Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

61. Covid-19: Antimicrobial Copper Oxide–infused Textiles for Reducing Healthcare-associated Infection Risk

copper oxide–infused textiles. Clinical Literature We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, the Cochrane Library, and selected web-based resources for documents relevant to this topic and published between January 1, 2006, and February 5, 2019. Our search strategies included the following keywords: copper; fabric; textiles; bedding; clothing; antimicrobial; antibacterial; infection control. Please see the Selected References and Resources section for detailed search strategies. We included any (...) , labor, and laundry, expenses during period B.” “The use of biocidal copper oxide impregnated textiles in a long-term care ward may significantly reduce HAI, fever, antibiotic consumption, and related treatment costs.” CLINICAL EVIDENCE ASSESSMENT Antimicrobial Copper Oxide–infused Textiles for Reducing Healthcare-associated Infection Risk © February 2019 ECRI | 6 Selected References and Resources References Reviewed (PubMed and EMBASE search dates were January 1, 2006, through February 5, 2019) 1

2020 Covid-19 Ad hoc papers

62. C reactive protein testing in general practice safely reduces antibiotic use for flare-ups of COPD. (Abstract)

C reactive protein testing in general practice safely reduces antibiotic use for flare-ups of COPD. The studyButler CC, Gillespie D, White P, et al. C-reactive protein testing to guide antibiotic prescribing for COPD exacerbations. N Engl J Med 2019;381:111-20.This research was funded by the NIHR Technology Assessment Programme (project number 12/33/12). The testing machines used in the study were loaned to researchers by the manufacturer, who also provided training on their use (...) . The manufacturer had no other role in any part of the trial.To read the full NIHR Signal, go to https://discover.dc.nihr.ac.uk/content/signal-000820/crp-testing-safely-reduces-antibiotic-use-for-copd-flare-ups.Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

2019 BMJ

63. Prophylactic antibiotics for penetrating abdominal trauma: duration of use and antibiotic choice. (Abstract)

Prophylactic antibiotics for penetrating abdominal trauma: duration of use and antibiotic choice. Penetrating abdominal trauma (PAT) is a common type of trauma leading to admission to hospital, which often progresses to septic complications. Antibiotics are commonly administered as prophylaxis prior to laparotomy for PAT. However, an earlier Cochrane Review intending to compare antibiotics with placebo identified no relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Despite this, many RCTs have been (...) carried out that compare different agents and durations of antibiotic therapy. To date, no systematic review of these trials has been performed.To assess the effects of antibiotics in penetrating abdominal trauma, with respect to the type of agent administered and the duration of therapy.We searched the following electronic databases for relevant randomised controlled trials, from database inception to 23 July 2019; Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE Ovid, MEDLINE Ovid

2019 Cochrane

64. Prophylactic antibiotics for penetrating abdominal trauma. (Abstract)

Prophylactic antibiotics for penetrating abdominal trauma. Penetrating abdominal trauma occurs when the peritoneal cavity is breached. Routine laparotomy for penetrating abdominal injuries began in the 1800s, with antibiotics first being used in World War II to combat septic complications associated with these injuries. This practice was marked with a reduction in sepsis-related mortality and morbidity. Whether prophylactic antibiotics are required in the prevention of infective complications (...) following penetrating abdominal trauma is controversial, however, as no randomised placebo controlled trials have been published to date. There has also been debate about the timing of antibiotic prophylaxis. In 1972 Fullen noted a 7% to 11% post-surgical infection rate with pre-operative antibiotics, a 33% to 57% infection rate with intra-operative antibiotic administration and 30% to 70% infection rate with only post-operative antibiotic administration. Current guidelines state there is sufficient

2019 Cochrane

65. Antibiotic prescribing without documented indication in ambulatory care clinics: national cross sectional study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic prescribing without documented indication in ambulatory care clinics: national cross sectional study. To identify the frequency with which antibiotics are prescribed in the absence of a documented indication in the ambulatory care setting, to quantify the potential effect on assessments of appropriateness of antibiotics, and to understand patient, provider, and visit level characteristics associated with antibiotic prescribing without a documented indication.Cross sectional study (...) .2015 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey.28 332 sample visits representing 990.9 million ambulatory care visits nationwide.Overall antibiotic prescribing and whether each antibiotic prescription was accompanied by appropriate, inappropriate, or no documented indication as identified through ICD-9-CM (international classification of diseases, 9th revision, clinical modification) codes. Survey weighted multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate potential risk factors for receipt

2019 BMJ

66. Antimicrobial prescribing: meropenem with vaborbactam

/50) of people receiving Antimicrobial prescribing: meropenem with vaborbactam (ES21) © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 5 of 7meropenem with vaborbactam, and 44.0% (11/25) of people receiving best available antibiotic treatment. Adverse events leading to study treatment discontinuation occurred in 10.0% (5/50) and 12.0% (3/25) of people respectively. Statistical analyses were not reported for safety (...) for injection (Drug T ariff, October 2019). The cost of 1 day's treatment with 2 g (2 vials) every 8 hours is £106.68. The manufacturer of meropenem with vaborbactam (Menarini) anticipates that usage will be low, following the principles of good antimicrobial stewardship, and will be under the guidance of a microbiologist. A wide range of antibiotics, alone or in combination, are used for treating cUTI, acute pyelonephritis, cIAI, HAP and VAP , and regimens may be changed based on response to treatment

2019 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Advice

67. Incidence of Bloodstream Infections, Length of Hospital Stay, and Survival in Patients With Recurrent Clostridioides difficile Infection Treated With Fecal Microbiota Transplantation or Antibiotics: A Prospective Cohort Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Incidence of Bloodstream Infections, Length of Hospital Stay, and Survival in Patients With Recurrent Clostridioides difficile Infection Treated With Fecal Microbiota Transplantation or Antibiotics: A Prospective Cohort Study. Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is a risk factor for bloodstream infection (BSI). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is more effective than antibiotics in treating recurrent CDI, but its efficacy in preventing CDI-related BSI is uncertain.To assess incidence (...) of primary BSI in patients with recurrent CDI treated with FMT versus antibiotics.Prospective cohort study. Patients treated with FMT and those treated with antibiotics were matched on propensity score.Single academic medical center.290 inpatients with recurrent CDI (57 patients per treatment in matched cohort).FMT or antibiotics.The primary outcome was primary BSI within 90 days. Secondary outcomes were length of hospitalization and overall survival (OS) at 90 days.Of the 290 patients, 109 were treated

2019 Annals of Internal Medicine

68. Antimicrobial central venous catheters do not reduce infections in pre-term babies. (Abstract)

Antimicrobial central venous catheters do not reduce infections in pre-term babies. The studyGilbert R, Brown M, Rainford N et al. Antimicrobial-impregnated central venous catheters for prevention of neonatal bloodstream infection (PREVAIL): an open-label, parallel-group, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Child Adolesc Health 2019;3:381-90.The study was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme (project number 12/167/02).To read the full NIHR Signal, go to https (...) ://discover.dc.nihr.ac.uk/content/signal-000782/antimicrobial-central-venous-catheters-for-pre-term-babies-do-not-reduce-infections.Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

2019 BMJ

69. The Effect of Prolonged Postoperative Antibiotic Administration on the Rate of Infection in Patients Undergoing Posterior Spinal Surgery Requiring a Closed-Suction Drain: A Randomized Controlled Trial (Abstract)

The Effect of Prolonged Postoperative Antibiotic Administration on the Rate of Infection in Patients Undergoing Posterior Spinal Surgery Requiring a Closed-Suction Drain: A Randomized Controlled Trial Closed-suction drains are frequently used following posterior spinal surgery. The optimal timing of antibiotic discontinuation in this population may influence infection risk, but there is a paucity of evidence. The aim of this study was to determine whether postoperative antibiotic administration (...) for 72 hours (24 hours after drain removal as drains were removed on the second postoperative day) decreases the incidence of surgical site infection compared with postoperative antibiotic administration for 24 hours.Patients undergoing posterior thoracolumbar spinal surgery managed with a closed-suction drain were prospectively randomized into 1 of 2 groups of postoperative antibiotic durations: (1) 24 hours, or (2) 24 hours after drain removal (72 hours). Drains were discontinued on the second

2019 EvidenceUpdates

74. Efficacy of antibiotic treatment in patients with chronic low back pain and Modic changes (the AIM study): double blind, randomised, placebo controlled, multicentre trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Efficacy of antibiotic treatment in patients with chronic low back pain and Modic changes (the AIM study): double blind, randomised, placebo controlled, multicentre trial. To assess the efficacy of three months of antibiotic treatment compared with placebo in patients with chronic low back pain, previous disc herniation, and vertebral endplate changes (Modic changes).Double blind, parallel group, placebo controlled, multicentre trial.Hospital outpatient clinics at six hospitals in Norway.180 (...) not support the use of antibiotic treatment for chronic low back pain and Modic changes.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02323412.Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

2019 BMJ

75. Antibiotics for treating osteomyelitis in people with sickle cell disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotics for treating osteomyelitis in people with sickle cell disease. Osteomyelitis (both acute and chronic) is one of the most common infectious complications in people with sickle cell disease. There is no standardized approach to antibiotic therapy and treatment is likely to vary from country to country. Thus, there is a need to identify the efficacy and safety of different antibiotic treatment approaches for people with sickle cell disease suffering from osteomyelitis (...) . This is an update of a previously published Cochrane Review.To determine whether an empirical antibiotic treatment approach (monotherapy or combination therapy) is effective and safe as compared to pathogen-directed antibiotic treatment and whether this effectiveness and safety is dependent on different treatment regimens, age or setting.We searched The Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register, which comprises references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearching of relevant

2019 Cochrane

76. Probiotics for Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Pediatrics: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines

Probiotics for Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Pediatrics: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Probiotics for Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Pediatrics: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines | CADTH.ca Find the information you need Probiotics for Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Pediatrics: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Probiotics for Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Pediatrics: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Last updated (...) : March 25, 2019 Project Number: RC1086-000 Product Line: Research Type: Drug Report Type: Summary with Critical Appraisal Result type: Report Question What is the clinical effectiveness of probiotics (with or without concurrent antibiotics) for preventing and treating antibiotic-associated diarrhea in the pediatric population? What are the evidence-based guidelines regarding the use of probiotics (with or without concurrent antibiotics) for the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated

2019 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

77. Biologics versus Immunomodulators or Antibiotics for the Management of Fistulizing Crohn’s Disease: A Review of Comparative Clinical Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness

Biologics versus Immunomodulators or Antibiotics for the Management of Fistulizing Crohn’s Disease: A Review of Comparative Clinical Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness Biologics versus Immunomodulators or Antibiotics for the Management of Fistulizing Crohn’s Disease: A Review of Comparative Clinical Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness | CADTH.ca Find the information you need Biologics versus Immunomodulators or Antibiotics for the Management of Fistulizing Crohn’s Disease: A Review (...) of Comparative Clinical Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness Biologics versus Immunomodulators or Antibiotics for the Management of Fistulizing Crohn’s Disease: A Review of Comparative Clinical Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness Last updated: March 29, 2019 Project Number: RC1107-000 - RD0051-000 Product Line: Research Type: Drug Report Type: Summary with Critical Appraisal Result type: Report Question What is the comparative clinical effectiveness of biologics (with or without concomitant immunomodulators

2019 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

78. Pneumonia (hospital-acquired): antimicrobial prescribing

of 23Contents Contents Overview 4 Who is it for? 4 Recommendations 5 1.1 Managing hospital-acquired pneumonia 5 1.2 Choice of antibiotic 6 T erms used in the guideline 13 Hospital-acquired pneumonia 13 Summary of the evidence 14 Antibiotic prescribing strategies 14 Choice of antibiotics 15 Antibiotic course length, dosage and route of administration 22 Other considerations 23 Medicines adherence 23 Resource implications 23 Pneumonia (hospital-acquired): antimicrobial prescribing (NG139) © NICE 2019. All (...) rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 3 of 23Ov Overview erview This guideline sets out an antimicrobial prescribing strategy for adults, young people, children and babies aged 72 hours and over with a confirmed diagnosis of hospital-acquired pneumonia. It does not cover ventilator-associated pneumonia. It aims to optimise antibiotic use and reduce antibiotic resistance. See a 3-page visual summary of the recommendations

2019 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

79. Pneumonia (community-acquired): antimicrobial prescribing

37 Resource implications 37 Pneumonia (community-acquired): antimicrobial prescribing (NG138) © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 3 of 37Ov Overview erview This guideline sets out an antimicrobial prescribing strategy for adults, young people, children and babies aged 72 hours and over with a confirmed diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia. It aims to optimise antibiotic use and reduce antibiotic (...) disease or immunosuppression local antimicrobial resistance and surveillance data (such as flu and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection rates) recent antibiotic use recent microbiological results, including colonisation with multidrug-resistant bacteria. 1.1.2 Start antibiotic treatment as soon as possible after establishing a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia, and certainly within 4 hours (within 1 hour if the person has suspected sepsis and meets any of the high risk criteria for this – see

2019 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

80. Cellulitis and erysipelas: antimicrobial prescribing

. It aims to optimise antibiotic use and reduce antibiotic resistance. See a 3-page visual summary of the recommendations, including tables to support prescribing decisions. For managing other skin conditions, see our web page on skin conditions. NICE has also produced a guideline on antimicrobial stewardship: systems and processes for effective antimicrobial medicine use. Who is it for? Healthcare professionals People with cellulitis and erysipelas, their families and carers Cellulitis and erysipelas (...) Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) status if known. 1.1.5 Give oral antibiotics first line if the person can take oral medicines, and the severity of their condition does not require intravenous antibiotics. Cellulitis and erysipelas: antimicrobial prescribing (NG141) © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 5 of 361.1.6 If intravenous antibiotics are given, review by 48 hours and consider switching to oral antibiotics

2019 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines