Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

1241. Antibiotics for preventing leptospirosis. (Abstract)

Antibiotics for preventing leptospirosis. Leptospirosis is an infectious disease transmitted by animals. Death occurs in about five per cent of the patients. In clinical practice, doxycycline is widely used for prevention.To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of any antibiotic regimen versus placebo or other antibiotic regimens in the prophylaxis of leptospirosis.The sources used were: EMBASE, LILACS, MEDLINE, SCISEARCH, The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary (...) Group Controlled Trials Register, bibliographies of published papers, and personal communication with authors. There were no language or date restrictions in any of the searches.All randomised clinical trials in which antibiotics were used as prophylactic regimen for leptospirosis.People potentially exposed to leptospirosis, such as people in endemic areas during the rainy season, health professionals and other professionals with high risk of infection.Any antibiotic regimen compared with a control

2000 Cochrane

1242. Antibiotics for preterm premature rupture of membranes. (Abstract)

Antibiotics for preterm premature rupture of membranes. The aim of the review was to evaluate the effectiveness and the immediate and long-term safety of the effects of administering antibiotics to women with preterm prelabour rupture of membranes on maternal infectious morbidity, fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, and longer term childhood development.All randomized trials identified using the search strategy described by the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group.All trials which (...) term.There are insufficient data to recommend routine prescription of antibiotics in this clinical situation. Research into this area should continue.

2000 Cochrane

1243. Antibiotic regimens for endometritis after delivery. (Abstract)

Antibiotic regimens for endometritis after delivery. Post-partum endometritis, which is more common after cesarean section, occurs when vaginal organisms invade the endometrial cavity during labour and delivery. Antibiotic treatment is warranted.The effect of different antibiotic regimens for the treatment of postpartum endometritis on failure of therapy and complications was systematically reviewed.We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's trials register and the Cochrane (...) Controlled Trials Register. Date of last search: August 1999.Randomised trials of different antibiotic regimens for postpartum endometritis, after cesarean section or vaginal delivery, where outcomes of treatment failure or complications were reported were selected.Data were abstracted independently by the reviewers. Comparisons were made between different types of antibiotic regimen, based on type of antibiotic and duration and route of administration. Summary relative risks were calculated.Forty-one

2000 Cochrane

1244. Antibiotic prophylaxis regimens and drugs for cesarean section. (Abstract)

Antibiotic prophylaxis regimens and drugs for cesarean section. Prophylactic antibiotics for cesarean section have been shown to reduce the incidence of maternal postoperative infectious morbidity. Many different antibiotic regimens have been reported to be effective.The objective of this review was to determine which antibiotic regimen is most effective in reducing the incidence of infectious morbidity in women undergoing cesarean section.We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group (...) trials register and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. The date of the most recent search was October 1998.Randomized trials that included women undergoing cesarean section were included. Trials were required to compare at least two different antibiotic regimens. Trials that compared placebo with a single antibiotic regimen were not included as these are studies which have been analyzed in another Cochrane review.Data were extracted from each publication independently by the reviewers

2000 Cochrane

1245. Intrapartum antibiotics for group B streptococcal colonisation. (Abstract)

Intrapartum antibiotics for group B streptococcal colonisation. Group B streptococcal infection is common in pregnant women without causing harm. However it is also a significant cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality.The objective of this review was to assess the effects of intrapartum administration of antibiotics to women on infant colonization with group B streptococcus, early onset neonatal group B streptococcus sepsis and neonatal death from infection.The Cochrane Pregnancy (...) and Childbirth Group trials register was searched.Controlled trials of pregnant women colonized with group B streptococcus comparing intrapartum antibiotic administration with no treatment, and providing data on infant colonization with group B streptococcus and/or neonatal infection.Eligibility and trial quality assessment were done by one reviewer.Five trials were included. Overall quality was poor, with potential selection bias in all the identified studies. Intrapartum antibiotic treatment reduced

2000 Cochrane

1246. Enteral antibiotics for preventing necrotising enterocolitis in low birthweight or preterm infants. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Enteral antibiotics for preventing necrotising enterocolitis in low birthweight or preterm infants. Necrotising enterocolitis continues to be a problem, particularly in preterm neonates. There have been reports published suggesting that the use of enteral antibiotics may be effective as prophylaxis. This systematic review was undertaken to clarify the issue.To evaluate the benefits and harms of enteral antibiotic prophylaxis for necrotising enterocolitis in low birth weight and preterm (...) infants.Searches were made of the Oxford Database of Perinatal trials, MEDLINE (search terms: necrotizing enterocolitis, antibiotics;newborn infant), previous reviews with cross references, abstracts, conference and symposia proceedings, expert informants and journal handsearching in the fields of Neonatal Pediatrics and Microbiology.All randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials where enteral antibiotics were used as prophylaxis against NEC in LBW (<2500g) and/or preterm (<37 weeks gestation

2000 Cochrane

1247. Antibiotics for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy. (Abstract)

Antibiotics for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy. Up to 30% of mothers develop acute pyelonephritis if asymptomatic bacteriuria is untreated. Asymptomatic bacteriuria may have a role in preterm birth, or it may be a marker for low socioeconomic status and thus, low birth weight.The objective of this review was to assess the effect of antibiotic treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria on persistent bacteriuria during pregnancy, the risk of preterm delivery and the development (...) of pyelonephritis after delivery.I searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register.Randomised trials comparing antibiotic treatment with placebo or no treatment in pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria found on antenatal screening.Trial quality was assessed.Thirteen studies were included. Overall the study quality was not strong. Antibiotic treatment compared to placebo or no treatment was effective in clearing asymptomatic bacteriuria (odds ratio 0.07, 95% confidence interval 0.05

2000 Cochrane

1248. Antibiotic prophylaxis for cesarean section. (Abstract)

Antibiotic prophylaxis for cesarean section. The single most important risk factor for postpartum maternal infection is Cesarean delivery.The objective of this review was to assess the effects of prophylactic antibiotic treatment on infectious complications in women undergoing Cesarean delivery.We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register.Randomised trials comparing antibiotic prophylaxis or no treatment for both elective (...) and non-elective Cesarean section.Two reviewers assessed trial quality and extracted data.Sixty-six trials were included. Use of prophylactic antibiotics in women undergoing Cesarean section substantially reduced the incidence of episodes of fever, endometritis, wound infection, urinary tract infection and serious infection after Cesarean section. The reduction in the risk of endometritis with antibiotics was similar across different patient groups. The relative risk for elective Cesarean section

2000 Cochrane

1249. Antibiotics for acute bacterial conjunctivitis. (Abstract)

Antibiotics for acute bacterial conjunctivitis. There are concerns regarding whether antibiotic therapy confers significant benefit in the treatment of acute bacterial conjunctivitis.The aim of this review is to assess the benefit and harm of antibiotic therapy in the management of acute bacterial conjunctivitis.We searched the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group specialised register, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register - Central, MEDLINE and the reference lists of identified trial reports. We (...) used the Science Citation Index to look for articles that cited the relevant studies, and we contacted investigators and pharmaceutical companies for information about additional trials. The most recent searches were carried out in September 1998.We included double masked randomised controlled trials in which any form of antibiotic treatment had been compared with placebo in the management of acute bacterial conjunctivitis. This included topical, systemic and combination (for example, antibiotics

2000 Cochrane

1250. Antibiotics for treating leptospirosis. (Abstract)

Antibiotics for treating leptospirosis. Leptospirosis is a parasitic disease transmitted by animals. Severe leptospirosis may result in hospitalisation and about five per cent of the patients die. In clinical practice, penicillin is widely used for treating leptospirosis.To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of antibiotics versus placebo or other antibiotic regimens in treating leptospirosis. We addressed the following clinical questions: a) Are treatment regimens with antibiotics more (...) efficient than placebo for leptospirosis? b) Are treatment regimens with antibiotics safe when compared to placebo for leptospirosis? c) Which antibiotic regimen is the most efficient and safest in treating leptospirosis?Electronic searches and searches of the identified articles were combined.Randomised clinical trials in which antibiotics were used as treatment for leptospirosis. Language, date, or other restrictions were not applied.Patients with clinical manifestations of leptospirosis.Any

2000 Cochrane

1251. Antibiotic prophylaxis for intrauterine contraceptive device insertion. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic prophylaxis for intrauterine contraceptive device insertion. Concern about the risk of upper genital tract infection (pelvic inflammatory disease) often limits use of the IUD, a highly effective contraceptive. Prophylactic antibiotic administration around the time of induced abortion significantly reduces the risk of postoperative endometritis.(Sawaya, 1996) Since the risk of IUD-related infection is limited to the first few weeks to months after insertion,(Lee, 1983; Farley, 1992 (...) ) contamination of the endometrial cavity at the time of insertion(Mishell, 1966) appears to be the mechanism, rather than the IUD or string itself. Thus, antibiotic administration before IUD insertion might reduce the risk of upper genital tract infection from passive introduction of bacteria at insertion.To assess the effectiveness of prophylactic antibiotic administration before IUD insertion in reducing IUD-related complications and discontinuations within three months of insertion. The primary outcome

2000 Cochrane

1252. Short course antibiotics for acute otitis media. (Abstract)

Short course antibiotics for acute otitis media. Otitis media is a common pediatric problem, for which antibiotics are frequently prescribed.To determine the effectiveness of a short course of antibiotics (less than seven days) in comparison to a longer course (seven days or greater) for the treatment of acute otitis media in children.The medical literature was searched for randomized controlled studies of the treatment of ear infections in children with antibiotics published from January 1966 (...) to July 1997. Search last updated March 1998.Studies were included if they met the following criteria: subjects one month to 18 years of age, clinical diagnosis of ear infection, no previous antimicrobial therapy and randomization to treatment with less than seven days versus seven days or more of antibiotics.Data on treatment outcomes were extracted from individual studies, and combined in the form of a summary odds ratio. A summary odds ratio (OR) equivalent to one indicated that the treatment

2000 Cochrane

1253. Antibiotics for treating scrub typhus. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotics for treating scrub typhus. Scrub typhus is a cause of fever in regions of Asia and the Pacific. Recently, resistance to antibiotics has been reported.To assess treatment regimens for scrub typhus through time to fever resolution and incidence of relapse.Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and contacted individual researchers for unpublished data.Randomised and pseudorandomised studies; patients diagnosed with scrub typhus defined by authors; any comparison (...) of antibiotic regimens for treating scrub typhus.Trial quality was assessed, and data abstracted by both reviewers.Three trials met the inclusion criteria. One small trial compared tetracycline against chloramphenicol. The other two trials compared doxycycline with tetracycline, and showed little difference in the proportion febrile at 48 hours, with no relapses after either drug.Tetracycline and doxycycline seem to be effective in treating scrub typhus. Further research is required to identify appropriate

2000 Cochrane

1254. Antibiotics for treating salmonella gut infections. (Abstract)

Antibiotics for treating salmonella gut infections. Antibiotic treatment of salmonella infections aims to shorten illness and prevent serious complications. There are also concerns about increasing antibiotic drug resistance.The objective of this review was to assess the effects of antibiotics in adults and children with diarrhoea who have salmonella.We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group trials register, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Medline, Science Citation Index (...) , African Index Medicus, Lilacs, Extra Med and reference lists of relevant articles. We also contacted experts in the field.Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing antibiotic therapy with placebo or no antibiotic therapy for salmonella infections in symptomatic or asymptomatic adults or children. Typhoid and paratyphoid salmonella infections were excluded.Trial quality assessment and data were extracted independently by two reviewers.Twelve trials involving 778 participants (with at least 258

2000 Cochrane

1255. Antibiotics for preventing pneumonia in children with measles. (Abstract)

Antibiotics for preventing pneumonia in children with measles. Measles causes more than a million deaths a year, of which most are children under five years of age who die from pneumonia.The objective of this review was to assess the effects of antibiotics given to children with measles on reducing pneumonia or mortality, and to assess whether antibiotics should be given to all children with measles in communities with a high fatality rate.We searched MEDLINE (1966 - 1999), EMBASE (1980-1999 (...) ) and the specialized trials register of the Acute Respiratory Infections Group in August 1999, and all relevant journals in the University of Melbourne medical library for the years 1935-46.Randomised or controlled trials of antibiotics for children with measles.Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed trial quality.Six trials with 1304 children were included. All but one of the trials were unblinded, and randomisation was either not described or was by alternate allocation. In four studies

2000 Cochrane

1256. Nebulised anti-pseudomonal antibiotics for cystic fibrosis. (Abstract)

Nebulised anti-pseudomonal antibiotics for cystic fibrosis. Lung damage associated with persistent infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in people with cystic fibrosis. Nebulised antibiotics are commonly used for treatment of this infection.To examine the evidence that nebulised anti-pseudomonal antibiotic treatment in patients with cystic fibrosis reduces frequency of exacerbations of infection, improves lung function, quality of life and survival (...) . To assess adverse effects of nebulised anti-pseudomonal antibiotic treatment.Trials were identified from the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group clinical trials register. Companies which marketed nebulised anti-pseudomonal antibiotics were contacted for information on unpublished trials. Date of the most recent search of the Group's specialised register: November 1999.Trials were selected if, nebulised anti-pseudomonal antibiotics treatment was used in patients with cystic fibrosis

2000 Cochrane

1257. Antibiotic prophylaxis for surgery for proximal femoral and other closed long bone fractures. (Abstract)

Antibiotic prophylaxis for surgery for proximal femoral and other closed long bone fractures. Antibiotic prophylaxis has been established policy for major surgical operations for many years. In fracture fixation, the effectiveness, and the duration of administration, have been a matter of debate.To assess the effects of the prophylactic administration of antibiotics in patients undergoing surgical management of hip or other long bone fractures.We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Current Contents (...) , Dissertation Abstracts, and Index to UK Theses, and bibliographies of identified articles. Trials were also obtained from the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Injuries Group trials register. Date of the most recent search: end of 1997.Any patients with a hip or other closed long bone fracture undergoing surgery for internal fixation or replacement arthroplasty.Any regimen of systemic antibiotic prophylaxis administered at the time of surgery.Wound infection (deep and superficial), urinary tract infection

2000 Cochrane

1258. Antibiotics for preventing respiratory tract infections in adults receiving intensive care. (Abstract)

Antibiotics for preventing respiratory tract infections in adults receiving intensive care. Pneumonia is an important cause of mortality in intensive care units. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of antibiotics for preventing respiratory tract infections and overall mortality in adults receiving intensive care.We searched MEDLINE, proceedings of scientific meetings and reference lists of articles from January 1984 to September 1997. We also contacted investigators (...) in the field.Randomised trials of antibiotic prophylaxis for respiratory tract infections and deaths among adult intensive care unit patients.Trials were assessed for quality and investigators contacted for additional information.Overall 33 trials involving 5727 people were included. There was variation in the antibiotics used, patient characteristics and the risk of respiratory tract infections and mortality in the control groups. In 16 trials (involving 3493 patients) of a topical and systemic antibiotic

2000 Cochrane

1259. Antibiotics for sore throat. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotics for sore throat. Sore throat is a very common reason for people to attend for medical care. Sore throat is a disease that remits spontaneously, that is, 'cure' is not dependant on treatment. Nonetheless primary care doctors commonly prescribe antibiotics for sore throat and other upper respiratory tract infections.To assess the benefits of antibiotics in the management of sore throat.Systematic search of the literature from 1945 to 1999, using electronic searches of MEDLINE (using (...) the keywords, "pharyngitis", "sore throat" and "tonsillitis") after 1966, the Cochrane Library, the Cochrane collection of hand-searched trials, and the reference sections of the articles identified. Abstracts of identified articles were used to determine which studies were trials.Trials of antibiotic against control with either measures of the typical symptoms (throat soreness, headache or fever), or complications (suppurative and non-suppurative) of sore throat.RevMan 4.0.3A total number of 10,484 cases

2000 Cochrane

1260. Antibiotics for acute maxillary sinusitis. (Abstract)

Antibiotics for acute maxillary sinusitis. For adults seeking care in ambulatory practices, sinusitis is the most common diagnosis treated with antibiotics. We examined whether antibiotics are indicated for acute sinusitis, and if so, which antibiotic classes are most effective.Relevant studies were identified from searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE in October 1998, contacts with pharmaceutical companies and bibliographies of included studies.Randomized trials were eligible that compared antibiotic (...) to control or antibiotics from different classes for acute maxillary sinusitis. Additional criteria were diagnostic confirmation by radiograph or sinus aspiration, outcomes that included clinical cure or improvement and a sample size of 30 or more adults. Of 1784 potentially relevant studies, two or more reviewers identified 32 studies meeting selection criteria.Data were abstracted independently by 2 persons and synthesized descriptively. Some data were analyzed quantitatively using a random effects

2000 Cochrane