Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

181. Pattern of Antimicrobial Resistance among Bacterial Isolates from Urogenital Clinical Specimens: A Descriptive Study from the Buea Health District, Cameroon Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pattern of Antimicrobial Resistance among Bacterial Isolates from Urogenital Clinical Specimens: A Descriptive Study from the Buea Health District, Cameroon Antimicrobial resistance has become a global concern and is particularly affecting developing countries where infectious diseases and poverty are endemic. The effectiveness of currently available antimicrobials is decreasing as a result of increasing resistant strains among clinical isolates.The aim of this study was to determine (...) the resistance pattern of bacterial isolates from different clinical urogenital specimens at different hospitals in the Buea Health District, Cameroon.A retrospective study was conducted in three hospital laboratories in the Buea Health District, Cameroon, from June to August 2017. All culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test results of patients who presented at each of the laboratories for urine, vaginal swab or urethral swab cultures from January 2012 to December 2016 were included in the study. Data

2018 Drugs - real world outcomes

182. Otitis media (acute): antimicrobial prescribing

is it for? 4 Recommendations 5 1.1 Managing acute otitis media 5 1.2 Self-care 7 1.3 Choice of antibiotic 8 Summary of the evidence 10 Self-care 10 Oral corticosteroids 11 No antibiotic 12 Back-up antibiotics 14 Choice of antibiotic 16 Antibiotic course length 18 Antibiotic dose frequency 19 Other considerations 21 Medicines adherence 21 Resource implications 21 Otitis media (acute): antimicrobial prescribing (NG91) © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk (...) /terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 3 of 21Ov Overview erview This guideline sets out an antimicrobial prescribing strategy for acute otitis media (ear infection). It aims to limit antibiotic use and reduce antimicrobial resistance. Acute otitis media can be caused by viruses or bacteria. It lasts for about a week, and most children get better in 3 days without antibiotics. Serious complications are rare. See a 2-page visual summary of the recommendations, including tables to support

2018 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

183. Checking procalcitonin suitability for prognosis and antimicrobial therapy monitoring in burn patients Full Text available with Trip Pro

Checking procalcitonin suitability for prognosis and antimicrobial therapy monitoring in burn patients Due to greater infection susceptibility, sepsis is the main cause of death in burn patients. Quick diagnosis and patient stratification, early and appropriated antimicrobial therapy, and focus control are crucial for patients' survival. On the other hand, superfluous extension of therapy is associated with adverse events and arousal of microbial resistance. The use of biomarkers, necessarily (...) coupled with close clinical examination, may predict outcomes, stratifying patients who need more intensive care, and monitor the efficacy of antimicrobial therapy, allowing faster de-escalation or stop, reducing the development of resistance and possibly the financial burden, without increasing mortality. The aim of this work is to check the suitability of procalcitonin (PCT) to fulfill these goals in a large sample of septic burn patients.One hundred and one patients, with 15% or more of total body

2018 Burns & trauma

184. Inhaled anti-pseudomonal antibiotics for long-term therapy in cystic fibrosis. (Abstract)

Inhaled anti-pseudomonal antibiotics for long-term therapy in cystic fibrosis. Inhaled antibiotics are commonly used to treat persistent airway infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa that contributes to lung damage in people with cystic fibrosis. Current guidelines recommend inhaled tobramycin for individuals with cystic fibrosis and persistent Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection who are aged six years or older. The aim is to reduce bacterial load in the lungs so as to reduce inflammation (...) and deterioration of lung function. This is an update of a previously published review.To evaluate the effects long-term inhaled antibiotic therapy in people with cystic fibrosis on clinical outcomes (lung function, frequency of exacerbations and nutrition), quality of life and adverse events (including drug sensitivity reactions and survival).We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register, compiled from electronic database searches and handsearching of journals and conference abstract books. We also

2018 Cochrane

185. Synthesis, characterization, computational studies and biological activity evaluation of Cu, Fe, Co and Zn complexes with 2-butanone thiosemicarbazone and 1,10-phenanthroline ligands as anticancer and antibacterial agents Full Text available with Trip Pro

Synthesis, characterization, computational studies and biological activity evaluation of Cu, Fe, Co and Zn complexes with 2-butanone thiosemicarbazone and 1,10-phenanthroline ligands as anticancer and antibacterial agents Mixed-ligand metal (II) (M=Cu, Fe, Co and Zn) complexes containing 2-butanone thiosemicarbazone and 1, 10-phenanthroline have been synthesized and characterized by melting point, FT-IR, 1H-NMR, UV-spectrophotometry and molar conductance measurements. All the complexes were (...) and tetracycline. The ligand was tested for its potential anticancer activity against MDA-MB-231 cell line using MTT assay. Antibacterial activity of the complexes was tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli using the disc diffusion method. Cu (II) complex showed maximum activity against the MDA cells and also exhibited mild antibacterial activity against S. aureus.

2018 EXCLI journal

186. Antibiotics and activity spaces: protocol of an exploratory study of behaviour, marginalisation and knowledge diffusion Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotics and activity spaces: protocol of an exploratory study of behaviour, marginalisation and knowledge diffusion Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health priority. Leading UK and global strategy papers to fight AMR recognise its social and behavioural dimensions, but current policy responses to improve the popular use of antimicrobials (eg, antibiotics) are limited to education and awareness-raising campaigns. In response to conceptual, methodological and empirical weaknesses (...) of this approach, we study people's antibiotic-related health behaviour through three research questions.RQ1: What are the manifestations and determinants of problematic antibiotic use in patients' healthcare-seeking pathways?RQ2: Will people's exposure to antibiotic awareness activities entail changed behaviours that diffuse or dissipate within a network of competing healthcare practices?RQ3: Which proxy indicators facilitate the detection of problematic antibiotic behaviours across and within communities?We

2018 BMJ global health

187. Oral versus inhaled antibiotics for bronchiectasis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Oral versus inhaled antibiotics for bronchiectasis. Bronchiectasis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterised by a recurrent cycle of respiratory bacterial infections associated with cough, sputum production and impaired quality of life. Antibiotics are the main therapeutic option for managing bronchiectasis exacerbations. Evidence suggests that inhaled antibiotics may be associated with more effective eradication of infective organisms and a lower risk of developing antibiotic resistance (...) when compared with orally administered antibiotics. However, it is currently unclear whether antibiotics are more effective when administered orally or by inhalation.To determine the comparative efficacy and safety of oral versus inhaled antibiotics in the treatment of adults and children with bronchiectasis.We identified studies through searches of the Cochrane Airways Group's Specialised Register (CAGR), which is maintained by the Information Specialist for the group. The Register contains trial

2018 Cochrane

188. The antimicrobial activity of probiotic bacteria Escherichia coli isolated from different natural sources against hemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7 Full Text available with Trip Pro

The antimicrobial activity of probiotic bacteria Escherichia coli isolated from different natural sources against hemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7 Diarrheal diseases have been seen in all geographical areas throughout the world. Therefore, considering treatment, could be deemed a necessary action.The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial effect of probiotic bacterial strains isolated from different natural sources against 2 pathotypes of pathogenic E. coli.This cross-sectional study (...) of Martyr Chamran University of Ahvaz was carried out from December 2013 to July 2014. A total of 13 probiotic colonies isolated from 20 samples of traditional dairy products including (yogurt, cheese, milk) and 20 samples of vegetables including carrots and cabbages (red and white) of which 5 isolates were selected to evaluate the antimicrobial effect against 2 Escherichia coli pathotypes, randomly. Antimicrobial effect was evaluated using two methods: disk diffusion and well diffusion tests

2018 Electronic physician

189. Antibiotic resistance patterns of urinary tract pathogens in Turkish children Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic resistance patterns of urinary tract pathogens in Turkish children Knowledge of local antimicrobial resistance patterns is essential for evidence- based empirical antibiotic prescribing. We aimed to investigate the distribution and changes in causative agents of urinary tract infections in children and the resistance rates, and to recommend the most appropriate antibiotics.In this retrospective study, we evaluated causative agents and antimicrobial resistance in urine isolates from

2018 Global health research and policy

190. The dolphin proline-rich antimicrobial peptide Tur1A inhibits protein synthesis by targeting the bacterial ribosome Full Text available with Trip Pro

The dolphin proline-rich antimicrobial peptide Tur1A inhibits protein synthesis by targeting the bacterial ribosome Proline-rich antimicrobial peptides (PrAMPs) internalize into susceptible bacteria using specific transporters and interfere with protein synthesis and folding. To date, mammalian PrAMPs have so far been identified only in artiodactyls. Since cetaceans are co-phyletic with artiodactyls, we mined the genome of the bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus, leading to the identification (...) structure of Tur1A bound within the ribosomal exit tunnel provides a basis to develop these peptides as novel antimicrobial agents.Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2018 Cell chemical biology

191. Antibiotics at the time of removal of central venous catheter to reduce morbidity and mortality in newborn infants. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotics at the time of removal of central venous catheter to reduce morbidity and mortality in newborn infants. Late-onset sepsis is associated with increased rates of mortality and morbidity in newborn infants, in addition to poorer long-term developmental outcomes and increased length of stay and hospital costs. Central line-associated blood stream infection (CLABSI) is the most common cause of late-onset sepsis in hospitalised infants, and prevention of CLABSI is a key objective (...) in neonatal care. Increased frequency of CLABSI around the time of removal of central venous catheters (CVCs) has been reported, and use of antibiotics at the time of removal may reduce the incidence and impact of late-onset sepsis in vulnerable newborn infants.To determine the efficacy and safety of giving antibiotics at the time of removal of a central venous catheter (CVC) for reduction of morbidity and mortality in newborn infants, in particular effects on late-onset sepsis.We used the standard search

2018 Cochrane

192. Epidemiology of antibiotic-resistant wound infections from six countries in Africa Full Text available with Trip Pro

Epidemiology of antibiotic-resistant wound infections from six countries in Africa Little is known about the antimicrobial susceptibility of common bacteria responsible for wound infections from many countries in sub-Saharan Africa.We performed a retrospective review of microbial isolates collected based on clinical suspicion of wound infection between 2004 and 2016 from Mercy Ships, a non-governmental organisation operating a single mobile surgical unit in Benin, Congo, Liberia, Madagascar (...) surveillance should be a priority and local antimicrobial resistance profiles should be used to guide empiric antibiotic selection.

2018 BMJ global health

193. Procalcitonin Testing to Guide Antibiotic Therapy in Acute Upper and Lower Respiratory Tract Infections. (Abstract)

Procalcitonin Testing to Guide Antibiotic Therapy in Acute Upper and Lower Respiratory Tract Infections. Is the use of procalcitonin for guiding antibiotic decisions in patients with acute upper and lower respiratory tract infections associated with improved clinical outcomes compared with usual care?Among patients with varying types and severity of acute respiratory infection, using procalcitonin to guide decisions about antibiotics is associated with lower rates of antibiotic exposure (...) , antibiotic-related adverse effects, and mortality.

2018 JAMA

194. Interventions to improve antimicrobial prescribing of doctors in training (IMPACT): a realist review Full Text available with Trip Pro

Interventions to improve antimicrobial prescribing of doctors in training (IMPACT): a realist review Interventions to improve antimicrobial prescribing of doctors in training (IMPACT): a realist review Journals Library An error occurred retrieving content to display, please try again. >> >> >> Page Not Found Page not found (404) Sorry - the page you requested could not be found. Please choose a page from the navigation or try a website search above to find the information you need (...) . >> >> >> >> Issue {{metadata .Issue }} Toolkit 1)"> 0)"> 1)"> {{metadata.Title}} {{metadata.Headline}} This review identified a number of implications on how interventions can be developed to enable optimal tailoring, design and implementation of antimicrobial prescribing interventions targeted at doctors-in-training. {{author}} {{($index , , , , & . Chrysanthi Papoutsi 1, * , Karen Mattick 2 , Mark Pearson 3 , Nicola Brennan 4 , Simon Briscoe 3 , Geoff Wong 1 1 Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health

2018 NIHR HTA programme

195. Endophthalmitis caused by gram-positive bacteria resistant to vancomycin: Clinical settings, causative organisms, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and treatment outcomes Full Text available with Trip Pro

injections performed were 3.4 per patient. The most common organisms isolated were coagulase-negative Staphylococci in 6/14 (42.8%), Staphylococcus aureus in 5/14 (35.7%), Streptococcus sp in 2/14 (14.2%) and Bacillus sp in 1/14 (7.14%). In addition to vancomycin, resistance to multiple drugs (three or more groups of antibiotics) was found in all 14 cases. Antimicrobial susceptibility results showed susceptibility to amikacin in 7/14 (50.0%), gatifloxacin in 6/14 (42.8%), moxifloxacin in 3/13 (23.0 (...) %), cefazoline in 5/14 (35.7%), cefuroxime in 3/14 (21.4%), ciprofloxacin in 2/14 (14.2%) and linezolid in 5/5 (100%). The mean duration of follow-up was 30.7 weeks (6 weeks-90 weeks). At last follow-up, visual acuity (VA) of 20/200 or better was recorded in 7/14 (50%) and VA < 5/200 occurred in 7/14 (50%).Antimicrobial susceptibility testing may help in selection of suitable antimicrobial agents for repeat intravitreal injection. Inspite of retreatment with intravitreal antibiotics, these patients generally

2018 American journal of ophthalmology case reports

196. Precision antimicrobial therapeutics: the path of least resistance? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Precision antimicrobial therapeutics: the path of least resistance? The emergence of drug-resistant pathogens has led to a decline in the efficacy of traditional antimicrobial therapy. The rise in resistance has been driven by widespread use, and in some cases misuse, of antibacterial agents in treating a variety of infections. A growing body of research has begun to elucidate the harmful effects of broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy on the beneficial host microbiota. To combat these threats (...) with Crohn's disease (CD), in mouse models. While not without its challenges, antibiotic-sparing therapeutic approaches hold great promise in a variety of disease systems, including UTI, CD, otitis media (OM), and others. In this perspective we highlight the benefits, progress, and roadblocks to the development of precision antimicrobial therapeutics.

2018 NPJ biofilms and microbiomes

197. Helicobacter pylori resistance to antibiotics at the An-Najah National University Hospital: a cross-sectional study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Helicobacter pylori resistance to antibiotics at the An-Najah National University Hospital: a cross-sectional study. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is considered the most important determinant of treatment failure. Monitoring the evolution of antimicrobial resistance to common antibiotics is therefore of special importance for clinicians. The frequency of resistance to antibiotics in Helicobacter pylori isolates is increasing. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of H pylori (...) %). Metronidazole and clarithromycin were the least effective drugs, with resistance rates of 100% and 47%, respectively.H pylori isolates from the Palestinian patients included in this study were highly resistant to the traditional first-line antibiotics clarithromycin and metronidazole. However, fluoroquinolones and amoxicillin are still effective antimicrobial choices. This could be the result of the unjustified wide use of antibiotics in the Palestinian community and the use of clarithromycin-based therapy

2018 Lancet

198. Antibiotics for treating gonorrhoea in pregnancy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotics for treating gonorrhoea in pregnancy. Gonorrhoea is a sexually transmitted infection that is caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and is a major public health challenge today. N gonorrhoeae can be transmitted from the mother's genital tract to the newborn during birth, and can cause gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum as well as systemic neonatal infections. It can also cause endometritis and pelvic sepsis in the mother. This review updates and replaces an earlier Cochrane Review (...) on antibiotics for treating this infectious condition.To assess the clinical effectiveness and harms of antibiotics for treating gonorrhoea in pregnant women.We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 May 2017), LILACS database (1982 to April 5, 2017), the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP; April 5, 2017), ClinicalTrials.gov (April 5, 2017), the ISRCTN Registry (April 5, 2017), and Epistemonikos (April 5, 2017). We also searched reference lists

2018 Cochrane

199. [Generation of Antibiotic Tolerant Bacterial Persisters in Immunocompromized Patients with Hematologic and Malignant Diseases: A New Problem of Health-Care Associated Infections]. (Abstract)

[Generation of Antibiotic Tolerant Bacterial Persisters in Immunocompromized Patients with Hematologic and Malignant Diseases: A New Problem of Health-Care Associated Infections]. Antibiotic tolerance (AT) represents one of the causes of the phenomenon of antibiotic resistance that allows escape of non-replicating metabolically inert microorganisms (persisters) from any antibiotics attack because molecular targets of antibiotics are lacking thereby creating the potential for chronic (...) infections.Determine the heterogeneity of the strains of opportunistic pathogens E. coli and P. aeruginosa isolates from children with hematologic malignancies containing bacterial persisters that cause the AT phenomenon.Children with hematological malignancies were divided into 2 groups according to the intensity of antibiotic treatment of infectious complications. Ciprofloxacin-induced persisters were quantitatively determined in the biological materials obtained from sick children.Within the clinical isolates

2018 Vestnik Rossiiskoi akademii meditsinskikh nauk Controlled trial quality: uncertain

200. Sore throat (acute): antimicrobial prescribing

Recommendations 5 1.1 Managing acute sore throat 5 1.2 Self-care 7 1.3 Choice of antibiotic 8 Summary of the evidence 10 Self-care 10 Corticosteroids 12 No antibiotic 12 Back-up antibiotics 14 Identifying people more likely to benefit from antibiotics 14 Antibiotic choice 18 Antibiotic course length 20 Other considerations 22 Medicines adherence 22 Resource implications 22 T erms used in the guideline 23 FeverPAIN criteria 23 Centor criteria 23 Sore throat (acute): antimicrobial prescribing (NG84) © NICE 2019 (...) . All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 3 of 24Ov Overview erview This guideline sets out an antimicrobial prescribing strategy for acute sore throat. It aims to limit antibiotic use and reduce antimicrobial resistance. Acute sore throat is often caused by a virus, lasts for about a week, and most people get better without antibiotics. Withholding antibiotics rarely leads to complications. See a 2-page visual summary

2018 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines