Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

181. Antibiotic-impregnated bone cement for total hip arthroplasty and other orthopedic indications

. Controversy: Controversial issues related to the clinical use of ABCs include the safety and effectiveness of ABCs compared with other fixation methods, optimal antibiotic choice and dose, optimal cement preparation technique, costeffectiveness of ABCs, the appropriate use of ABC in a prophylactic setting, antimicrobial resistance, and patient selection (i.e., which patients might benefit the most from the treatment). Relevant Questions: Is ABC effective in preventing infection in primary hip or shoulder (...) Antibiotic-impregnated bone cement for total hip arthroplasty and other orthopedic indications Antibiotic-impregnated bone cement for total hip arthroplasty and other orthopedic indications Antibiotic-impregnated bone cement for total hip arthroplasty and other orthopedic indications HAYES, Inc Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation HAYES, Inc

2017 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

182. Dental procedures, antibiotic prophylaxis, and endocarditis among people with prosthetic heart valves: nationwide population based cohort and a case crossover study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Dental procedures, antibiotic prophylaxis, and endocarditis among people with prosthetic heart valves: nationwide population based cohort and a case crossover study. Objective To assess the relation between invasive dental procedures and infective endocarditis associated with oral streptococci among people with prosthetic heart valves.Design Nationwide population based cohort and a case crossover study.Setting French national health insurance administrative data linked with the national (...) procedure. Among the 396 615 dental procedures performed, 103 463 (26.0%) were invasive and therefore presented an indication for antibiotic prophylaxis, which was performed in 52 280 (50.1%). With a median follow-up of 1.7 years, 267 people developed infective endocarditis associated with oral streptococci (incidence rate 93.7 per 100 000 person years, 95% confidence interval 82.4 to 104.9). Compared with non-exposure periods, no statistically significant increased rate of oral streptococcal infective

2017 BMJ

183. Nebulized Versus IV Amikacin as Adjunctive Antibiotic for Hospital and Ventilator-Acquired Pneumonia Postcardiac Surgeries: A Randomized Controlled Trial (Abstract)

Nebulized Versus IV Amikacin as Adjunctive Antibiotic for Hospital and Ventilator-Acquired Pneumonia Postcardiac Surgeries: A Randomized Controlled Trial Nebulized antibiotics offer high efficacy due to significant local concentrations and safety with minimal blood levels. This study evaluates the efficacy and nephrotoxicity of nebulized versus IV amikacin in postcardiothoracic surgical patients with nosocomial pneumonia caused by multidrug-resistant Gram- negative bacilli.Prospective

2017 EvidenceUpdates

184. Computational approaches to the in vitro antibacterial activity of Allium hirtifolium Boiss against gentamicin-resistant Escherichia coli: focus on ribosome recycling factor Full Text available with Trip Pro

Computational approaches to the in vitro antibacterial activity of Allium hirtifolium Boiss against gentamicin-resistant Escherichia coli: focus on ribosome recycling factor Persian shallot, Allium hirtifolium Boiss. (AH), is an Iranian native medicinal plant belongs to Alliaceae family. Here, we investigated in vitro antibacterial activity of hydro-alcoholic extract derived from bulbs of AH. We also employed in silico molecular docking to decipher mechanisms of its antibacterial effects (...) of alliogenin (-11.6), gitogenin (-11.6), kaempferol (-10.2), linoleic acid (-8.4), oleic acid (-8.0), palmitic acid (-7.4), palmitoleic acid (-8.4), quercetin (-10.8), and shallomin (-13.4) with RRF were comparable to that of gentamicin (-12.6). In sum, hydro-alcoholic extract of bulbs of AH could be considered as a commercial phytobiotics if in-depth antibacterial assays employed in future studies. More interestingly, shallomin showed more promising binding affinity with RRF and can be considered as lead

2017 In silico pharmacology

185. Emerging Microtechnologies and Automated Systems for Rapid Bacterial Identification and Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing Full Text available with Trip Pro

Emerging Microtechnologies and Automated Systems for Rapid Bacterial Identification and Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing Rapid bacterial identification (ID) and antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) are in great demand due to the rise of drug-resistant bacteria. Conventional culture-based AST methods suffer from a long turnaround time. By necessity, physicians often have to treat patients empirically with antibiotics, which has led to an inappropriate use of antibiotics, an elevated (...) mortality rate and healthcare costs, and antibiotic resistance. Recent advances in miniaturization and automation provide promising solutions for rapid bacterial ID/AST profiling, which will potentially make a significant impact in the clinical management of infectious diseases and antibiotic stewardship in the coming years. In this review, we summarize and analyze representative emerging micro- and nanotechnologies, as well as automated systems for bacterial ID/AST, including both phenotypic (e.g

2017 SLAS technology

186. Systemic antibiotics for treating malignant wounds. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Systemic antibiotics for treating malignant wounds. Malignant wounds are a devastating complication of cancer. They usually develop in the last six months of life, in the breast, chest wall or head and neck regions. They are very difficult to treat successfully, and the commonly associated symptoms of pain, exudate, malodour, and the risk of haemorrhage are extremely distressing for those with advanced cancer. Treatment and care of malignant wounds is primarily palliative, and focuses (...) on alleviating pain, controlling infection and odour from the wound, managing exudate and protecting the surrounding skin from further deterioration. In malignant wounds, with tissue degradation and death, there is proliferation of both anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. The aim of antibiotic therapy is to successfully eliminate these bacteria, reduce associated symptoms, such as odour, and promote wound healing.To assess the effects of systemic antibiotics for treating malignant wounds.We searched

2017 Cochrane

187. Development of MAST: a Microscopy-Based Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Platform Full Text available with Trip Pro

Development of MAST: a Microscopy-Based Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Platform Antibiotic resistance is compromising our ability to treat bacterial infections. Clinical microbiology laboratories guide appropriate treatment through antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of patient bacterial isolates. However, increasingly, pathogens are developing resistance to a broad range of antimicrobials, requiring AST of alternative agents for which no commercially available testing methods (...) are available. Therefore, there exists a significant AST testing gap in which current methodologies cannot adequately address the need for rapid results in the face of unpredictable susceptibility profiles. To address this gap, we developed a multicomponent, microscopy-based AST (MAST) platform capable of AST determinations after only a 2 h incubation. MAST consists of a solid-phase microwell growth surface in a 384-well plate format, inkjet printing-based application of both antimicrobials and bacteria

2017 SLAS technology

188. A novel medium size lactam ring analoges as antibacterial agents: Synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular docking studies Full Text available with Trip Pro

A novel medium size lactam ring analoges as antibacterial agents: Synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular docking studies A novel series of medium size (S)-3-alkyl-3,4,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-benzo[e][1,4]diazonine-2,5-dione (6a-f) analogues were synthesized from (E)-3-(2-nitrophenyl)acrylicacid (2) reacting with various amino acid esters using Di-isopropyl Carbodiimide as a coupling agent. The final cyclization is carried out by using reagent 1-Ethyl-3(3-dimethylaminopropyl) Carbodiimide (...) Hydrochloride. The synthesized compounds have been supported by Mass, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Further antibacterial studies were conducted, where some molecules are noticed with potent activity, especially molecule 6d shown highest activity which was also supported by molecular docking studies. All final molecules were docked with enzyme peptide deformylase to determine the probable binding conformation.

2017 EXCLI journal

189. Elevated antibiotic resistance of Sudanese urinary tract infection bacteria Full Text available with Trip Pro

Elevated antibiotic resistance of Sudanese urinary tract infection bacteria This study determined the prevalence of urinary tract infections in the Sudanese state of Khartoum and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of isolated bacterial species. 200 adult patient urine specimens were collected and cultivated to identify the growing bacteria and their susceptibility to antibiotics. 35 % of specimens had significant bacterial growth. The most frequent isolates in this study were E. coli, E (...) . faecalis and S. aureus. Most of the isolates were resistant to many antibiotics; Gram-negative and Gram-positive isolates were resistant to 67 % and 44 % of the examined antibiotics, respectively. E. coli was the most frequent bacterium in the studied samples and it was highly resistant to first-line antibiotics. The most resistant bacteria isolated were Pseudomonas species and the lowest was for S. saprophyticus. The results highlighted the need for knowledge about antibiotic susceptibility profile

2017 EXCLI journal

190. Antibiotic prophylaxis for operative vaginal delivery. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic prophylaxis for operative vaginal delivery. Vacuum and forceps assisted vaginal deliveries are reported to increase the incidence of postpartum infections and maternal readmission to hospital compared to spontaneous vaginal delivery. Prophylactic antibiotics may be prescribed to prevent these infections. However, the benefit of antibiotic prophylaxis for operative vaginal deliveries is still unclear.To assess the effectiveness and safety of antibiotic prophylaxis in reducing (...) infectious puerperal morbidities in women undergoing operative vaginal deliveries including vacuum or forceps deliveries, or both.We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register (12 July 2017), ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (12 July 2017) and reference lists of retrieved studies.All randomised trials comparing any prophylactic antibiotic regimens with placebo or no treatment in women undergoing vacuum or forceps deliveries were

2017 Cochrane

191. Targeting Mycobacterium tuberculosis sensitivity to thiol stress at acidic pH kills the bacterium and potentiates antibiotics Full Text available with Trip Pro

Targeting Mycobacterium tuberculosis sensitivity to thiol stress at acidic pH kills the bacterium and potentiates antibiotics Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) must sense and adapt to immune pressures such as acidic pH during pathogenesis. The goal of this study was to isolate compounds that inhibit acidic pH resistance, thus defining virulence pathways that are vulnerable to chemotherapy. Here, we report that the compound AC2P36 selectively kills Mtb at acidic pH and potentiates

2017 Cell chemical biology

192. Inconclusive evidence on using antibiotic prophylaxis before dental procedures to prevent infective endocarditis

Inconclusive evidence on using antibiotic prophylaxis before dental procedures to prevent infective endocarditis Inconclusive evidence on using antibiotic prophylaxis before dental procedures to prevent infective endocarditis ADA Websites Access news, member benefits and ADA policy Attend ADA's premier event Access cutting-edge continuing education courses Find evidence to support your clinical decisions Access member-only practice content Investing in better oral health for all. Together. Take (...) Inconclusive evidence on using antibiotic prophylaxis before dental procedures to prevent infective endocarditis Mohamed-Nur Abdallah, BDS, MSc, PhD . Overview Systematic Review Conclusion Despite the limited evidence and poor methodological quality of many included studies, antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) for patients at highest risk of developing infective endocarditis (IE) is a pragmatic and justified approach. However, postprocedural bacteremia may not be a good surrogate end point for IE. Critical Summary

2017 ADA Center for Evidence-Based Dentistry

193. Inconclusive evidence on using antibiotic prophylaxis before dental procedures to prevent infective endocarditis

Inconclusive evidence on using antibiotic prophylaxis before dental procedures to prevent infective endocarditis Inconclusive evidence on using antibiotic prophylaxis before dental procedures to prevent infective endocarditis ADA Websites Access news, member benefits and ADA policy Attend ADA's premier event Access cutting-edge continuing education courses Find evidence to support your clinical decisions Access member-only practice content Investing in better oral health for all. Together. Take (...) Inconclusive evidence on using antibiotic prophylaxis before dental procedures to prevent infective endocarditis Mohamed-Nur Abdallah, BDS, MSc, PhD . Overview Systematic Review Conclusion Despite the limited evidence and poor methodological quality of many included studies, antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) for patients at highest risk of developing infective endocarditis (IE) is a pragmatic and justified approach. However, postprocedural bacteremia may not be a good surrogate end point for IE. Critical Summary

2017 ADA Center for Evidence-Based Dentistry

194. Inconclusive evidence on using antibiotic prophylaxis before dental procedures to prevent infective endocarditis

Inconclusive evidence on using antibiotic prophylaxis before dental procedures to prevent infective endocarditis Inconclusive evidence on using antibiotic prophylaxis before dental procedures to prevent infective endocarditis ADA Websites Access news, member benefits and ADA policy Attend ADA's premier event Access cutting-edge continuing education courses Find evidence to support your clinical decisions Access member-only practice content Investing in better oral health for all. Together. Take (...) Inconclusive evidence on using antibiotic prophylaxis before dental procedures to prevent infective endocarditis Mohamed-Nur Abdallah, BDS, MSc, PhD . Overview Systematic Review Conclusion Despite the limited evidence and poor methodological quality of many included studies, antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) for patients at highest risk of developing infective endocarditis (IE) is a pragmatic and justified approach. However, postprocedural bacteremia may not be a good surrogate end point for IE. Critical Summary

2017 ADA Center for Evidence-Based Dentistry

195. Antibiotic prophylaxis is not indicated prior to dental procedures for prevention of periprosthetic joint infections Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic prophylaxis is not indicated prior to dental procedures for prevention of periprosthetic joint infections Background and purpose - To minimize the risk of hematogenous periprosthetic joint infection (HPJI), international and Dutch guidelines recommended antibiotic prophylaxis prior to dental procedures. Unclear definitions and contradictory recommendations in these guidelines have led to unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions. To formulate new guidelines, a joint committee of the Dutch (...) Orthopaedic and Dental Societies conducted a systematic literature review to answer the following question: can antibiotic prophylaxis be recommended for patients (with joint prostheses) undergoing dental procedures in order to prevent dental HPJI? Methods - The Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), reviews, and observational studies up to July 2015. Studies were included if they involved patients with joint implants undergoing dental procedures

2017 EvidenceUpdates

196. Reducing antibiotic resistance

of antibiotic resistance. This year, we're urging people that it's time to take antibiotic resistance seriously. NPS MedicineWise has created a suite of resources you can download, print and share to raise awareness about antibiotic resistance and help preserve the power of antibiotics. Australian Prescriber: Antimicrobial use and resistance in Australia John Turnidge Aust Prescr 2017;40:2-31 Feb 2017 Managing the emergence and increasing resistance to antimicrobials in hospitals and the community has (...) become an urgent national and international problem. As part of a plan to tackle this, Australia is developing a coordinated national program to monitor antimicrobial use and resistance. Sometimes, parents need reassurance rather than antibiotics When their children are unwell, parents and carers often visit their GP for reassurance. They want to check their child doesn’t have a serious illness and have the opportunity to discuss what is worrying them about their child’s cold, cough, earache or sore

2017 National Prescribing Service Limited (Australia)

197. Norgestimate inhibits staphylococcal biofilm formation and resensitizes methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to β-lactam antibiotics Full Text available with Trip Pro

Norgestimate inhibits staphylococcal biofilm formation and resensitizes methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to β-lactam antibiotics Formation of bacterial biofilms on medical devices can cause severe or fatal infectious diseases. In particular, biofilm-associated infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are difficult to eradicate because the biofilm is strongly resistant to antibiotics and the host immune response. There is no effective treatment for biofilm (...) -associated infectionss, except for surgical removal of contaminated medical devices followed by antibiotic therapy. Here we show that norgestimate, an acetylated progestin, effectively inhibits biofilm formation by staphylococcal strains, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus, without inhibiting their growth, decreasing the selective pressure for emergence of resistance. 17-Deacetyl norgestimate, a metabolite of norgestimate, shows much weaker inhibitory activity against staphylococcal biofilm

2017 NPJ biofilms and microbiomes

198. Comment on "The role of wildlife (wild birds) in the global transmission of antimicrobial resistance genes" Full Text available with Trip Pro

Comment on "The role of wildlife (wild birds) in the global transmission of antimicrobial resistance genes" 28825454 2018 02 09 2018 12 02 2095-8137 38 4 2017 07 18 Zoological research Zool Res Comment on "The role of wildlife (wild birds) in the global transmission of antimicrobial resistance genes". 211 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2017.023 Mohsin Mashkoor M Institute of Microbiology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. mashkoormohsin@uaf.edu.pk. Raza Shahbaz S Institute

2017 Zoological research

199. Response to Comment on "The role of wildlife (wild birds) in the global transmission of antimicrobial resistance genes" Full Text available with Trip Pro

Response to Comment on "The role of wildlife (wild birds) in the global transmission of antimicrobial resistance genes" 28825455 2018 02 09 2018 12 02 2095-8137 38 4 2017 07 18 Zoological research Zool Res Response to Comment on "The role of wildlife (wild birds) in the global transmission of antimicrobial resistance genes". 212 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2017.024 Wang Jing J College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou Guangdong 510642, China. Ma Zhen-Bao ZB

2017 Zoological research

200. Mapping global policy discourse on antimicrobial resistance Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mapping global policy discourse on antimicrobial resistance The rising importance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to the global health agenda is associated with a growing number of parties voicing their concern about the issue. With more recommendations and policies appearing, understanding the policy process requires making sense of the views, values, interests and goals of each participant. Policy frame analysis provides a method to understand both the scientific view and the actions

2017 BMJ global health