Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence. If you wanted the latest trusted evidence on antibiotics or other clinical topics then use Trip today.

This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

What is Trip?

Trip is a clinical search engine designed to allow users to quickly and easily find and use high-quality research evidence to support their practice and/or care.

Trip has been online since 1997 and in that time has developed into the internet’s premier source of evidence-based content. Our motto is ‘Find evidence fast’ and this is something we aim to deliver for every single search.

As well as research evidence we also allow clinicians to search across other content types including images, videos, patient information leaflets, educational courses and news.

For further information on Trip click on any of the questions/sections on the left-hand side of this page. But if you still have questions please contact us via jon.brassey@tripdatabase.com

Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

181. Guideline-Based Clinical Assessment Versus Procalcitonin-Guided Antibiotic Use in Pneumonia: A Pragmatic Randomized Trial (Abstract)

Guideline-Based Clinical Assessment Versus Procalcitonin-Guided Antibiotic Use in Pneumonia: A Pragmatic Randomized Trial Efforts to reduce unnecessary and unnecessarily long antibiotic treatment for community-acquired pneumonia have been attempted through use of procalcitonin and through guidelines based on serial clinical assessment. Our aim is to compare guideline-based clinical assessment- and procalcitonin algorithm-guided antibiotic use among patients with community-acquired pneumonia.We (...) performed a pragmatic, randomized, multicenter trial from November 2012 to April 2015 at 12 French hospitals. We included emergency department (ED) patients older than 18 years with community-acquired pneumonia. Patients were randomly assigned to either the procalcitonin-guided or clinical assessment group. In accordance with past studies, we hypothesized that serial clinical assessment would be superior to procalcitonin-guided care. The primary outcome was antibiotic duration, and secondary outcomes

2019 EvidenceUpdates

182. Are Antibiotics Effective in the Treatment of Children With Prolonged Wet Cough? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Are Antibiotics Effective in the Treatment of Children With Prolonged Wet Cough? Are Antibiotics Effective in the Treatment of Children With Prolonged Wet Cough? - Annals of Emergency Medicine Email/Username: Password: Remember me Search Terms Search within Search Share this page Access provided by Volume 73, Issue 5, Pages 453–455 Are Antibiotics Effective in the Treatment of Children With Prolonged Wet Cough? x Brit Long , MD (EBEM Commentator) , x Michael D. April , MD, DPhil (EBEM (...) Commentator) Department of Emergency Medicine, San Antonio Uniformed Services Health Education Consortium, Fort Sam Houston, TX DOI: | Publication History Published online: November 13, 2018 Expand all Collapse all Article Outline Take-Home Message Antibiotics may improve clinical cure and reduce progression of illness in children with prolonged wet cough. Methods Data Sources Authors identified trials from the Cochrane Airways Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE OvidSP, and EMBASE OvidSP through September

2019 Annals of Emergency Medicine Systematic Review Snapshots

183. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR): applying All Our Health

prevent ill health and promote wellbeing as part of their everyday practice. The information below will help front-line health and care staff use their trusted relationships with patients, families and communities to promote the benefits of preventing antimicrobial resistance ( of ‘All Our Health’ topics. Infections that cannot be treated continue to develop. The rapid spread of multidrug resistant organisms means that we may not be able to treat everyday infections or diseases with antibiotics (...) in the near future. Many existing antimicrobials are becoming less effective as bacteria, viruses, protozoa and fungi are adapting and becoming resistant to medicines. Inappropriate use of these valuable medicines has also added to the problem. Without effective antibiotics, even minor surgery and routine operations could become high risk procedures if serious infections can’t be treated. Access the antimicrobial resistance e-learning session An is now available to use. and 5 Year Action Plan set out

2019 Public Health England

184. FSRH CEU statement on antibiotic cover for urgent insertion of intrauterine contraception in women at high risk of STI

FSRH CEU statement on antibiotic cover for urgent insertion of intrauterine contraception in women at high risk of STI FSRH CEU statement on antibiotic cover for urgent insertion of intrauterine contraception in women at high risk of STI (May 2019) - Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare FSRH CEU statement on antibiotic cover for urgent insertion of intrauterine contraception in women at high risk of STI (May 2019) FSRH CEU statement on antibiotic cover for urgent insertion (...) of intrauterine contraception in women at high risk of STI (May 2019) Share this article Published on: 22 May 2019 File size: 241kb PDF File type: Clinical Statements This statement provides guidance on antibiotic cover for urgent insertion of intrauterine contraception in women at high risk of STI. Download the full document here. Your download should start automatically. If not . Document types Thinking about taking a qualification? Registration is now quick and easy online. About FSRH FSRH is a faculty

2019 Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare

185. IDDF2019-ABS-0332 Comparison of antibiotics for the primary and secondary prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a systematic review and network meta-analysis with bayesian approach Full Text available with Trip Pro

IDDF2019-ABS-0332 Comparison of antibiotics for the primary and secondary prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a systematic review and network meta-analysis with bayesian approach IDDF2019-ABS-0332 Comparison of antibiotics for the primary and secondary prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a systematic review and network meta-analysis with bayesian approach | Gut Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts (...) Username * Password * your user name or password? Search for this keyword Search for this keyword Main menu Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? You are here IDDF2019-ABS-0332 Comparison of antibiotics for the primary and secondary prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a systematic review and network meta-analysis with bayesian approach Article Text Gut – IDDF Young Investigator

2019 Gut – IDDF Young Investigator Award

186. Antibiotic use for irreversible pulpitis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic use for irreversible pulpitis. Irreversible pulpitis, which is characterised by acute and intense pain, is one of the most frequent reasons that patients attend for emergency dental care. Apart from removal of the tooth, the customary way of relieving the pain of irreversible pulpitis is by drilling into the tooth, removing the inflamed pulp (nerve) and cleaning the root canal. However, a significant number of dentists continue to prescribe antibiotics to stop the pain (...) of irreversible pulpitis.This review updates the previous version published in 2016.To assess the effects of systemic antibiotics for irreversible pulpitis.We searched Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 18 February 2019); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2019, Issue 1) in the Cochrane Library (searched 18 February 2019); MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 18 February 2019); Embase Ovid (1980 to 18 February 2019); US National Institutes of Health Ongoing Trials Register

2019 Cochrane

187. Antibiotic therapy for adults with neurosyphilis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic therapy for adults with neurosyphilis. Neurosyphilis is an infection of the central nervous system, caused by Treponema pallidum, a spirochete capable of infecting almost any organ or tissue in the body causing neurological complications due to the infection. This disease is a tertiary manifestation of syphilis. The first-line treatment for neurosyphilis is aqueous crystalline penicillin. However, in cases such as penicillin allergy, other regimes of antibiotic therapy can be used.To (...) assess the clinical effectiveness and safety of antibiotic therapy for adults with neurosyphilis.We searched the Cochrane Library, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and Opengrey up to April 2019. We also searched proceedings of eight congresses to a maximum of 10 years, and we contacted trial authors for additional information.We included randomised clinical trials that included men and women, regardless of age, with definitive

2019 Cochrane

188. Head-to-head oral prophylactic antibiotic therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Head-to-head oral prophylactic antibiotic therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; including chronic bronchitis and emphysema) is a chronic respiratory condition characterised by shortness of breath, cough and recurrent exacerbations. Long-term antibiotic use may reduce both bacterial load and inflammation in the airways. Studies have shown a reduction of exacerbations with antibiotics in comparison to placebo in people with COPD (...) , but there are concerns about antibiotic resistance and safety.To compare the safety and efficacy of different classes of antibiotics (continuous, intermittent or pulsed) for prophylaxis of exacerbations in patients with COPD.We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Trials Register and bibliographies of relevant studies. The latest literature search was conducted on 6 February 2019.Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were selected that compared one prophylactic antibiotic with another in patients with COPD.We used

2019 Cochrane

189. Prevalence of Class 1 Integron and Antibiotic Resistance Pattern in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Iranian Clinical Specimens; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Full Text available with Trip Pro

company. This is a preprint. It has not completed peer review. Research article Prevalence of Class 1 Integron and Antibiotic Resistance Pattern in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Iranian Clinical Specimens; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Elham Zarifi, Yasamin Enayati Kaliji, Azad Khaledi, Mohammadreza Rahimi, Mahtab Babadi Elham Zarifi Shahid Sadoughi Yazd Uni Med Sci Yasamin Enayati Kaliji Azad Uni Med Sci Azad Khaledi Antimicrobial Research Center, Avicenna Research Center, Department (...) Prevalence of Class 1 Integron and Antibiotic Resistance Pattern in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Iranian Clinical Specimens; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Prevalence of Class 1 Integron and Antibiotic Resistance Pattern in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Iranian Clinical Specimens; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis | Research Square Browse Tools & Services Your Cart This is a preprint, a preliminary version of a manuscript that has not completed peer review at a journal

2019 Research Square

190. The Collaborative Assessment, OTCA12, on “C-reactive protein point-of-care testing (CRP POCT) to guide antibiotic prescribing in primary care settings for acute respiratory tract infections (RTIs)

-reactive protein point-of-care testing to guide antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections in primary care EUnetHTA Joint Action 3 WP4 3 Consultation of the draft Rapid Assessment External experts [V.1.3] Elizabeth Beech, National Project Lead – Healthcare Acquired Infection and Antimicrobial Resistance, NHS Improvement, England Dr Nuala O’Connor, Irish College of General Practitioners (ICGP) GP Lead HSE Clinical Programme HCAI-AMR Professor Martin Cormican, National Clinical Lead (...) ) RECOMMENDATIONS IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES FOR CRP POCT 248 Figures FIGURE 1: ANATOMY OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACT 67 FIGURE 2: ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE (COMBINED NON-SUSCEPTIBILITY FOR PENICILLINS AND MACROLIDES) VERSUS STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE IN EU/EEA COUNTRIES, 2017 68 FIGURE 3: CONSUMPTION OF ANTIBIOTICS FOR SYSTEMIC USE IN THE COMMUNITY, EU/EEA COUNTRIES, 2016 (EXPRESSED AS DDD PER 1 000 INHABITANTS PER DAY) 69 FIGURE 4: FLOW CHART SYSTEMATIC REVIEW 1 (EFFECTIVENESS AND SAFETY) 83 C-reactive protein point

2019 EUnetHTA

191. Two weeks versus four weeks of antibiotic therapy after surgical drainage for native joint bacterial arthritis: a prospective, randomised, non-inferiority trial Full Text available with Trip Pro

Two weeks versus four weeks of antibiotic therapy after surgical drainage for native joint bacterial arthritis: a prospective, randomised, non-inferiority trial The optimal duration of postsurgical antibiotic therapy for adult native joint bacterial arthritis remains unknown.We conducted a prospective, unblinded, randomised, non-inferiority study comparing either 2 or 4 weeks of antibiotic therapy after surgical drainage of native joint bacterial arthritis in adults. Excluded were implant (...) -related infections, episodes without surgical lavage and episodes with a follow-up of less than 2 months.We enrolled 154 cases: 77 in the 4-week arm and 77 in the 2-week arm. Median length of intravenous antibiotic treatment was 1 and 2 days, respectively. The median number of surgical lavages was 1 in both arms. Recurrence of infection was noted in three patients (2%): 1 in the 2-week arm (99% cure rate) and 2 in the 4-week arm (97% cure rate). There was no difference in the number of adverse events

2019 EvidenceUpdates

192. HTA of C-reactive protein point-of-care testing to guide antibiotic prescribing

a range of health services, in conjunction with the Department of Health and the HSE. Health Technology Assessment (HTA) of CRP POCT Health Information and Quality Authority iv Foreword Antimicrobial resistance occurs when bacteria adapt in response to the use of medicines. When bacteria become antibiotic resistant, infections become more difficult to manage and treat. Antimicrobial resistance is a significant threat to public health, and widely acknowledged to be associated with the excessive (...) , but not for those with acute bronchitis. ? Overprescribing of antibiotics for RTIs in primary care is common in most industrialised countries, with high levels of inappropriate prescribing documented. Antibiotic treatment of RTIs can expose patients to an increased risk of an adverse event, with one out of five patients experiencing mostly minor and self-limiting adverse events. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a growing and significant threat to public health, and it is widely recognised that antibiotic

2019 Health Information and Quality Authority

193. Effect of prolonged antibiotic treatment on cognition in patients with Lyme borreliosis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of prolonged antibiotic treatment on cognition in patients with Lyme borreliosis To investigate whether longer-term antibiotic treatment improves cognitive performance in patients with persistent symptoms attributed to Lyme borreliosis.Data were collected during the Persistent Lyme Empiric Antibiotic Study Europe (PLEASE) trial, a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Study participants passed performance-validity testing (measure for detecting suboptimal effort) and had persistent (...) treatment with ceftriaxone followed by a 12-week regimen of doxycycline or clarithromycin/hydroxychloroquine did not lead to better cognitive performance compared to a 2-week regimen of ceftriaxone in patients with Lyme disease-attributed persistent symptoms.NCT01207739.This study provides Class II evidence that longer-term antibiotics in patients with borreliosis-attributed persistent symptoms does not increase cognitive performance compared to shorter-term antibiotics.Copyright © 2019 The Author(s

2019 EvidenceUpdates

194. Proposals for a more effective antibiotic policy in Belgium

(BAPCOC) 24 1.1.6 Difficult to obtain significant improvements 24 1.2 RESEARCH QUESTIONS & SCOPE 25 1.3 TERMINOLOGY 25 1.4 METHODOLOGY 26 1.5 STRUCTURE OF THE REPORT 26 2 ANTIBIOTIC USE AND ITS LINK WITH ANTIBACTERIAL RESISTANCE 27 2.1 WHAT IS ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE? 27 2.1.1 Antibacterial resistance, a natural phenomenon 27 2.1.2 How do bacteria become resistant? 27 2.1.3 How does antibiotic resistance spread? 28 2.1.4 Multidrug resistant organisms 28 2.1.1 Resistance in community and healthcare (...) . This document is available on the website of the Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre. KCE Report 311 Antibiotic policy in Belgium 1 ? TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES 8 LIST OF TABLES 10 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 13 ? SCIENTIFIC REPORT 23 1 INTRODUCTION 23 1.1 SHORT DESCRIPTION OF THE PROBLEM 23 1.1.1 Antibiotic resistance 23 1.1.2 Antibiotic use in Belgium 24 1.1.3 The concept of prudent antimicrobial/antibiotic use 24 1.1.4 One Health approach 24 1.1.5 Belgian Antibiotic Policy Coordination Committee

2019 Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre

195. Fluoroquinolone antibiotics: new restrictions and precautions for use due to very rare reports of disabling and potentially long-lasting or irreversible side effects

and tendon rupture report suspected adverse drug reactions to fluoroquinolone antibiotics on the or via the Yellow Card app (download it from the , or ) New restricted indications Fluoroquinolones are antibiotics authorised for serious, life-threatening bacterial infections. As for all antibiotic medicines, consideration should be given to official guidance on the appropriate use of antibacterial agents (see section below on Prescribing guidance). Following an EU-wide review of safety, new restricted (...) Fluoroquinolone antibiotics: new restrictions and precautions for use due to very rare reports of disabling and potentially long-lasting or irreversible side effects Fluoroquinolone antibiotics: new restrictions and precautions for use due to very rare reports of disabling and potentially long-lasting or irreversible side effects - GOV.UK GOV.UK uses cookies to make the site simpler. or Search Fluoroquinolone antibiotics: new restrictions and precautions for use due to very rare reports

2019 MHRA Drug Safety Update

196. Antibacterial Envelope to Prevent Cardiac Implantable Device Infection. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibacterial Envelope to Prevent Cardiac Implantable Device Infection. Infections after placement of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. There is limited evidence on prophylactic strategies, other than the use of preoperative antibiotics, to prevent such infections.We conducted a randomized, controlled clinical trial to assess the safety and efficacy of an absorbable, antibiotic-eluting envelope in reducing the incidence (...) of infection associated with CIED implantations. Patients who were undergoing a CIED pocket revision, generator replacement, or system upgrade or an initial implantation of a cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator were randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive the envelope or not. Standard-of-care strategies to prevent infection were used in all patients. The primary end point was infection resulting in system extraction or revision, long-term antibiotic therapy with infection recurrence

2019 NEJM Controlled trial quality: predicted high

197. A Randomized Trial of Prophylactic Antibiotics for Miscarriage Surgery. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A Randomized Trial of Prophylactic Antibiotics for Miscarriage Surgery. Surgical intervention is needed in some cases of spontaneous abortion to remove retained products of conception. Antibiotic prophylaxis may reduce the risk of pelvic infection, which is an important complication of this surgery, particularly in low-resource countries.We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial investigating whether antibiotic prophylaxis before surgery to complete a spontaneous (...) of these features and the clinically identified need to administer antibiotics. The definition of pelvic infection was changed before the unblinding of the data; the original strict definition was two or more of the clinical features, without reference to the administration of antibiotics.We enrolled 3412 patients in Malawi, Pakistan, Tanzania, and Uganda. A total of 1705 patients were assigned to receive antibiotics and 1707 to receive placebo. The risk of pelvic infection was 4.1% (68 of 1676 pregnancies

2019 NEJM

198. 4CPS-276 Antimicrobial stewardship programme implementation in the gulf cooperation council states: a systematic review Full Text available with Trip Pro

4CPS-276 Antimicrobial stewardship programme implementation in the gulf cooperation council states: a systematic review 4CPS-276 Antimicrobial stewardship programme implementation in the gulf cooperation council states: a systematic review | European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? Search for this keyword Search for this keyword Main menu Log (...) in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? You are here 4CPS-276 Antimicrobial stewardship programme implementation in the gulf cooperation council states: a systematic review Article Text Section 4: Clinical Pharmacy Services 4CPS-276 Antimicrobial stewardship programme implementation in the gulf cooperation council states: a systematic review Free N Hashad , A Tonna , D Perumal , D Stewart

2019 Section 4: Clinical Pharmacy Services

199. Antibiotic management of urinary tract infection in elderly patients in primary care and its association with bloodstream infections and all cause mortality: population based cohort study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic management of urinary tract infection in elderly patients in primary care and its association with bloodstream infections and all cause mortality: population based cohort study. To evaluate the association between antibiotic treatment for urinary tract infection (UTI) and severe adverse outcomes in elderly patients in primary care.Retrospective population based cohort study.Clinical Practice Research Datalink (2007-15) primary care records linked to hospital episode statistics (...) and death records in England.157 264 adults aged 65 years or older presenting to a general practitioner with at least one diagnosis of suspected or confirmed lower UTI from November 2007 to May 2015.Bloodstream infection, hospital admission, and all cause mortality within 60 days after the index UTI diagnosis.Among 312 896 UTI episodes (157 264 unique patients), 7.2% (n=22 534) did not have a record of antibiotics being prescribed and 6.2% (n=19 292) showed a delay in antibiotic prescribing. 1539

2019 BMJ

200. Duration of antibiotic treatment for common infections in English primary care: cross sectional analysis and comparison with guidelines. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Duration of antibiotic treatment for common infections in English primary care: cross sectional analysis and comparison with guidelines. To evaluate the duration of prescriptions for antibiotic treatment for common infections in English primary care and to compare this with guideline recommendations.Cross sectional study.General practices contributing to The Health Improvement Network database, 2013-15.931 015 consultations that resulted in an antibiotic prescription for one of several (...) indications: acute sinusitis, acute sore throat, acute cough and bronchitis, pneumonia, acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), acute otitis media, acute cystitis, acute prostatitis, pyelonephritis, cellulitis, impetigo, scarlet fever, and gastroenteritis.The main outcomes were the percentage of antibiotic prescriptions with a duration exceeding the guideline recommendation and the total number of days beyond the recommended duration for each indication.The most common reasons

2019 BMJ