomized Trial

Delayed Antibiotic Prescription for Children With Respiratory Infections: A Randomized Trial Delayed Antibiotic Prescription for Children With Respiratory Infections: A Randomized Trial - PubMed This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Show account info Close Account Logged (...) Copy Actions Cite Display options Display options Format Share Permalink Copy Page navigation Pediatrics Actions . 2021 Mar;147(3):e20201323. doi: 10.1542/peds.2020-1323. Epub 2021 Feb 11. Delayed Antibiotic Prescription for Children With Respiratory Infections: A Randomized Trial , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , Affiliations Expand Affiliations 1 Iberoamerican Cochrane Center, and. 2 Nursing Care Reserch Group, Biomedical Research Institute Sant Pau (IIB Sant Pau), Barcelona, Spain. 3 Manso Primary

2021 EvidenceUpdates

3. Best Practice Statement: Antimicrobial stewardship strategies for wound management

Best Practice Statement: Antimicrobial stewardship strategies for wound management

2021 Wounds UK

4. Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT)

, Patient Support Manager, Antibiotic Research UK ? Ms Liz Collison, OPAT Nurse Specialist, NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde SHTG Recommendation | 43 ? Dr Felicity Drummond, Senior Project Manager, British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy ? Dr Stephanie Dundas, Consultant in Infectious Disease, NHS Lanarkshire ? Ms Sharon Falconer, OPAT Nurse Specialist, NHS Grampian ? Mr James Findlay, SAPG Public Partner, Healthcare Improvement Scotland ? Mr Mark Gilchrist, Co-lead of the British Society (...) for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy Outpatient Parenteral Antibiotic Therapy Initiative, Consultant Pharmacist Infectious Diseases and Stewardship, OPAT service lead at Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust ? Mr Alex Moody, OPAT patient ? Dr Melinda Munang, Consultant in Infectious Diseases and General Internal Medicine, NHS Dumfries and Galloway ? Ms Fiona Robb, Antimicrobial Pharmacist, NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde ? Dr Andrew Seaton, Consultant in Infectious Disease and General Medicine, Chair of SAPG, co- lead

2021 SHTG Advice Statements

5. FSRH CEU Response to study: Analysis of reports of unintended pregnancies associated with the combined use of non-enzyme inducing antibiotics and hormonal contraceptives

FSRH CEU Response to study: Analysis of reports of unintended pregnancies associated with the combined use of non-enzyme inducing antibiotics and hormonal contraceptives 1 FSRH CEU Statement: Response to Recent Publication Aronson and Ferner, 2020 “Analysis of reports of unintended pregnancies associated with the combined use of non-enzymeinducing antibiotics and hormonal contraceptives ” 2 February 2021 Why is this statement necessary? Since oral contraception first became available (...) , there have been concerns that antibiotics might interfere with their efficacy. There is limited published evidence to inform this issue; however, most data for non-enzyme inducing antibiotics have been reassuring. The journal BMJ Evidence Based Medicine recently published a study 1 —which has received some media attention—suggesting that concomitant use of non-enzyme inducing antibiotics could reduce the effectiveness of “hormonal contraceptives”. Aronson and Ferner 1 reviewed Yellow Card reports

2021 Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare

6. Antimicrobial prescribing: delafloxacin for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections

Regulatory Agency (MHRA) or the NICE websites for up-to-date information. Delafloxacin (Quofenix, Menarini) is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, which is available as a powder for infusion and a tablet. It has a marketing authorisation for treating acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) in adults when it is considered inappropriate to use other antibacterial agents that are commonly recommended for the initial treatment of these infections. Advisory statement on likely place in therapy (...) delafloxacin in these circumstances, with a switch to oral treatment after 3 days if possible. T ake account of local antimicrobial resistance and seek specialist microbiological advice. Follow the recommendations on new antimicrobials in the NICE guideline on antimicrobial stewardship. Rationale Rationale The European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) for delafloxacin states that most ABSSSI remain susceptible to penicillin and beta-lactam antibiotics, but antibiotic resistance is becoming more common

2021 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Advice

7. Obtaining Blood Cultures Before the Administration of Antibiotics and other Emergency Department Fables: An Analysis of the FABLED Study Full Text available with Trip Pro

obtained before starting antibiotic therapy, and who were able to have additional sets obtained within 2 hours of empirical antimicrobial administration. Severe manifestations of sepsis were defined by 2 SIRS criteria, with a suspected or confirmed infectious source, and either hypotension (systolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg) or a serum lactate level greater than 4 mmol/L. Intervention: Two sets of blood cultures (1 aerobic and 1 anaerobic culture vial in each set) were obtained before antimicrobial (...) administration from separate venipuncture sites. Patients were required to have repeated blood testing for cultures, obtained between 30 and 120 minutes after the initiation of antibiotic therapy. Primary and Secondary Outcomes: Sensitivity of blood culture results obtained after initiation of antimicrobial therapy. Sponsors: Vancouver Coastal Health, St. Paul’s Hospital Foundation Emergency Department Support Fund, the Fonds de recherche Santé–Quebec, and the Maricopa Medical Foundation. ClinicalTrials.gov

2020 Annals of Emergency Medicine Journal Club

8. Guideline on the prudent prescription of antibiotics in the dental office

2.6.2 Systematic reviews 31 2.6.3 RCTs 31 2.6.4 Non-randomised primary studies 31 2.7 DATA EXTRACTION 32 2.8 STATISTICAL ANALYSES 32 2.9 GRADING EVIDENCE 32 2.10 FORMULATION OF RECOMMENDATIONS 35 2.11 STAKEHOLDER INVOLVEMENT 38 2.11.1 Professional associations 38 2.11.2 Patient representatives 39 2.11.3 Process 40 2.12 FINAL VALIDATION 40 3 ADVERSE EVENTS ASSOCIATED WITH THE USE OF ANTIBIOTICS 41 3.1 ANTIBACTERIAL RESISTANCE 42 3.1.1 Antibacterial resistance, a natural phenomenon 42 3.1.2 How do (...) bacteria become resistant? 42 3.1.3 How does antibiotic resistance spread? 43 3.1.4 The burden of antibacterial resistance 43 3.1.5 The prudent use of antibiotics, an essential element in the battle against antibacterial resistance 47 3.2 DISRUPTION OF THE HUMAN MICROBIOME 47 3.2.1 The human microbiome 47 KCE Report 332 Prescription of antibiotics in the dental office 3 3.2.2 Impact of antibiotics on the human microbiome 48 3.2.3 Clostridioides difficile infection following antibiotic use 48 3.3 DRUG

2020 Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre

9. Effect of blood pressure lowering drugs and antibiotics on abdominal aortic aneurysm growth: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Effect of blood pressure lowering drugs and antibiotics on abdominal aortic aneurysm growth: a systematic review and meta-analysis Effect of blood pressure lowering drugs and antibiotics on abdominal aortic aneurysm growth: a systematic review and meta-analysis - PubMed This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. COVID-19 is an emerging (...) . Online ahead of print. Effect of blood pressure lowering drugs and antibiotics on abdominal aortic aneurysm growth: a systematic review and meta-analysis , Affiliations Expand Affiliations 1 Queensland Research Centre for Peripheral Vascular Disease, College of Medicine and Dentistry, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia jonathan.golledge@jcu.edu.au. 2 Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Townsville University Hospital, Townsville, Queensland, Australia. 3 Queensland

2020 EvidenceUpdates

10. Antimicrobial prescribing: cefiderocol

antibiotic that is given intravenously. It has a marketing authorisation for the treatment of infections due to aerobic gram- negative organisms in adults with limited treatment options. Advisory statement on likely place in therapy Advisory statement on likely place in therapy Cefiderocol may be an option for treating infections due to gram-negative aerobic organisms in adults who have limited treatment options, particularly when other antimicrobials have failed. T ake account of local antimicrobial (...) in clinical practice in the UK are limited. Information on resistance can be found on Public Health England's antimicrobial resistance local indicators. The SPC for cefiderocol includes details on mechanisms that may lead to resistance. The in vitro antibacterial activity of cefiderocol against normally susceptible species is not affected by most beta-lactamases, including metallo-enzymes. Cefiderocol has little or no activity against most gram-positive organisms and anaerobes. Resource implications

2020 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Advice

11. Antimicrobial-impregnated central venous catheters for preventing neonatal bloodstream infection: the PREVAIL RCT Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antimicrobial-impregnated central venous catheters for preventing neonatal bloodstream infection: the PREVAIL RCT Antimicrobial-impregnated central venous catheters for preventing neonatal bloodstream infection: the PREVAIL RCT Journals Library An error occurred retrieving content to display, please try again. >> >> >> Page Not Found Page not found (404) Sorry - the page you requested could not be found. Please choose a page from the navigation or try a website search above to find

2020 NIHR HTA programme

12. ClearGuard HD Antimicrobial Barrier Cap for preventing haemodialysis catheter-related bloodstream infections

port or vascular access device catheter hub before and after accessing the system using 2% chlorhexidine gluconate in 70% alcohol. The hub should be cleaned for 15 seconds and allowed to dry before access. If the manufacturer's recommendations prohibit the use of alcohol with their catheter, an aqueous solution of chlorhexidine gluconate should be considered. The recommendations also state that antibiotic lock solutions and systemic antimicrobial prophylaxis should not be used routinely to prevent (...) ClearGuard HD Antimicrobial Barrier Cap for preventing haemodialysis catheter-related bloodstream infections ClearGuard HD Antimicrobial Barrier Cap for preventing haemodialysis catheter-related bloodstream infections Medtech innovation briefing Published: 3 November 2020 www.nice.org.uk/guidance/mib234 pathways Summary Summary • The technology technology described in this briefing is ClearGuard HD Antimicrobial Barrier Cap. It is a central venous catheter cap with chlorhexidine acetate coated

2020 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Advice

13. Antimicrobial prescribing: imipenem with cilastatin and relebactam

information. Imipenem with cilastatin and relebactam (Recarbrio, Merck Sharp & Dohme B.V) is given intravenously and is a combination of a broad-spectrum carbapenem antibiotic (imipenem); an inhibitor of dehydropeptidase-I, the renal enzyme that metabolises and inactivates imipenem (cilastatin); and a beta-lactamase inhibitor (relebactam). Only imipenem has antibacterial activity. Imipenem with cilastatin and relebactam has a marketing authorisation for treating infections caused by aerobic gram-negative (...) Antimicrobial prescribing: imipenem with cilastatin and relebactam Antimicrobial prescribing: imipenem with cilastatin and relebactam Evidence summary Published: 28 October 2020 www.nice.org.uk/guidance/es30 pathways Product overview Product overview The content of this evidence summary was up-to-date in October 2020. See summaries of product characteristics (SPCs), British national formulary (BNF) or the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) or NICE websites for up-to-date

2020 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Advice

14. Human and animal bites: antimicrobial prescribing

and committee details 27 Human and animal bites: antimicrobial prescribing (NG184) © NICE 2020. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 3 of 27Overview Overview This guideline sets out an antimicrobial prescribing strategy for human and animal bites (excluding insect bites) in adults, young people and children aged 72 hours and over. It aims to optimise antibiotic use and reduce antibiotic resistance. See a 3-page visual summary (...) ), that you are unfamiliar with. For a short explanation of why the committee made these recommendations, see the rationale section on assessment. For more details, see the evidence review. Human and animal bites: antimicrobial prescribing (NG184) © NICE 2020. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 5 of 27Antibiotic prophylaxis for uninfected bites Antibiotic prophylaxis for uninfected bites Human bites Human bites 1.1.4 Do

2020 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

15. Pediatric hydrocephalus - Antibiotic-impregnated shunt systems versus conventional shunts in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis

. Journal of neurosurgery Pediatrics. 2008;2(1):25-28. Sciubba DM, Lin LM, Woodworth GF, McGirt MJ, Carson B, Jallo GI. Factors contributing to the medical costs of cerebrospinal fluid shunt infection treatment in pediatric patients with standard shunt components compared with those in patients with antibiotic impregnated components. In: Neurosurg Focus. Vol 22. United States2007:E9. Stone J, Gruber TJ, Rozzelle CJ. Healthcare savings associated with reduced infection rates using antimicrobial suture (...) bacterial catheter-related infection. Journal of neurosurgery. 1997;87(2):247-251. Pattavilakom A, Kotasnas D, Korman TM, Xenos C, Danks A. Duration of in vivo antimicrobial activity of antibiotic-impregnated cerebrospinal fluid catheters. In: Neurosurgery. Vol 58. United States2006:930-935; discussion 930-935. Albanese A, De Bonis P, Sabatino G, et al. Antibiotic-impregnated ventriculo-peritoneal shunts in patients at high risk of infection. Acta neurochirurgica. 2009;151(10):1259-1263. Aryan HE

2020 Congress of Neurological Surgeons

16. A Randomized Trial Comparing Antibiotics with Appendectomy for Appendicitis. (Abstract)

A Randomized Trial Comparing Antibiotics with Appendectomy for Appendicitis. Antibiotic therapy has been proposed as an alternative to surgery for the treatment of appendicitis.We conducted a pragmatic, nonblinded, noninferiority, randomized trial comparing antibiotic therapy (10-day course) with appendectomy in patients with appendicitis at 25 U.S. centers. The primary outcome was 30-day health status, as assessed with the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) questionnaire (scores (...) range from 0 to 1, with higher scores indicating better health status; noninferiority margin, 0.05 points). Secondary outcomes included appendectomy in the antibiotics group and complications through 90 days; analyses were prespecified in subgroups defined according to the presence or absence of an appendicolith.In total, 1552 adults (414 with an appendicolith) underwent randomization; 776 were assigned to receive antibiotics (47% of whom were not hospitalized for the index treatment) and 776

2020 NEJM

17. Efficacy and Safety of Antibiotics for Treatment of Scrub Typhus: A Network Meta-analysis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Efficacy and Safety of Antibiotics for Treatment of Scrub Typhus: A Network Meta-analysis Efficacy and Safety of Antibiotics for Treatment of Scrub Typhus: A Network Meta-analysis - PubMed This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Get the latest public health information from CDC (...) there aren't any new results Optional text in email: Save Cancel Create a file for external citation management software Create file Cancel Your RSS Feed Name of RSS Feed: Number of items displayed: Create RSS Cancel RSS Link Copy Actions Cite Display options Display options Format Share Permalink Copy Page navigation JAMA Netw Open Actions . 2020 Aug 3;3(8):e2014487. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.14487. Efficacy and Safety of Antibiotics for Treatment of Scrub Typhus: A Network Meta-analysis

2020 EvidenceUpdates

18. Appendectomy versus antibiotic treatment for acute appendicitis. (Abstract)

Appendectomy versus antibiotic treatment for acute appendicitis. This Cochrane review has been withdrawn. The Cochrane review is out of date and included a retracted article in the analysis. Withdrawn by Cochrane Colorectal Group. A new update is expected. The editorial group responsible for this previously published document have withdrawn it from publication.Copyright © 2020 The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

2020 Cochrane

19. Insect bites and stings: antimicrobial prescribing

bites and stings 5 T erms used in the guideline 7 Rationales 9 Assessment and advice 9 Treatment 9 Referral and seeking specialist advice 10 Context 12 Summary of the evidence 13 Antibiotics for infected arthropod bites in adults 13 Oral antihistamines for uninfected mosquito bites in adults 14 Antihistamines for uninfected mosquito bites in children 15 Treatments for uninfected brown recluse spider bites 15 Insect bites and stings: antimicrobial prescribing (NG182) © NICE 2020. All rights reserved (...) . Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 3 of 16Overview Overview This guideline sets out an antimicrobial prescribing strategy for insect and spider bites and stings in adults, young people and children aged 72 hours and over, including those that occurred while travelling outside the UK. It aims to limit antibiotic use and reduce antibiotic resistance. See a 1-page visual summary of the recommendations. The recommendations in this guideline

2020 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

20. Continuous Infusion Compared with Intermittent Intravenous Infusion of Beta-Lactam Antibiotics for Critically Ill Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials Full Text available with Trip Pro

Continuous Infusion Compared with Intermittent Intravenous Infusion of Beta-Lactam Antibiotics for Critically Ill Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials Continuous Infusion Compared with Intermittent Intravenous Infusion of Beta-Lactam Antibiotics for Critically Ill Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials | Research Square Browse Tools & Services Your Cart This is a preprint, a preliminary version of a manuscript that has not completed (...) peer review at a journal. Research Square does not conduct peer review prior to posting preprints. The posting of a preprint on this server should not be interpreted as an endorsement of its validity or suitability for dissemination as established information or for guiding clinical practice. Research Continuous Infusion Compared with Intermittent Intravenous Infusion of Beta-Lactam Antibiotics for Critically Ill Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials Chien-Huei Huang

2020 Research Square