Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

The Trip Database is a leading resource to help health professionals find trustworthy answers to their clinical questions. Users can access the latest research evidence and guidance to answer their clinical questions. We have a large collection of systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, regulatory guidance, clinical trials and many other forms of evidence. If you wanted the latest trusted evidence on antibiotics or other clinical topics then use Trip today.

This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

What is Trip?

Trip is a clinical search engine designed to allow users to quickly and easily find and use high-quality research evidence to support their practice and/or care.

Trip has been online since 1997 and in that time has developed into the internet’s premier source of evidence-based content. Our motto is ‘Find evidence fast’ and this is something we aim to deliver for every single search.

As well as research evidence we also allow clinicians to search across other content types including images, videos, patient information leaflets, educational courses and news.

For further information on Trip click on any of the questions/sections on the left-hand side of this page. But if you still have questions please contact us via jon.brassey@tripdatabase.com

Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

21. Efficacy and Safety of Antibiotics for Treatment of Scrub Typhus: A Network Meta-analysis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Efficacy and Safety of Antibiotics for Treatment of Scrub Typhus: A Network Meta-analysis Efficacy and Safety of Antibiotics for Treatment of Scrub Typhus: A Network Meta-analysis - PubMed This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Get the latest public health information from CDC (...) there aren't any new results Optional text in email: Save Cancel Create a file for external citation management software Create file Cancel Your RSS Feed Name of RSS Feed: Number of items displayed: Create RSS Cancel RSS Link Copy Actions Cite Display options Display options Format Share Permalink Copy Page navigation JAMA Netw Open Actions . 2020 Aug 3;3(8):e2014487. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.14487. Efficacy and Safety of Antibiotics for Treatment of Scrub Typhus: A Network Meta-analysis

2020 EvidenceUpdates

22. Appendectomy versus antibiotic treatment for acute appendicitis. (Abstract)

Appendectomy versus antibiotic treatment for acute appendicitis. This Cochrane review has been withdrawn. The Cochrane review is out of date and included a retracted article in the analysis. Withdrawn by Cochrane Colorectal Group. A new update is expected. The editorial group responsible for this previously published document have withdrawn it from publication.Copyright © 2020 The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

2020 Cochrane

23. Insect bites and stings: antimicrobial prescribing

bites and stings 5 T erms used in the guideline 7 Rationales 9 Assessment and advice 9 Treatment 9 Referral and seeking specialist advice 10 Context 12 Summary of the evidence 13 Antibiotics for infected arthropod bites in adults 13 Oral antihistamines for uninfected mosquito bites in adults 14 Antihistamines for uninfected mosquito bites in children 15 Treatments for uninfected brown recluse spider bites 15 Insect bites and stings: antimicrobial prescribing (NG182) © NICE 2020. All rights reserved (...) . Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 3 of 16Overview Overview This guideline sets out an antimicrobial prescribing strategy for insect and spider bites and stings in adults, young people and children aged 72 hours and over, including those that occurred while travelling outside the UK. It aims to limit antibiotic use and reduce antibiotic resistance. See a 1-page visual summary of the recommendations. The recommendations in this guideline

2020 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

24. Continuous Infusion Compared with Intermittent Intravenous Infusion of Beta-Lactam Antibiotics for Critically Ill Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials Full Text available with Trip Pro

Continuous Infusion Compared with Intermittent Intravenous Infusion of Beta-Lactam Antibiotics for Critically Ill Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials Continuous Infusion Compared with Intermittent Intravenous Infusion of Beta-Lactam Antibiotics for Critically Ill Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials | Research Square Browse Tools & Services Your Cart This is a preprint, a preliminary version of a manuscript that has not completed (...) peer review at a journal. Research Square does not conduct peer review prior to posting preprints. The posting of a preprint on this server should not be interpreted as an endorsement of its validity or suitability for dissemination as established information or for guiding clinical practice. Research Continuous Infusion Compared with Intermittent Intravenous Infusion of Beta-Lactam Antibiotics for Critically Ill Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials Chien-Huei Huang

2020 Research Square

25. Prophylactic anti-staphylococcal antibiotics for cystic fibrosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prophylactic anti-staphylococcal antibiotics for cystic fibrosis. Staphylococcus aureus causes pulmonary infection in young children with cystic fibrosis. Prophylactic antibiotics are prescribed hoping to prevent such infection and lung damage. Antibiotics have adverse effects and long-term use might lead to infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This is an update of a previously published review.To assess continuous oral antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent the acquisition of Staphylococcus (...) aureus versus no prophylaxis in people with cystic fibrosis, we tested the following hypotheses to investigate whether prophylaxis: 1. improves clinical status, lung function and survival; 2. leads to fewer isolates of Staphylococcus aureus; 3. causes adverse effects (e.g. diarrhoea, skin rash, candidiasis); 4. leads to fewer isolates of other common pathogens from respiratory secretions; 5. leads to the emergence of antibiotic resistance and colonisation of the respiratory tract with Pseudomonas

2020 Cochrane

26. Association of kidney function with effectiveness of procalcitonin-guided antibiotic treatment: a patient-level meta-analysis from randomized controlled trials Full Text available with Trip Pro

request based on the authorization of principal investigators of the trials. References 1. NICE antimicrobial stewardship: right drug, dose, and time?. Lancet 2015;386:717. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)61522-7 . 2. Lee, CC, Kwa, ALH, Apisarnthanarak, A, Feng, JY, Gluck, EH, Ito, A, et al. Procalcitonin (PCT)-guided antibiotic stewardship in Asia-Pacific countries: adaptation based on an expert consensus meeting. Clin Chem Lab Med 2020;58:1983–91. https://doi.org/10.1515/cclm-2019-1122 . 3 (...) Association of kidney function with effectiveness of procalcitonin-guided antibiotic treatment: a patient-level meta-analysis from randomized controlled trials Association of kidney function with effectiveness of procalcitonin-guided antibiotic treatment: a patient-level meta-analysis from randomized controlled trials in: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM) Volume 59 Issue 2 (2021) degruyter.com uses cookies to store information that enables us to optimize our website and make

2020 Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM)

27. Antimicrobial resistance in Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile derived from humans: a systematic review and meta-analysis Full Text available with Trip Pro

has been reported [ , ]. Previous antibiotic use was recognized as one of the risk factors for developing CDI through an alteration of gut microbiota. The accumulation of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms may provide an advantage to C. difficile as it is not affected by antimicrobials present in the gut [ ]. An antibiotic stewardship intervention, that limited the use of the fluoroquinolones, clindamycin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, and cephalosporins, was shown to be effective in reducing (...) ; and antimicrobials reserved for the treatment of multidrug pathogens. Methods Search strategy and study selection Five bibliographic databases, including international databases (MEDLINE [PubMed], Scopus, Embase, Cochrane Library and Web of Science) were searched for relevant articles (Until October 2019) using the following keywords: (“ Clostridium difficile ” OR “ Clostridioides difficile” OR C. difficile ) AND (“Antimicrobial-Drug Resistance” OR “drug resistance” OR “antibiotic resistance” OR “aminoglycosides

2020 Antimicrobial Resistance & Infection Control

28. Empirical antibiotic treatment of community acquired pneumonia in adults a network meta-analysis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Empirical antibiotic treatment of community acquired pneumonia in adults a network meta-analysis Inplasy Protocol 809 - INPLASY.COM International Platform of Registered Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Protocols Main Menu Share this: Copyright © 2021 INPLASY.COM Powered by INPLASY.COM

2020 INPLASY - International Platform of Registered Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Protocols

29. Diversity of antibiotics in hospital and municipal wastewaters and receiving water bodies and removal efficiency by treatment processes: a systematic review protocol Full Text available with Trip Pro

of infection and 23,000 mortalities per year imposing an annual cost of 55–70 billion dollars [ ]. According to the World Health Organization report on antimicrobial resistance surveillance system in 2014, microbial resistance is no longer a prediction for the future, and is now happening around the world and poses a serious threat to common infectious diseases. Then, without immediate and coordinated measures, the world would come back to the history before antibiotics and common infections and minor (...) :22–9. 9. Fekadu S, Merid Y, Beyene H, Teshome W, Gebre-Selassie S. Assessment of antibiotic-and disinfectant-resistant bacteria in hospital wastewater, south Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. J Infect Dev Count. 2015;9(02):149–56. 10. Organization WH. Global action plan on antimicrobial resistance. 2015. 2017. 11. Li B, Webster TJ. Bacteria antibiotic resistance: new challenges and opportunities for implant-associated orthopedic infections. J Orthop Res. 2018;36(1):22–32. 12. Organization WH

2020 Environmental evidence

30. Understanding surgical antimicrobial prescribing behaviour in the hospital setting: a systematic review and meta-ethnography protocol Full Text available with Trip Pro

Understanding surgical antimicrobial prescribing behaviour in the hospital setting: a systematic review and meta-ethnography protocol Understanding surgical antimicrobial prescribing behaviour in the hospital setting: a systematic review and meta-ethnography protocol | Research Square Browse Tools & Services Your Cart See the published version of this article at . This is a preprint, a preliminary version of a manuscript that has not completed peer review at a journal. Research Square does (...) not conduct peer review prior to posting preprints. The posting of a preprint on this server should not be interpreted as an endorsement of its validity or suitability for dissemination as established information or for guiding clinical practice. Protocol Understanding surgical antimicrobial prescribing behaviour in the hospital setting: a systematic review and meta-ethnography protocol Hazel Parker, Julia Frost, Nicky Britten, Sophie Robinson, Karen Mattick Hazel Parker Royal Devon and Exeter NHS

2020 Research Square

31. Infectious Diseases Society of America Guidance on the Treatment of Antimicrobial Resistant Gram-Negative Infections

, antimicrobial resistant pathogens caused more than 2.8 million infections and over 35,000 deaths annually in the United States from 2012 through 2017, according to the 2019 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Antibiotic Resistant Threats Report [2]. The selection of effective antibiotics for the treatment of infections by resistant pathogens is challenging [3]. Although there has been an increase in the availability of novel antibiotics to combat resistant infections in recent years [3 (...) will be disseminated on multiple platforms and updated as new data emerge. Treatment of antimicrobial resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections was chosen as the initial topic for a guidance document. The overarching goal of this guidance document is to assist clinicians – including those with and without infectious diseases expertise – in selecting antibiotic therapy for infections caused by ESBL-E, CRE, and DTR- P. aeruginosa . Future iterations of this document will address other resistant pathogens

2020 Infectious Diseases Society of America

32. FSRH CEU Response to study: Analysis of reports of unintended pregnancies associated with the combined use of non-enzyme inducing antibiotics and hormonal contraceptives

FSRH CEU Response to study: Analysis of reports of unintended pregnancies associated with the combined use of non-enzyme inducing antibiotics and hormonal contraceptives 1 FSRH CEU Response to study: Analysis of reports of unintended pregnancies associated with the combined use of non-enzyme inducing antibiotics and hormonal contraceptives 19 August 2020 The BMJ Evidence Based Medicine Journal has published a paper 1 suggesting that antibiotics may lessen the effectiveness of hormonal (...) contraception. The authors used the ‘Yellow Cards’ system where clinicians and patients can report adverse drug side-effects to the UK’s drug and medical devices regulator, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Data between 1963 and July 2018 was analysed and researchers compared the number of unintended pregnancies reported in 74,623 Yellow Cards for antibiotics in general and in 32,872 for enzyme-inducing drugs with those reported in 65,578 other types of drugs in users of oral

2020 Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare

33. Antimicrobial mouthwashes (gargling) and nasal sprays to protect healthcare workers when undertaking aerosol generating procedures (AGPs) on patients without suspected or confirmed Covid-19 infection

, prevent tooth decay and reduce plaque formation. In some countries they are recommended as a hygiene measure during the regular cold and flu season. Many mouthwashes with some antimicrobial activity can be purchased over the counter, and others are available on prescription. The antimicrobial agents and effectiveness vary and whilst most have some antibacterial properties a few are also antiviral. Similar topical antimicrobial solutions may be administered via the nose using a nasal spray (...) Antimicrobial mouthwashes (gargling) and nasal sprays to protect healthcare workers when undertaking aerosol generating procedures (AGPs) on patients without suspected or confirmed Covid-19 infection Antimicrobial mouthwashes (gargling) and nasal sprays to protect healthcare workers when undertaking aerosol‐generating procedures (AGPs) on patients without suspected or confirmed COVID‐19 infection - Burton, MJ - 2020 | Cochrane Library Cookies Our site uses cookies to improve your experience

2020 Cochrane

34. Use of antimicrobial mouthwashes (gargling) and nasal sprays by healthcare workers to protect them when treating patients with suspected or confirmed Covid-19

season. Many mouthwashes with some antimicrobial activity can be purchased over the counter, and others are available on prescription. The antimicrobial agents and effectiveness vary and whilst most have some antibacterial properties a few are also antiviral. Similar topical antimicrobial solutions may be administered via the nose using a nasal spray, or by direct irrigation or douching (administered by sniffing a solution through each nostril and spitting it out). How the intervention might work (...) Use of antimicrobial mouthwashes (gargling) and nasal sprays by healthcare workers to protect them when treating patients with suspected or confirmed Covid-19 Use of antimicrobial mouthwashes (gargling) and nasal sprays by healthcare workers to protect them when treating patients with suspected or confirmed COVID‐19 infection - Burton, MJ - 2020 | Cochrane Library Cookies Our site uses cookies to improve your experience. You can find out more about our use of cookies in About Cookies, including

2020 Cochrane

35. Antimicrobial mouthwashes (gargling) and nasal sprays administered to patients with suspected or confirmed Covid-19 infection to protect healthcare workers treating them

of the intervention Mouthwashes are oral rinsing solutions: many are in common use to manage halitosis, prevent tooth decay and reduce plaque formation. In some countries they are recommended as a hygiene measure during the regular cold and flu season. Many mouthwashes with some antimicrobial activity can be purchased over the counter, and others are available on prescription. The antimicrobial agents and effectiveness vary and whilst most have some antibacterial properties a few are also antiviral. Similar (...) Antimicrobial mouthwashes (gargling) and nasal sprays administered to patients with suspected or confirmed Covid-19 infection to protect healthcare workers treating them Antimicrobial mouthwashes (gargling) and nasal sprays administered to patients with suspected or confirmed COVID‐19 infection to improve patient outcomes and to protect healthcare workers treating them - Burton, MJ - 2020 | Cochrane Library Cookies Our site uses cookies to improve your experience. You can find out more about

2020 Cochrane

36. Interventions to improve the review of antibiotic therapy in acute care hospitals: a systematic review and narrative synthesis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Interventions to improve the review of antibiotic therapy in acute care hospitals: a systematic review and narrative synthesis Validate User We are sorry, but we are experiencing unusual traffic at this time. Please help us confirm that you are not a robot and we will take you to your content. Could not validate captcha. Please try again. Take me to my Content

2020 JAC-Antimicrobial Resistance

37. Bacterial antibiotic resistance development and mutagenesis following exposure to subinhibitory concentrations of fluoroquinolones in vitro: a systematic review of the literature Full Text available with Trip Pro

Bacterial antibiotic resistance development and mutagenesis following exposure to subinhibitory concentrations of fluoroquinolones in vitro: a systematic review of the literature Bacterial antibiotic resistance development and mutagenesis following exposure to subinhibitory concentrations of fluoroquinolones in vitro: a systematic review of the literature | JAC-Antimicrobial Resistance | Oxford Academic ') We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website.By continuing to use our website (...) on: JAC-Antimicrobial Resistance , Volume 2, Issue 3, September 2020, dlaa068, Published: 30 September 2020 Received: 14 April 2020 Accepted: 15 July 2020 Published: 30 September 2020 Cite Carly Ching, Ebiowei S F Orubu, Indorica Sutradhar, Veronika J Wirtz, Helen W Boucher, Muhammad H Zaman, Bacterial antibiotic resistance development and mutagenesis following exposure to subinhibitory concentrations of fluoroquinolones in vitro : a systematic review of the literature, JAC-Antimicrobial Resistance

2020 JAC-Antimicrobial Resistance

38. Conventional compared to network meta-analysis to evaluate antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with cancer and haematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients Full Text available with Trip Pro

Conventional compared to network meta-analysis to evaluate antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with cancer and haematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients Conventional compared to network meta-analysis to evaluate antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with cancer and haematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients | BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name (...) or password? Search for this keyword Search for this keyword Main menu Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? You are here Conventional compared to network meta-analysis to evaluate antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with cancer and haematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients Article Text Research methods and reporting General medicine Conventional compared to network meta-analysis

2020 BMJ evidence-based medicine

39. Antibiotic therapy for pelvic inflammatory disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic therapy for pelvic inflammatory disease. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) affects 4% to 12% of women of reproductive age. The main intervention for acute PID is broad-spectrum antibiotics administered intravenously, intramuscularly or orally. We assessed the optimal treatment regimen for PID.  OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of antibiotic regimens to treat PID.In January 2020, we searched the Cochrane Sexually Transmitted Infections Review Group's Specialized (...) Register, which included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from 1944 to 2020, located through hand and electronic searching; CENTRAL; MEDLINE; Embase; four other databases; and abstracts in selected publications.We included RCTs comparing antibiotics with placebo or other antibiotics for the treatment of PID in women of reproductive age, either as inpatient or outpatient treatment. We limited our review to a comparison of drugs in current use that are recommended by the 2015 US Centers for Disease

2020 Cochrane

40. Antimicrobial resistance among GLASS pathogens in conflict and non-conflict affected settings in the Middle East: A systematic review Full Text available with Trip Pro

. A median of 50% of the strains of S. pneumoniae showed non-susceptibility to penicillin. 2. Similar trends were observed in conflict and non-conflict affected countries. Conclusions: There is a lack of standardization in the methodological approach to AMR research in the Middle East. The proportion of antibiotic resistances among specific GLASS pathogens is high, particularly among Acinetobacter spp. Keywords Antibiotic resistance, Antimicrobial resistance, Middle East, conflict Figures Figure 1 Figure (...) Antimicrobial resistance among GLASS pathogens in conflict and non-conflict affected settings in the Middle East: A systematic review Antimicrobial resistance among GLASS pathogens in conflict and non-conflict affected settings in the Middle East: A systematic review | Research Square Browse Tools & Services Your Cart See the published version of this article at . This is a preprint, a preliminary version of a manuscript that has not completed peer review at a journal. Research Square does

2020 Research Square