Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

41. Association of Nonoperative Management Using Antibiotic Therapy vs Laparoscopic Appendectomy With Treatment Success and Disability Days in Children With Uncomplicated Appendicitis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Association of Nonoperative Management Using Antibiotic Therapy vs Laparoscopic Appendectomy With Treatment Success and Disability Days in Children With Uncomplicated Appendicitis. Nonoperative management with antibiotics alone has the potential to treat uncomplicated pediatric appendicitis with fewer disability days than surgery.To determine the success rate of nonoperative management and compare differences in treatment-related disability, satisfaction, health-related quality of life (...) with antibiotics alone (nonoperative group, n = 370) or urgent (≤12 hours of admission) laparoscopic appendectomy (surgery group, n = 698).The 2 primary outcomes assessed at 1 year were disability days, defined as the total number of days the child was not able to participate in all of his/her normal activities secondary to appendicitis-related care (expected difference, 5 days), and success rate of nonoperative management, defined as the proportion of patients initially managed nonoperatively who did

2020 JAMA

42. Gastric juice-based genotypic methods for diagnoses of Helicobacter pylori infection and antibiotic resistance testing: a systematic review and meta-analysis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Gastric juice-based genotypic methods for diagnoses of Helicobacter pylori infection and antibiotic resistance testing: a systematic review and meta-analysis Gastric juice-based genotypic methods for diagnoses of Helicobacter pylori infection and antibiotic resistance testing: a systematic review and meta-analysis EISSN 2148-5607 Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology Toggle navigation Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology HIGHLY CITED ARTICLES By: Aydin, M. Merve; Akcali, Kamil Can By: Besheer (...) , Tarek; Arafa, Mona M.; Abd El-Maksoud, Mohamed; et al. By: Yilmaz, Ilkay; Dolar, M. Enver; Ozpinar, Haydar By: Demir, Meryem; Deyneli, Oguzhan; Yilmaz, Yusuf By: Tozlu, Mukaddes; Kayar, Yusuf; Ince, Ali Tuzun; et al. By: Bashiri, Mehrnoosh; Akcali, Didem; Coskun, Demet; et al. Gastric juice-based genotypic ... Original Article Gastric juice-based genotypic methods for diagnoses of Helicobacter pylori infection and antibiotic resistance testing: a systematic review and meta-analysis , , , , 1

2020 The Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology

43. Comparison of respiratory pathogen colonization and antimicrobial susceptibility in people with cystic fibrosis versus non cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis: A systematic review Full Text available with Trip Pro

to compare the respiratory tract colonization and antibacterial susceptibility pattern in people with cystic fibrosis versus non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Systematic review registration: The protocol was submitted for publication in PROSPERO on June 26, 2020 (PROSPERO ID: 193859). Keywords Bronchiectasis, non-CF bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis, non cystic fibrosis, antimicrobial susceptibility, bacterial colonization, antibiotic, resistance, susceptibility Background (...) the conditions would facilitate appropriate rather than empiric therapy, and hopefully reduce the burden of antimicrobial resistance created by rampant usage of antibiotics. Therefore, this systematic review is being undertaken to compare the respiratory tract colonization and antibacterial susceptibility pattern in people with cystic fibrosis versus non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Systematic review registration: The protocol was submitted for publication in PROSPERO on June 26, 2020 (PROSPERO ID: 193859

2020 Research Square

44. Perioperative antibiotics for preventing post-surgical site infections in solid organ transplant recipients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Perioperative antibiotics for preventing post-surgical site infections in solid organ transplant recipients. Solid organ transplant recipients are at high risk for infections due to the complexity of surgical procedures combined with the impact of immunosuppression. No consensus exists on the role of antibiotics for surgical site infections in solid organ transplant recipients.To assess the benefits and harms of prophylactic antimicrobial agents for preventing surgical site infections in solid (...) antibiotics in preventing surgical site infections in solid organ transplant recipients at any time point after transplantation.Two authors independently determined study eligibility, assessed quality, and extracted data. Primary outcomes were surgical site infections and antimicrobial resistance. Other outcomes included urinary tract infections, pneumonias and septicaemia, death (any cause), graft loss, graft rejection, graft function, adverse reactions to antimicrobial agents, and outcomes identified

2020 Cochrane

45. The burden of aerobic bacterial nosocomial infections, associated risk factors and antibiotic susceptibility patterns in a surgical site in Ethiopia: A systematic review Full Text available with Trip Pro

The burden of aerobic bacterial nosocomial infections, associated risk factors and antibiotic susceptibility patterns in a surgical site in Ethiopia: A systematic review The burden of aerobic bacterial nosocomial infections, associated risk factors and antibiotic susceptibility patterns in a surgical site in Ethiopia: A systematic review Toggle navigation Collaborations Publish Now Registrations Manuscript Guidelines Other Services Policies Policies ISSN: 2455-2968 Review Article Open Access (...) Peer-Reviewed The burden of aerobic bacterial nosocomial infections, associated risk factors and antibiotic susceptibility patterns in a surgical site in Ethiopia: A systematic review Tsegaye Alemayehu* College of Medicine and Health Science School of Medical Laboratory Science, Hawassa University, Ethiopia *Corresponding author: Tsegaye Alemayehu, College of Medicine and Health Science School of Medical Laboratory Science, Hawassa University, Ethiopia, E-mail: alemayehutsegaye@ymail.com DOI

2020 Journal of Surgery and Surgical Research

46. Outcome of Immediate Versus Early Antibiotics in Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Outcome of Immediate Versus Early Antibiotics in Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Outcome of Immediate Versus Early Antibiotics in Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis - PubMed This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving (...) at most: Send even when there aren't any new results Optional text in email: Save Cancel Create a file for external citation management software Create file Cancel Your RSS Feed Name of RSS Feed: Number of items displayed: Create RSS Cancel RSS Link Copy Actions Cite Share Permalink Copy Page navigation Review Ann Emerg Med Actions . 2020 Jun 24;S0196-0644(20)30337-1. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2020.04.042. Online ahead of print. Outcome of Immediate Versus Early Antibiotics in Severe Sepsis

2020 EvidenceUpdates

47. Antibiotic adjuvant therapy for pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis. (Abstract)

Antibiotic adjuvant therapy for pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis. Cystic fibrosis is a multi-system disease characterised by the production of thick secretions causing recurrent pulmonary infection, often with unusual bacteria. This leads to lung destruction and eventually death through respiratory failure. There are no antibiotics in development that exert a new mode of action and many of the current antibiotics are ineffective in eradicating the bacteria once chronic infection (...) is established. Antibiotic adjuvants - therapies that act by rendering the organism more susceptible to attack by antibiotics or the host immune system, by rendering it less virulent or killing it by other means, would be a significant therapeutic advance. This is an update of a previously published review.To determine if antibiotic adjuvants improve clinical and microbiological outcome of pulmonary infection in people with cystic fibrosis.We searched the Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register which is compiled

2020 Cochrane

48. Aerosolized antibiotics for the treatment of pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials Full Text available with Trip Pro

Aerosolized antibiotics for the treatment of pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials Inplasy Protocol 503 - INPLASY.COM International Platform of Registered Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Protocols Main Menu Share this: Copyright © 2021 INPLASY.COM Powered by INPLASY.COM

2020 INPLASY - International Platform of Registered Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Protocols

49. Effect of Probiotic Use on Antibiotic Administration Among Care Home Residents: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of Probiotic Use on Antibiotic Administration Among Care Home Residents: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Probiotics are frequently used by residents in care homes (residential homes or nursing homes that provide residents with 24-hour support for personal care or nursing care), although the evidence on whether probiotics prevent infections and reduce antibiotic use in these settings is limited.To determine whether a daily oral probiotic combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (...) and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis BB-12 compared with placebo reduces antibiotic administration in care home residents.Placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of 310 care home residents, aged 65 years and older, recruited from 23 care homes in the United Kingdom between December 2016 and May 2018, with last follow-up on October 31, 2018.Study participants were randomized to receive a daily capsule containing a probiotic combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp

2020 JAMA

50. A systematic review on the relationship between international migration and antimicrobial resistance Full Text available with Trip Pro

A systematic review on the relationship between international migration and antimicrobial resistance A systematic review on the relationship between international migration and antimicrobial resistance | Research Square Browse Tools & Services Your Cart This preprint is under consideration at Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control . A preprint is a preliminary version of a manuscript that has not completed peer review at a journal. Research Square does not conduct peer review prior (...) to posting preprints. The posting of a preprint on this server should not be interpreted as an endorsement of its validity or suitability for dissemination as established information or for guiding clinical practice. Research A systematic review on the relationship between international migration and antimicrobial resistance Anne Sophie Peters, Báltica Cabieses, Orlando Ramirez, Eleonora Uphoff, María Paz Acuña, Sofía Astorga, Rafael Araos, José Manuel Munita Anne Sophie Peters Universidad del Desarrollo

2020 Research Square

51. Antimicrobial Nano-Silver Sanitizer Spray

of nanotechnology. 3 Silver was known for its antibacterial effect and silver-based compounds have been used in many antimicrobial applications. 4,5 By converting bulk silver to nanosized silver, its effectiveness for controlling bacteria and viruses was increased multifold. 2 Due to their bactericidal properties, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are the most frequently applied nanomaterials, attracting much interest and has the highest degree of commercialisation. 5,6,7 The unique property of nanosilver is mainly (...) Antimicrobial Nano-Silver Sanitizer Spray To provide brief information on the safety, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Antimicrobial Nano-Silver Sanitizer Spray based on request from the Director General of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia following proposal by a company to provide and distribute 500,000 Antimicrobial Nano-Silver Sanitizer Spray to the public, beginning with Ministry of Health Malaysia hospitals and clinics to prevent COVID-19 transmission. Nanoparticles include

2020 MaHTAS Covid-19 Rapid Evidence Updates

52. Antibiotic Stewardship in the Intensive Care Unit: An Official ATS Workshop Report in Collaboration with the ACCN, ACCP, CDC, and SCCM Full Text available with Trip Pro

for ASPs by intensivists ( – ), the philosophical approaches and priorities of critical care practitioners and ASPs can differ ( ). Although all involved desire the best patient outcomes, the potentially competing goals of adequate empirical antimicrobial therapy and antibiotic stewardship sometimes create tension. If stewardship efforts are to succeed, this conflict must be addressed. The goal of most critical care practitioners is rapid provision of the appropriate initial therapy. ASPs must work (...) . Tamma PD , Avdic E , Li DX , Dzintars K , Cosgrove SE . Association of adverse events with antibiotic use in hospitalized patients . JAMA Intern Med 2017 ;177: 1308 – 1315 . , , 31 . Hranjec T , Rosenberger LH , Swenson B , Metzger R , Flohr TR , Politano AD , et al . Aggressive versus conservative initiation of antimicrobial treatment in critically ill surgical patients with suspected intensive-care-unit-acquired infection: a quasi-experimental, before and after observational cohort study . Lancet

2020 American Thoracic Society

53. Antibiotic Prophylaxis Is Not Required for Endoscopic Ultrasonography-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration of Pancreatic Cystic Lesions, Based on a Randomized Trial Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic Prophylaxis Is Not Required for Endoscopic Ultrasonography-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration of Pancreatic Cystic Lesions, Based on a Randomized Trial Antibiotic Prophylaxis Is Not Required for Endoscopic Ultrasonography-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration of Pancreatic Cystic Lesions, Based on a Randomized Trial - PubMed This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced (...) management software Create file Cancel Your RSS Feed Name of RSS Feed: Number of items displayed: Create RSS Cancel RSS Link Copy Actions Cite Share Permalink Copy Page navigation Gastroenterology Actions . 2020 May;158(6):1642-1649.e1. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2020.01.025. Epub 2020 Jan 20. Antibiotic Prophylaxis Is Not Required for Endoscopic Ultrasonography-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration of Pancreatic Cystic Lesions, Based on a Randomized Trial , , , , , , , , , , , , , Affiliations Expand Affiliations 1

2020 EvidenceUpdates

54. Antibiotic prophylaxis in primary and revision shoulder replacement: a systematic review Full Text available with Trip Pro

of hair, therefore a greater risk of P. acnes. in surface cultures. Patients were assessed at an average follow-up period of 20 months ranging from 9 weeks to 53 months. Conclusion: The optimal perioperative antimicrobial regimen is controversial. The clinical guidelines recommend the use of only one antibiotic as prophylaxis but considering the increase in the rates of antibiotic-resistant infections, the question arises whether antibiotic prophylaxis should be extended for adequate coverage (...) Antibiotic prophylaxis in primary and revision shoulder replacement: a systematic review Antibiotic prophylaxis in primary and revision shoulder replacement: a systematic review - PubMed This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine National Center for Biotechnology Information

2020 EvidenceUpdates

55. Understanding Surgical Antimicrobial Prescribing Behaviour in the Hospital Setting: A Systematic Review and Meta-ethnography Protocol Full Text available with Trip Pro

Understanding Surgical Antimicrobial Prescribing Behaviour in the Hospital Setting: A Systematic Review and Meta-ethnography Protocol Understanding Surgical Antimicrobial Prescribing Behaviour in the Hospital Setting: A Systematic Review and Meta-ethnography Protocol | Research Square Browse Tools & Services Your Cart See the published version of this article at . This is a preprint, a preliminary version of a manuscript that has not completed peer review at a journal. Research Square does (...) not conduct peer review prior to posting preprints. The posting of a preprint on this server should not be interpreted as an endorsement of its validity or suitability for dissemination as established information or for guiding clinical practice. Protocol Understanding Surgical Antimicrobial Prescribing Behaviour in the Hospital Setting: A Systematic Review and Meta-ethnography Protocol Hazel M Parker, Julia Frost, Nicky Britten, Sophie Robinson, Karen Mattick Hazel M Parker Royal Devon and Exeter NHS

2020 Research Square

56. Reappraisal of the treatment duration of antibiotic regimens for acute uncomplicated cystitis in adult women: A systematic review and network meta-analysis of 60 randomized clinical trials Full Text available with Trip Pro

Reappraisal of the treatment duration of antibiotic regimens for acute uncomplicated cystitis in adult women: A systematic review and network meta-analysis of 60 randomized clinical trials Redirecting

2020 European Urology Open Science

57. Self-medication with antibiotics in WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. Database search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science using a combination of keywords which included; antimicrobial, antibacterial, antibiotic, self-medication, self-treatment, self-prescription, non-prescribed, irrational use, inappropriate use, misuse, abuse and Eastern Mediterranean Region of WHO countries. The lists of references of the selected articles were also hand-searched to obtained additional (...) ). Methods Review conforms to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. Database search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science using a combination of keywords which included; antimicrobial, antibacterial, antibiotic, self-medication, self-treatment, self-prescription, non-prescribed, irrational use, inappropriate use, misuse, abuse and Eastern Mediterranean Region of WHO countries. The lists of references of the selected articles were

2020 Research Square

58. Antimicrobial-resistant genes among Klebsiella pneumoniae in the Arabian Gulf Countries: A systemic review and meta-analysis Full Text available with Trip Pro

subjected to meta-analysis. Critical appraisal of studies or quality assessment revealed mean quality score was 4.2, with an SD of 1.6. The analysis revealed predominant antimicrobial resistance genes were OXA followed by CTX-M, SHV, TEM, NDM, and VIM in the Arabian Gulf region. Conclusion The antibiotic resistance gene prevalences in Klebsiella pneumoniae in countries of the Arabian Gulf have been reviewed in this study. These countries share a high prevalence of OXA, CTX-M followed by SHV, TEM, NDM (...) and were subjected to meta-analysis. Critical appraisal of studies or quality assessment revealed mean quality score was 4.2, with an SD of 1.6. The analysis revealed predominant antimicrobial resistance genes were OXA followed by CTX-M, SHV, TEM, NDM, and VIM in the Arabian Gulf region. Conclusion The antibiotic resistance gene prevalences in Klebsiella pneumoniae in countries of the Arabian Gulf have been reviewed in this study. These countries share a high prevalence of OXA, CTX-M followed by SHV

2020 Research Square

59. Antimicrobial Resistance of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Isolated From Patients With Wound Infection in Ethiopia. A Systematic Review Article  Full Text available with Trip Pro

Corresponding Author Gebrehiwet Tesfahuneygn Tigray Health Research Institute Aderajew Gebrewahd Adigrat University Abraham Aregay Tigray Health Research Institute DOI: License: This work is licensed under a CC BY 4.0 License. Abstract Background: Infectious diseases have been major cause of morbidity and mortality all over the globe. The ability of bacterial pathogens to adapt and overcoming to treat by different antibiotics has been challenging in patient management. The antimicrobial resistance rates (...) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are known to fluctuate extensively in different settings. Active inspection of trends in antibiotic resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is essential for the selection of suitable antimicrobial agent for empirical therapy. The objective of our systematic review was to determine the national antimicrobial resistance profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from patients with wound infection in Ethiopia. Methods: We searched the Pub Med database in July and August 2018. We used

2020 Research Square

60. Authors' reply re: Universal screening versus risk‐based protocols for antibiotic prophylaxis during childbirth to prevent early‐onset group B streptococcal disease: a systematic review and meta‐analysis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Authors' reply re: Universal screening versus risk‐based protocols for antibiotic prophylaxis during childbirth to prevent early‐onset group B streptococcal disease: a systematic review and meta‐analysis Authors' reply re: Universal screening versus risk‐based protocols for antibiotic prophylaxis during childbirth to prevent early‐onset group B streptococcal disease: a systematic review and meta‐analysis - Hasperhoven - 2020 - BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology (...) - Wiley Online Library Working off-campus? Learn about our By continuing to browse this site, you agree to its use of cookies as described in our . Search within Search term Search term Search term BJOG Exchange Authors' reply re: Universal screening versus risk‐based protocols for antibiotic prophylaxis during childbirth to prevent early‐onset group B streptococcal disease: a systematic review and meta‐analysis Corresponding Author Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University

2020 BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology