Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

41. Antibiotic treatment for Burkholderia cepacia complex in people with cystic fibrosis experiencing a pulmonary exacerbation. (Abstract)

Antibiotic treatment for Burkholderia cepacia complex in people with cystic fibrosis experiencing a pulmonary exacerbation. Chronic pulmonary infection is a hallmark of lung disease in cystic fibrosis. Infections dominated by organisms of the Burkholderia cepacia complex, a group of at least 18 closely-related species of gram-negative bacteria, are particularly difficult to treat. These infections may be associated with a fulminant necrotising pneumonia. Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria (...) are resistant to many common antibiotics and able to acquire resistance against many more. Following patient segregation in cystic fibrosis medical care, the more virulent epidemic strains are not as frequent, and new infections are more likely to be with less virulent environmentally-acquired strains. Although evidence-based guidelines exist for treating respiratory exacerbations involving Pseudomonas aeruginosa, these cannot be extended to Burkholderia cepacia complex infections. This review, which

2020 Cochrane

42. Evaluation of a clinical decision rule to guide antibiotic prescription in children with suspected lower respiratory tract infection in The Netherlands: A stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evaluation of a clinical decision rule to guide antibiotic prescription in children with suspected lower respiratory tract infection in The Netherlands: A stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial Evaluation of a Clinical Decision Rule to Guide Antibiotic Prescription in Children With Suspected Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in The Netherlands: A Stepped-Wedge Cluster Randomised Trial - PubMed This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set (...) : Send at most: Send even when there aren't any new results Optional text in email: Save Cancel Create a file for external citation management software Create file Cancel Actions Cite Share Permalink Copy Page navigation PLoS Med Actions . 2020 Jan 31;17(1):e1003034. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1003034. eCollection 2020 Jan. Evaluation of a Clinical Decision Rule to Guide Antibiotic Prescription in Children With Suspected Lower Respiratory Tract Infection in The Netherlands: A Stepped-Wedge Cluster

2020 EvidenceUpdates

43. Early Childhood Antibiotic Treatment for Otitis Media and Other Respiratory Tract Infections Is Associated With Risk of Type 1 Diabetes: A Nationwide Register-Based Study With Sibling Analysis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Early Childhood Antibiotic Treatment for Otitis Media and Other Respiratory Tract Infections Is Associated With Risk of Type 1 Diabetes: A Nationwide Register-Based Study With Sibling Analysis Early Childhood Antibiotic Treatment for Otitis Media and Other Respiratory Tract Infections Is Associated With Risk of Type 1 Diabetes: A Nationwide Register-Based Study With Sibling Analysis - PubMed This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set (...) : Send at most: Send even when there aren't any new results Optional text in email: Save Cancel Create a file for external citation management software Create file Cancel Actions Cite Share Permalink Copy Page navigation Diabetes Care Actions . 2020 Mar 4;dc191162. doi: 10.2337/dc19-1162. Online ahead of print. Early Childhood Antibiotic Treatment for Otitis Media and Other Respiratory Tract Infections Is Associated With Risk of Type 1 Diabetes: A Nationwide Register-Based Study With Sibling Analysis

2020 EvidenceUpdates

44. Antibiotic prophylaxis for operative vaginal delivery. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic prophylaxis for operative vaginal delivery. Vacuum and forceps assisted vaginal deliveries are reported to increase the incidence of postpartum infections and maternal readmission to hospital compared to spontaneous vaginal delivery. Prophylactic antibiotics may be prescribed to prevent these infections. However, the benefit of antibiotic prophylaxis for operative vaginal deliveries is still unclear. This is an update of a review last published in 2017.To assess the effectiveness (...) and safety of antibiotic prophylaxis in reducing infectious puerperal morbidities in women undergoing operative vaginal deliveries including vacuum or forceps delivery, or both.For this update, we searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (5 July 2019), and reference lists of retrieved studies.All randomised controlled trials comparing any prophylactic antibiotic regimens with placebo or no treatment

2020 Cochrane

45. Antibiotic treatment for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in people with cystic fibrosis. (Abstract)

Antibiotic treatment for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in people with cystic fibrosis. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is one of the most common emerging multi-drug resistant organisms found in the lungs of people with cystic fibrosis and its prevalence is increasing. Chronic infection with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has recently been shown to be an independent predictor of pulmonary exacerbation requiring hospitalization and antibiotics. However, the role of antibiotic treatment (...) of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infection in people with cystic fibrosis is still unclear. This is an update of a previously published review.The objective of our review is to assess the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in people with cystic fibrosis. The primary objective is to assess this in relation to lung function and pulmonary exacerbations in the setting of acute pulmonary exacerbations. The secondary objective is to assess this in relation to the eradication

2020 Cochrane

46. Are Postoperative Intravenous Antibiotics Indicated After Laparoscopic Appendicectomy for Simple Appendicitis? A Prospective Double-blinded Randomized Controlled Trial

Are Postoperative Intravenous Antibiotics Indicated After Laparoscopic Appendicectomy for Simple Appendicitis? A Prospective Double-blinded Randomized Controlled Trial Are Postoperative Intravenous Antibiotics Indicated After Laparoscopic Appendicectomy for Simple Appendicitis? A Prospective Double-blinded Randomized Controlled Trial - PubMed This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Welcome to the new PubMed. For legacy (...) to an existing collection Name your collection: Name must be less than 100 characters Choose a collection: Unable to load your collection due to an error Add Cancel Add to My Bibliography My Bibliography Unable to load your delegates due to an error Add Cancel Actions Cite Share Permalink Copy Page navigation Ann Surg Actions 2019 Dec 9 [Online ahead of print] Are Postoperative Intravenous Antibiotics Indicated After Laparoscopic Appendicectomy for Simple Appendicitis? A Prospective Double-blinded Randomized

2020 EvidenceUpdates

47. A multifaceted intervention to reduce antimicrobial prescribing in care homes: a non-randomised feasibility study and process evaluation Full Text available with Trip Pro

A multifaceted intervention to reduce antimicrobial prescribing in care homes: a non-randomised feasibility study and process evaluation A multifaceted intervention to reduce antimicrobial prescribing in care homes: a non-randomised feasibility study and process evaluation Journals Library An error occurred retrieving content to display, please try again. >> >> >> Page Not Found Page not found (404) Sorry - the page you requested could not be found. Please choose a page from the navigation

2020 NIHR HTA programme

48. Impetigo: antimicrobial prescribing

T erms used in the guideline 11 Recommendation for research 13 1 Antiseptics compared with antibiotics for impetigo 13 Rationales 14 Advice to reduce the spread of impetigo 14 Initial treatment 14 Reassessment and further treatment 16 Referral and seeking specialist advice 17 Choice of antimicrobial 18 Context 21 Summary of the evidence 22 Antimicrobials 22 Choice of antibiotics 23 Course length 25 Route of administration 25 Other considerations 27 Medicines safety 27 Medicines adherence 27 (...) Resource implications 27 Impetigo: antimicrobial prescribing (NG153) © NICE 2020. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 3 of 28Overview Overview This guideline sets out an antimicrobial prescribing strategy for adults, young people and children aged 72 hours and over with impetigo. It aims to optimise antibiotic use and reduce antibiotic resistance. For managing other skin and soft tissue infections, see our web pages

2020 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

49. Associations between macrolide antibiotics prescribing during pregnancy and adverse child outcomes in the UK: population based cohort study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Associations between macrolide antibiotics prescribing during pregnancy and adverse child outcomes in the UK: population based cohort study. To assess the association between macrolide antibiotics prescribing during pregnancy and major malformations, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and autism spectrum disorder in children.Population based cohort study.The UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink.The study cohort included 104 605 children born from 1990 to 2016 (...) , 1.14 to 2.19, mainly hypospadias). Erythromycin in the first trimester was associated with an increased risk of any major malformation (27.39 v 17.65 per 1000, 1.50, 1.13 to 1.99). No statistically significant associations were found for other system specific malformations or for neurodevelopmental disorders. Findings were robust to sensitivity analyses.Prescribing macrolide antibiotics during the first trimester of pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of any major malformation

2020 BMJ

50. Prophylaxis of Wound Infections-antibiotics in Renal Donation (POWAR): A UK Multicentre Double blind Placebo Controlled Randomised Trial (Abstract)

Prophylaxis of Wound Infections-antibiotics in Renal Donation (POWAR): A UK Multicentre Double blind Placebo Controlled Randomised Trial Postoperative infection after hand-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (HALDN) confers significant morbidity to a healthy patient group. Current UK guidelines cite a lack of evidence for routine antibiotic prophylaxis. This trial assessed if a single preoperative antibiotic dose could reduce post HALDN infections.Eligible donors were randomly and blindly (...) allocated to preoperative single-dose intravenous co-amoxiclav or saline. The primary composite endpoint was clinical evidence of any postoperative infection at 30 days, including surgical site infection (SSI), urinary tract infection (UTI), and lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI).In all, 293 participants underwent HALDN (148 antibiotic arm and 145 placebo arm). Among them, 99% (291/293) completed follow-up. The total infection rate was 40.7% (59/145) in the placebo group and 23% (34 of 148

2020 EvidenceUpdates

51. Leg ulcer infection: antimicrobial prescribing

26 Medicines safety 26 Medicines adherence 27 Resource implications 27 Leg ulcer infection: antimicrobial prescribing (NG152) © NICE 2020. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 3 of 28Overview Overview This guideline sets out an antimicrobial prescribing strategy for adults with leg ulcer infection. It aims to optimise antibiotic use and reduce antibiotic resistance. See a 2-page visual summary (...) antibiotic use. 1.1.4 Give oral antibiotics if the person can take oral medicines, and the severity of their condition does not require intravenous antibiotics. 1.1.5 If intravenous antibiotics are given, review by 48 hours and consider switching to oral antibiotics if possible. T o find out why the committee made the recommendations on treatment for adults with an infected leg ulcer, see the rationales. Leg ulcer infection: antimicrobial prescribing (NG152) © NICE 2020. All rights reserved. Subject

2020 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

52. Antibiotic Use for the Urgent Management of Dental Pain and Intra-oral Swelling Clinical Practice Guideline Full Text available with Trip Pro

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Telebriefing on today's drug-resistant health threats. ( Available at: ) . , x 16 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Joint Statement on Importance of Outpatient Antibiotics Stewardship From 12 National Health Organizations. ( Available at: ) . , x 17 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Antibiotic/antimicrobial resistance (AR/AMR): the AMR challenge. ( Available at: ) . , x 18 White House Office of the Press Secretary. Fact sheet: over 150 (...) Antibiotic Use for the Urgent Management of Dental Pain and Intra-oral Swelling Clinical Practice Guideline Evidence-based clinical practice guideline on antibiotic use for the urgent management of pulpal- and periapical-related dental pain and intraoral swelling - The Journal of the American Dental Association Email/Username: Password: Remember me Search Terms Search within Search Access provided by Volume 150, Issue 11, Pages 906–921.e12 Evidence-based clinical practice guideline

2020 American Dental Association Guidelines

53. Clinicians prescribe antibiotics for childhood respiratory tract infection based on assessment, rather than parental expectation. (Abstract)

Clinicians prescribe antibiotics for childhood respiratory tract infection based on assessment, rather than parental expectation. The studyCabral C, Horwood J, Symonds J, et al. Understanding the influence of parent-clinician communication on antibiotic prescribing for children with respiratory tract infections in primary care: a qualitative observational study using a conversation analysis approach. BMC Fam Pract 2019;20:102.This project was funded by the NIHR School for Primary Care Research (...) Programme (project number SPCR204).To read the full NIHR Signal, go to: https://discover.dc.nihr.ac.uk/content/signal-000829/gps-assessment-not-parental-expectation-drives-antibiotic-prescribing.Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

2020 BMJ

54. Antibiotics versus topical antiseptics for chronic suppurative otitis media. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotics versus topical antiseptics for chronic suppurative otitis media. Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), sometimes referred to as chronic otitis media (COM), is a chronic inflammation and infection of the middle ear and mastoid cavity, characterised by ear discharge (otorrhoea) through a perforated tympanic membrane. The predominant symptoms of CSOM are ear discharge and hearing loss. Antibiotics and antiseptics kill or inhibit the micro-organisms that may be responsible (...) for the infection. Antibiotics can be applied topically or administered systemically via the oral or injection route. Antiseptics are always directly applied to the ear (topically).To assess the effectiveness of antibiotics versus antiseptics for people with chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM).The Cochrane ENT Information Specialist searched the Cochrane ENT Register; Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2019, Issue 4, via the Cochrane Register of Studies); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid Embase; CINAHL; Web

2020 Cochrane

55. Topical antibiotics for chronic suppurative otitis media. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Topical antibiotics for chronic suppurative otitis media. Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), sometimes referred to as chronic otitis media (COM), is a chronic inflammation and often polymicrobial infection (involving more than one micro-organism) of the middle ear and mastoid cavity, characterised by ear discharge (otorrhoea) through a perforated tympanic membrane. The predominant symptoms of CSOM are ear discharge and hearing loss. Topical antibiotics, the most common treatment for CSOM (...) , act to kill or inhibit the growth of micro-organisms that may be responsible for the infection. Antibiotics can be used alone or in addition to other treatments for CSOM, such as antiseptics or ear cleaning (aural toileting).To assess the effects of topical antibiotics (without steroids) for people with CSOM.The Cochrane ENT Information Specialist searched the Cochrane ENT Register; Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL via the Cochrane Register of Studies); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid Embase

2020 Cochrane

56. Diarrhoea - antibiotic associated

Diarrhoea - antibiotic associated Diarrhoea - antibiotic associated | Topics A to Z | CKS | NICE Search CKS… Menu Diarrhoea - antibiotic associated Diarrhoea - antibiotic associated Last revised in March 2019 Diarrhoea is a common consequence of treatment with antibiotics, occurring in 2–25% of people taking antibiotics Management Prescribing information Background information Diarrhoea - antibiotic associated: Summary Diarrhoea is a common consequence of treatment with antibiotics, occurring (...) in 2–25% of people taking antibiotics, depending on the antibiotic prescribed. Around 20% to 30% of cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea are due to Clostridium difficile . Antibiotics frequently associated with C. difficile infection include clindamycin, cephalosporins (especially third and fourth generation), fluoroquinolones, and broad-spectrum penicillins. Factors that increase the risk of C. difficile infection include increased age, history of C. difficile infection, exposure to other

2020 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

57. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Antibiotics

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Antibiotics Antibiotics | Prescribing information | Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease | CKS | NICE Search CKS… Menu Antibiotics Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Antibiotics Last revised in November 2019 Antibiotics Azithromycin Contraindications and cautions Do not prescribe azithromycin in people: With severe hepatic impairment. Prescribe azithromycin with caution in people: Who may be predisposed to prolongation of the QT interval. For example (...) any muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness. Typhoid vaccine — antibacterials might reduce the immune response. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that the antibacterial is stopped from 3 days before to 3 days after receiving live oral typhoid vaccine. Warfarin — concurrent use may increase the international normalized ratio (INR). Consider increasing INR monitoring as this interaction appears to develop over the first 7 days. Drugs that prolong the QT interval (such as amiodarone

2020 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

58. Antimicrobial prescribing: ceftolozane with tazobactam for treating hospital-acquired pneumonia, including ventilator-associated pneumonia

for Antimicrobial Utilisation and Resistance (ESPAUR) Report 2018 to 2019 states that monitoring the use of new antibiotics and detecting emerging resistance to these medicines is a crucial component of antimicrobial usage surveillance to inform antimicrobial stewardship activities and preserve treatment effectiveness. Although susceptibility testing for ceftolozane with tazobactam is currently uncommon and selective (following resistance to first- and second-line antibiotics), resistance has nonetheless been (...) ) is Antimicrobial prescribing: ceftolozane with tazobactam for treating hospital-acquired pneumonia, including ventilator-associated pneumonia (ES22) © NICE 2020. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 5 of 6£402.18 (BNF, November 2019). The acquisition costs (excluding VAT) of many other IV antibiotics that are used for HAP and VAP (caused or suspected to be caused by Gram-negative pathogens) are lower than that of ceftolozane

2020 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Advice

59. COVID-19: Antibiotic Management in Ambulatory Patients

April 3 The CDC offers no guidance specific to the use of antibiotics in COVID+ patients in the outpatient setting. Professional society guidance on antibiotic indications in COVID+ patients or patients under investigation (PUI) Source Recommendations IDSA April 13 The IDSA offers no guidance specific to the use of antibiotics in COVID+ patients in the outpatient setting. ASP April 2 For patients in an ambulatory setting, antibacterial therapy (including azithromycin) is not routinely recommended (...) COVID-19: Antibiotic Management in Ambulatory Patients COVID-19: ANTIBIOTIC MANAGEMENT IN AMBULATORY PATIENTS A Rapid Guidance Summary from the Penn Medicine Center for Evidence-based Practice Last updated April 21, 2020 1:00 pm. Sources rechecked April 19 unless otherwise noted. Key questions answered in this summary • What are indications for antibiotic use in COVID-19 patients being cared for in the ambulatory setting? • What are best practices related to antibiotic management

2020 Centre for Evidence-Based Practice, Penn Medicine

60. What is the evidence for use of macrolide antibiotics for treatment of COVID-19?

that has complicated COVID-19, we recognise that clinicians may wish to prescribe macrolide antibiotics, in line with their local/national antimicrobial guidelines. End. Disclaimer : This article has not been peer-reviewed; it should not replace individual clinical judgement and the sources cited should be checked. The views expressed in this commentary represent the views of the authors and not necessarily those of the host institution, the NHS, the NIHR, or the Department of Health and Social Care (...) What is the evidence for use of macrolide antibiotics for treatment of COVID-19? What is the evidence for use of macrolide antibiotics for treatment of COVID-19? - CEBM CEBM The Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine develops, promotes and disseminates better evidence for healthcare. Navigate this website What is the evidence for use of macrolide antibiotics for treatment of COVID-19? April 28, 2020 Kome Gbinigie and Kerstin Frie On behalf of the Oxford COVID-19 Evidence Service Team Centre

2020 Oxford COVID-19 Evidence Service