Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

1261. Randomized placebo-controlled trial of oral antibiotics in pediatric oncology patients at low-risk with fever and neutropenia

Randomized placebo-controlled trial of oral antibiotics in pediatric oncology patients at low-risk with fever and neutropenia Randomized placebo-controlled trial of oral antibiotics in pediatric oncology patients at low-risk with fever and neutropenia Randomized placebo-controlled trial of oral antibiotics in pediatric oncology patients at low-risk with fever and neutropenia Klaassen R J, Allen U, Doyle J J Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets (...) the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology The use of oral antibiotics upon discharge for the treatment of fever and neutropenia in children with cancer. The antibiotic treatment consisted of cloxacillin syrup or capsules (75 to 100 mg/kg per day, four times daily) plus cefixime syrup (8 mg/kg per day). Type

2000 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1262. Prevention of nosocomial bloodstream infections: effectiveness of antimicrobial-impregnated and heparin-bonded central venous catheters

Prevention of nosocomial bloodstream infections: effectiveness of antimicrobial-impregnated and heparin-bonded central venous catheters Prevention of nosocomial bloodstream infections: effectiveness of antimicrobial-impregnated and heparin-bonded central venous catheters Prevention of nosocomial bloodstream infections: effectiveness of antimicrobial-impregnated and heparin-bonded central venous catheters Marin M G, Lee J C, Skurnick J H Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic (...) evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology The use of antimicrobial-impregnated and heparin-bonded central venous catheters in the prevention of nosocomial bloodstream infections. Type of intervention Primary prevention. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population

2000 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1263. Antimicrobial central venous catheters: a qualitative review of the literature and economic assessment

contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology The use of antimicrobial central venous catheters (CVC) in critical care patients. The CVCs were either impregnated with the antiseptic combination chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine (CSS catheters), or bonded with the antibiotic agents minocycline and rifampin (MR catheters). Type of intervention Treatment (...) Antimicrobial central venous catheters: a qualitative review of the literature and economic assessment Antimicrobial central venous catheters: a qualitative review of the literature and economic assessment Antimicrobial central venous catheters: a qualitative review of the literature and economic assessment Oinonen M J, Ratko T A, Cummings J P, Matuszewski K A Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract

2000 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1264. Systematic reviews of wound care management:(3) antimicrobial agents for chronic wounds;(4) diabetic foot ulceration Full Text available with Trip Pro

Systematic reviews of wound care management:(3) antimicrobial agents for chronic wounds;(4) diabetic foot ulceration Systematic reviews of wound care management: (3) antimicrobial agents for chronic wounds; (4) diabetic foot ulceration Journals Library An error has occurred in processing the XML document An error occurred retrieving content to display, please try again. >> >> >> Page Not Found Page not found (404) Sorry - the page you requested could not be found. Please choose a page from

2000 NIHR HTA programme

1265. The risk of the hemolytic-uremic syndrome after antibiotic treatment of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections

The risk of the hemolytic-uremic syndrome after antibiotic treatment of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections PEDSCCM.org Criteria abstracted from series in Review Posted: founded 1995 Questions or comments?

2000 PedsCCM Evidence-Based Journal Club

1266. Prevention of nosocomial bloodstream infections: effectiveness of antimicrobial-impregnated and heparin-bonded central venous catheters

Prevention of nosocomial bloodstream infections: effectiveness of antimicrobial-impregnated and heparin-bonded central venous catheters PEDSCCM.org Criteria abstracted from series in Review Posted: founded 1995 Questions or comments?

2000 PedsCCM Evidence-Based Journal Club

1267. Home intravenous antibiotics for cystic fibrosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Home intravenous antibiotics for cystic fibrosis. Recurrent endobronchial infection in cystic fibrosis requires treatment with intravenous antibiotics for several weeks, which is usually administered in hospital, affecting health costs and quality of life for patients and their families. It is not known whether patients receiving intravenous treatment at home have better or equivalent health outcomes, if costs are reduced or if it is preferred than in-hospital treatment. Home treatment requires (...) training to patients and carers and usually needs a few previous days in hospital.To determine whether home intravenous antibiotic therapy in cystic fibrosis is as effective as in-patient intravenous antibiotic therapy and if it is preferred by patients and/or families.References to trials were obtained from the specialist cystic fibrosis trials register held by the editorial base of the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group. Handsearching of the abstracts books of all Spanish

2000 Cochrane

1268. Antibiotic treatment for travellers' diarrhoea. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic treatment for travellers' diarrhoea. Traveller's diarrhoea is a syndrome frequently encountered in persons crossing an international boundary. Diarrhoea can lead to significant discomfort and interference with travel plans. Bacterial pathogens are a frequent cause of this syndrome. Several antibiotics have been tested for efficacy in reducing the duration and severity of the illness.The aims of this review were to assess the effects of antibiotics on traveller's diarrhoea in relation (...) to duration of illness, severity of illness, and adverse effects of medications.The Cochrane Collaboration Trials Register, MEDLINE, and EMBASE were searched. Additional trials were identified by hand searching. Content experts were contacted.All trials in any language in which travellers older than 5 years were randomly allocated to treatment for acute non-bloody diarrhoea with antibiotics and where the causative organism is not known at allocation.Two reviewers assessed trial quality and extracted

2000 Cochrane

1269. Antibiotics for incomplete abortion. (Abstract)

Antibiotics for incomplete abortion. The value of routine antibiotics before surgical evacuation of the uterus in women incomplete abortion is controversial. In some health centres antibiotic prophylaxis is advised in others antibiotics are only prescribed when there is signs of infection. The objective of this review is to evaluate the effectiveness of routine antibiotic prophylaxis to women with incomplete abortion.We searched the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE and Popline. Date (...) of last search: January 1999.Randomised trials comparing a policy of routine antibiotic prophylaxis with no routine prophylaxis were eligible for inclusion.Data extraction was conducted by two reviewers independently. Trial quality was assessed.One study involving 140 women was included. A second well-conducted trial was excluded because of high losses to follow-up. No differences were detected in postabortal infection rates with routine prophylaxis or control. However, compliance with antibiotic

2000 Cochrane

1270. Prophylactic antibiotics for cystic fibrosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prophylactic antibiotics for cystic fibrosis. Patients with cystic fibrosis are sometimes prescribed antibiotics to take continuously on a prophylactic (preventative) basis. This approach is most commonly used in infants where the objective is to reduce pulmonary infection with Staphylococcus aureus and prevent lung damage. This approach may also be used in older patients. This review evaluates the evidence for the effectiveness of this approach and considers potential adverse effects.To (...) compare continuous oral antibiotic prophylaxis with no prophylaxis (short courses of oral antibiotics given as clinically indicated) in patients with cystic fibrosis. This review considers both the effectiveness of prophylaxis (bacteria isolated from the respiratory tract, requirement for additional antibiotic treatment, lung function, survival) and the adverse effects.The Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group clinical trials register was used. This comprises references identified from

2000 Cochrane

1271. Antibiotics for preventing leptospirosis. (Abstract)

Antibiotics for preventing leptospirosis. Leptospirosis is an infectious disease transmitted by animals. Death occurs in about five per cent of the patients. In clinical practice, doxycycline is widely used for prevention.To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of any antibiotic regimen versus placebo or other antibiotic regimens in the prophylaxis of leptospirosis.The sources used were: EMBASE, LILACS, MEDLINE, SCISEARCH, The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary (...) Group Controlled Trials Register, bibliographies of published papers, and personal communication with authors. There were no language or date restrictions in any of the searches.All randomised clinical trials in which antibiotics were used as prophylactic regimen for leptospirosis.People potentially exposed to leptospirosis, such as people in endemic areas during the rainy season, health professionals and other professionals with high risk of infection.Any antibiotic regimen compared with a control

2000 Cochrane

1272. Antibiotics for preterm premature rupture of membranes. (Abstract)

Antibiotics for preterm premature rupture of membranes. The aim of the review was to evaluate the effectiveness and the immediate and long-term safety of the effects of administering antibiotics to women with preterm prelabour rupture of membranes on maternal infectious morbidity, fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, and longer term childhood development.All randomized trials identified using the search strategy described by the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group.All trials which (...) term.There are insufficient data to recommend routine prescription of antibiotics in this clinical situation. Research into this area should continue.

2000 Cochrane

1273. Antibiotic regimens for endometritis after delivery. (Abstract)

Antibiotic regimens for endometritis after delivery. Post-partum endometritis, which is more common after cesarean section, occurs when vaginal organisms invade the endometrial cavity during labour and delivery. Antibiotic treatment is warranted.The effect of different antibiotic regimens for the treatment of postpartum endometritis on failure of therapy and complications was systematically reviewed.We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's trials register and the Cochrane (...) Controlled Trials Register. Date of last search: August 1999.Randomised trials of different antibiotic regimens for postpartum endometritis, after cesarean section or vaginal delivery, where outcomes of treatment failure or complications were reported were selected.Data were abstracted independently by the reviewers. Comparisons were made between different types of antibiotic regimen, based on type of antibiotic and duration and route of administration. Summary relative risks were calculated.Forty-one

2000 Cochrane

1274. Antibiotic prophylaxis regimens and drugs for cesarean section. (Abstract)

Antibiotic prophylaxis regimens and drugs for cesarean section. Prophylactic antibiotics for cesarean section have been shown to reduce the incidence of maternal postoperative infectious morbidity. Many different antibiotic regimens have been reported to be effective.The objective of this review was to determine which antibiotic regimen is most effective in reducing the incidence of infectious morbidity in women undergoing cesarean section.We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group (...) trials register and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. The date of the most recent search was October 1998.Randomized trials that included women undergoing cesarean section were included. Trials were required to compare at least two different antibiotic regimens. Trials that compared placebo with a single antibiotic regimen were not included as these are studies which have been analyzed in another Cochrane review.Data were extracted from each publication independently by the reviewers

2000 Cochrane

1275. Intrapartum antibiotics for group B streptococcal colonisation. (Abstract)

Intrapartum antibiotics for group B streptococcal colonisation. Group B streptococcal infection is common in pregnant women without causing harm. However it is also a significant cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality.The objective of this review was to assess the effects of intrapartum administration of antibiotics to women on infant colonization with group B streptococcus, early onset neonatal group B streptococcus sepsis and neonatal death from infection.The Cochrane Pregnancy (...) and Childbirth Group trials register was searched.Controlled trials of pregnant women colonized with group B streptococcus comparing intrapartum antibiotic administration with no treatment, and providing data on infant colonization with group B streptococcus and/or neonatal infection.Eligibility and trial quality assessment were done by one reviewer.Five trials were included. Overall quality was poor, with potential selection bias in all the identified studies. Intrapartum antibiotic treatment reduced

2000 Cochrane

1276. Enteral antibiotics for preventing necrotising enterocolitis in low birthweight or preterm infants. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Enteral antibiotics for preventing necrotising enterocolitis in low birthweight or preterm infants. Necrotising enterocolitis continues to be a problem, particularly in preterm neonates. There have been reports published suggesting that the use of enteral antibiotics may be effective as prophylaxis. This systematic review was undertaken to clarify the issue.To evaluate the benefits and harms of enteral antibiotic prophylaxis for necrotising enterocolitis in low birth weight and preterm (...) infants.Searches were made of the Oxford Database of Perinatal trials, MEDLINE (search terms: necrotizing enterocolitis, antibiotics;newborn infant), previous reviews with cross references, abstracts, conference and symposia proceedings, expert informants and journal handsearching in the fields of Neonatal Pediatrics and Microbiology.All randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials where enteral antibiotics were used as prophylaxis against NEC in LBW (<2500g) and/or preterm (<37 weeks gestation

2000 Cochrane

1277. Antibiotics for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy. (Abstract)

Antibiotics for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy. Up to 30% of mothers develop acute pyelonephritis if asymptomatic bacteriuria is untreated. Asymptomatic bacteriuria may have a role in preterm birth, or it may be a marker for low socioeconomic status and thus, low birth weight.The objective of this review was to assess the effect of antibiotic treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria on persistent bacteriuria during pregnancy, the risk of preterm delivery and the development (...) of pyelonephritis after delivery.I searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register.Randomised trials comparing antibiotic treatment with placebo or no treatment in pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria found on antenatal screening.Trial quality was assessed.Thirteen studies were included. Overall the study quality was not strong. Antibiotic treatment compared to placebo or no treatment was effective in clearing asymptomatic bacteriuria (odds ratio 0.07, 95% confidence interval 0.05

2000 Cochrane

1278. Antibiotic prophylaxis for cesarean section. (Abstract)

Antibiotic prophylaxis for cesarean section. The single most important risk factor for postpartum maternal infection is Cesarean delivery.The objective of this review was to assess the effects of prophylactic antibiotic treatment on infectious complications in women undergoing Cesarean delivery.We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register.Randomised trials comparing antibiotic prophylaxis or no treatment for both elective (...) and non-elective Cesarean section.Two reviewers assessed trial quality and extracted data.Sixty-six trials were included. Use of prophylactic antibiotics in women undergoing Cesarean section substantially reduced the incidence of episodes of fever, endometritis, wound infection, urinary tract infection and serious infection after Cesarean section. The reduction in the risk of endometritis with antibiotics was similar across different patient groups. The relative risk for elective Cesarean section

2000 Cochrane

1279. Antibiotics for acute bacterial conjunctivitis. (Abstract)

Antibiotics for acute bacterial conjunctivitis. There are concerns regarding whether antibiotic therapy confers significant benefit in the treatment of acute bacterial conjunctivitis.The aim of this review is to assess the benefit and harm of antibiotic therapy in the management of acute bacterial conjunctivitis.We searched the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group specialised register, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register - Central, MEDLINE and the reference lists of identified trial reports. We (...) used the Science Citation Index to look for articles that cited the relevant studies, and we contacted investigators and pharmaceutical companies for information about additional trials. The most recent searches were carried out in September 1998.We included double masked randomised controlled trials in which any form of antibiotic treatment had been compared with placebo in the management of acute bacterial conjunctivitis. This included topical, systemic and combination (for example, antibiotics

2000 Cochrane

1280. Antibiotics for treating leptospirosis. (Abstract)

Antibiotics for treating leptospirosis. Leptospirosis is a parasitic disease transmitted by animals. Severe leptospirosis may result in hospitalisation and about five per cent of the patients die. In clinical practice, penicillin is widely used for treating leptospirosis.To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of antibiotics versus placebo or other antibiotic regimens in treating leptospirosis. We addressed the following clinical questions: a) Are treatment regimens with antibiotics more (...) efficient than placebo for leptospirosis? b) Are treatment regimens with antibiotics safe when compared to placebo for leptospirosis? c) Which antibiotic regimen is the most efficient and safest in treating leptospirosis?Electronic searches and searches of the identified articles were combined.Randomised clinical trials in which antibiotics were used as treatment for leptospirosis. Language, date, or other restrictions were not applied.Patients with clinical manifestations of leptospirosis.Any

2000 Cochrane