Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

1281. Equal effectiveness of older traditional antibiotics and newer broad-spectrum antibiotics in treating patients with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Equal effectiveness of older traditional antibiotics and newer broad-spectrum antibiotics in treating patients with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis Equal effectiveness of older traditional antibiotics and newer broad-spectrum antibiotics in treating patients with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis Equal effectiveness of older traditional antibiotics and newer broad-spectrum antibiotics in treating patients with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis Peng C C, Aspinall S L (...) , Good C B, Atwood C W, Chang C C Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology The study compared the effectiveness and costs of different antibiotic therapies for the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB

2003 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1282. Decision analysis of antibiotic and diagnostic strategies in ventilator-associated pneumonia Full Text available with Trip Pro

Decision analysis of antibiotic and diagnostic strategies in ventilator-associated pneumonia Decision analysis of antibiotic and diagnostic strategies in ventilator-associated pneumonia Decision analysis of antibiotic and diagnostic strategies in ventilator-associated pneumonia Ost D E, Hall C S, Joseph G, Ginocchio C, Condon S, Kao E, Larusso M, Itzla R, Fein A M Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract (...) contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology This study considered the treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Four diagnostic strategies were considered in conjunction with four antibiotic regimens. The diagnostic strategies were no diagnostic test (empirical treatment only), quantitative nonprotected endotracheal cultures, bronchoscopy

2003 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1283. A comparison of two macrolide antibiotics in the treatment of community-acquired infections

A comparison of two macrolide antibiotics in the treatment of community-acquired infections A comparison of two macrolide antibiotics in the treatment of community-acquired infections A comparison of two macrolide antibiotics in the treatment of community-acquired infections Parmar-Lapasia K, Gelone S P, Jacobs M R, Wertheimer A I Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary (...) comprised patients who had been prescribed a course of either azithromycin or clarithromycin. Patients were excluded from the study if they were under 18 years, or were receiving concurrent or chronic antibiotic therapy (including azithromycin 1,200 mg/week or a single dose). Also excluded were those taking immunosuppressive medication or medication to treat human immunodeficiency virus or Helicobacter pylori. Setting The setting was primary care. The authors did not identify the exact location

2003 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1284. Which antimicrobial impregnated central venous catheter should we use: modeling the costs and outcomes of antimicrobial catheter use

Which antimicrobial impregnated central venous catheter should we use: modeling the costs and outcomes of antimicrobial catheter use Which antimicrobial impregnated central venous catheter should we use: modeling the costs and outcomes of antimicrobial catheter use Which antimicrobial impregnated central venous catheter should we use: modeling the costs and outcomes of antimicrobial catheter use Marciante K D, Veenstra D L, Lipsky B A, Saint S Record Status This is a critical abstract (...) of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Two types of antimicrobial catheters aimed at reducing the risk of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSI) were examined. The catheters were coated with either antiseptic chlorhexidine plus silver sulfadiazine (C-SS

2003 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1285. Oral antibiotics with early hospital discharge compared with in-patient intravenous antibiotics for low-risk febrile neutropenia in patients with cancer: a prospective randomised controlled single centre study

Oral antibiotics with early hospital discharge compared with in-patient intravenous antibiotics for low-risk febrile neutropenia in patients with cancer: a prospective randomised controlled single centre study Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.

2003 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1286. Antibiotic treatment of bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy: a meta-analysis

Antibiotic treatment of bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy: a meta-analysis Antibiotic treatment of bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy: a meta-analysis Antibiotic treatment of bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy: a meta-analysis Leitich H, Brunbauer M, Bodner-Adler B, Kaider A, Egarter C, Husslein P CRD summary This review assessed antibiotic treatment for bacterial vaginosis in pregnant women. The authors concluded that the screening of women with a previous pre-term delivery is justified (...) , and that oral antibiotics given for a longer time reduced pre-term delivery. The data for antibiotic treatment of longer duration were derived from only two trials, thus casting some doubt on the reliability of the conclusions. Authors' objectives To assess the effects on pre-term labour of antibiotic treatment for bacterial vaginosis (BV) in pregnant women. Searching MEDLINE (from 1966) EMBASE (from 1988) and the Science Citation Index Expanded (from 1997) were searched in June 2001 for studies published

2003 DARE.

1287. Antibiotic prophylaxis of bacterial infections in cirrhotic inpatients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Antibiotic prophylaxis of bacterial infections in cirrhotic inpatients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.

2003 DARE.

1288. Do delayed prescriptions reduce antibiotic use in respiratory tract infections: a systematic review

Do delayed prescriptions reduce antibiotic use in respiratory tract infections: a systematic review Do delayed prescriptions reduce antibiotic use in respiratory tract infections: a systematic review Do delayed prescriptions reduce antibiotic use in respiratory tract infections: a systematic review Arroll B, Kenealy T, Kerse N CRD summary This review compared delayed with immediate prescriptions for upper respiratory tract infections. The authors concluded that delayed prescription can reduce (...) antibiotic use in this population. The review was well conducted and the conclusions are likely to be reliable. Authors' objectives To compare the effects of delayed with immediate prescriptions for upper respiratory tract infections (RTIs). Searching MEDLINE (from 1966 to April 2003), EMBASE and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched for studies published in any language; the search terms were stated. The authors of published controlled trials were contacted for details of unpublished

2003 DARE.

1289. Meta-analysis. Proton pump inhibitors vs. H2-receptor antagonists: their efficacy with antibiotics in Helicobacter pylori eradication

Meta-analysis. Proton pump inhibitors vs. H2-receptor antagonists: their efficacy with antibiotics in Helicobacter pylori eradication Meta-analysis. Proton pump inhibitors vs. H2-receptor antagonists: their efficacy with antibiotics in Helicobacter pylori eradication Meta-analysis. Proton pump inhibitors vs. H2-receptor antagonists: their efficacy with antibiotics in Helicobacter pylori eradication Gisbert J P, Khorrami S, Calvet X, Gabriel R, Carballo F, Pajares J M CRD summary This meta (...) -analysis assessed the effectiveness of proton-pump inhibitors and H2-receptor antagonists, both co-prescribed with antibiotics, in Helicobacter pylori eradication. The authors concluded that proton-pump inhibitors are more effective than H2-receptor antagonists when prescribed at usual doses. The authors' conclusion is consistent with the evidence reviewed, and is likely to be reliable. Authors' objectives To perform a meta-analysis comparing the efficacy of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) and H2

2003 DARE.

1290. How good is the evidence for the recommended empirical antimicrobial treatment of patients hospitalized because of community-acquired pneumonia: a systematic review

How good is the evidence for the recommended empirical antimicrobial treatment of patients hospitalized because of community-acquired pneumonia: a systematic review Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.

2003 DARE.

1291. Antibiotics and surgery for vesicoureteric reflux: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

Antibiotics and surgery for vesicoureteric reflux: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials Antibiotics and surgery for vesicoureteric reflux: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials Antibiotics and surgery for vesicoureteric reflux: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials Wheeler D, Vimalachandra D, Hodson E M, Roy L P, Smith G, Craig J C CRD summary This review assessed treatments for vesicoureteric reflux. The authors concluded that it was unclear whether any (...) Trials Register was also searched and the reference lists of identified studies were checked. Researchers in the field were contacted for additional studies. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs were eligible for inclusion. Specific interventions included in the review Studies of any type of treatment for VUR were eligible for inclusion. The included studies compared long-term (1 to 24 months) antibiotics

2003 DARE.

1292. Antibiotics and hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea: a systematic review

Antibiotics and hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea: a systematic review Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.

2003 DARE.

1293. Impact of initial antibiotic choice on clinical outcomes in community-acquired pneumonia: analysis of a hospital claims-made database

Impact of initial antibiotic choice on clinical outcomes in community-acquired pneumonia: analysis of a hospital claims-made database Impact of initial antibiotic choice on clinical outcomes in community-acquired pneumonia: analysis of a hospital claims-made database Impact of initial antibiotic choice on clinical outcomes in community-acquired pneumonia: analysis of a hospital claims-made database Brown R B, Iannini P, Gross P, Kunkel M Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic (...) evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) were given one of nine types of antibiotic treatments, five of which were monotherapies and four of which were dual therapies. The monotherapies were ceftriaxone, macrolides, "other

2003 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1294. Pharmacoeconomic aspects of antibacterial therapy with azithromycin of community-acquired pneumonia in servicemen

Pharmacoeconomic aspects of antibacterial therapy with azithromycin of community-acquired pneumonia in servicemen Pharmacoeconomic aspects of antibacterial therapy with azithromycin of community-acquired pneumonia in servicemen Pharmacoeconomic aspects of antibacterial therapy with azithromycin of community-acquired pneumonia in servicemen Dzyublyk O Y, Mukhin O O, Simonov S S Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED (...) population comprised male military servicemen between the ages of 18 and 21 years, with clinical symptoms and radiological evidence of pneumonia. The patients were classified as low risk in terms of short-term mortality and had not been given antibiotic treatment for 48 hours before treatment was started, unless it had resulted in no clinical improvement. Patients were excluded if they had a history of allergy to beta-lactams or macrolides, severe pneumonia, marked renal or hepatic impairment

2003 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1295. Rational antibiotic utilisation in selected paediatric conditions

Rational antibiotic utilisation in selected paediatric conditions Rational antibiotic utilisation in selected paediatric conditions Rational antibiotic utilisation in selected paediatric conditions Malaysian Health Technology Assessment Unit Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Malaysian Health Technology Assessment Unit. Rational antibiotic (...) utilisation in selected paediatric conditions. Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian Health Technology Assessment Unit (MHTAU) 2003 Authors' objectives The objective is to determine the safety, effectiveness, and cost implications of rational antibiotic utilisation in selected pediatric conditions like febrile neutropenia, encephalitis/encephalopathy/meningitis, pneumonia, sepsis in children, and neonatal sepsis. Authors' conclusions For febrile neutropenia, there is sufficient evidence to recommend the use of either

2003 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

1296. Comparison of 8 vs 15 days of antibiotic therapy for ventilator-associated pneumonia in adults: a randomized trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Comparison of 8 vs 15 days of antibiotic therapy for ventilator-associated pneumonia in adults: a randomized trial. The optimal duration of antimicrobial treatment for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is unknown. Shortening the length of treatment may help to contain the emergence of multiresistant bacteria in the intensive care unit (ICU).To determine whether 8 days is as effective as 15 days of antibiotic treatment of patients with microbiologically proven VAP.Prospective, randomized (...) , double-blind (until day 8) clinical trial conducted in 51 French ICUs. A total of 401 patients diagnosed as having developed VAP by quantitative culture results of bronchoscopic specimens and who had received initial appropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy were enrolled between May 1999 and June 2002.A total of 197 patients were randomly assigned to receive 8 days and 204 to receive 15 days of therapy with an antibiotic regimen selected by the treating physician.Primary outcome measures-death

2003 JAMA Controlled trial quality: predicted high

1297. Deficiency of antibacterial peptides in patients with morbus Kostmann: an observation study. (Abstract)

Deficiency of antibacterial peptides in patients with morbus Kostmann: an observation study. Antibacterial peptides, such as defensins and LL-37, are natural bactericidal components similar in potency to classic antibiotics. These peptides are produced at mucosal linings in the body and the skin, and by leucocytes such as neutrophils and natural killer cells. Patients with morbus Kostmann-a severe congenital neutropenia-are treated by recombinant granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, which (...) restores their levels of neutrophils. Despite this treatment, patients still have recurrent infections and periodontal disease. Our aim was to investigate if defensins and LL-37 are deficient in patients with morbus Kostmann.We studied samples of neutrophils, plasma, and saliva from six patients with congenital neutropenia and 22 healthy controls for presence of antibacterial peptides. Neutrophils were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry for alpha-defensins. All

2002 Lancet

1298. Endogenous antimicrobial peptides and skin infections in atopic dermatitis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Endogenous antimicrobial peptides and skin infections in atopic dermatitis. The innate immune system of human skin contains antimicrobial peptides known as cathelicidins (LL-37) and beta-defensins. In normal skin these peptides are negligible, but they accumulate in skin affected by inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis. We compared the levels of expression of LL-37 and human beta-defensin 2 (HBD-2) in inflamed skin from patients with atopic dermatitis and from those with psoriasis.The (...) expression of LL-37 and HBD-2 protein in skin-biopsy specimens from patients with psoriasis, patients with atopic dermatitis, and normal subjects was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. The amount of antimicrobial peptides in extracts of skin samples was also analyzed by immunodot blot analysis (for LL-37) and Western blot analysis (for HBD-2). Quantitative, real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assays were used to confirm the relative expression of HBD-2 and LL-37

2002 NEJM

1299. Changes in antibiotic prescribing for children after a community-wide campaign. (Abstract)

Changes in antibiotic prescribing for children after a community-wide campaign. Overuse of antibiotics has contributed to microbial resistance, compromising the treatment of bacterial infections. Very high levels (>50%) of antibiotic resistance among invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae have been documented in Knox County, Tennessee.To determine the effectiveness of a community-wide intervention aimed at reducing inappropriate antibiotic use among children.The Knox County Health Department led (...) a multifaceted year-long campaign (May 1997 through April 1998) aimed at decreasing unnecessary antibiotic use among children. Tennessee's 3 other major urban counties (Shelby, Hamilton, and Davidson) did not conduct similar campaigns and served as controls. Evaluation included white and black children (aged <15 years) enrolled in Tennessee's Medicaid Managed Care Program in the 4 study counties, representing 36% of the study counties' children (464 200 person-years observed).Educational efforts were

2002 JAMA

1300. Trends in antimicrobial prescribing rates for children and adolescents. (Abstract)

Trends in antimicrobial prescribing rates for children and adolescents. Annual rates of antimicrobial prescribing for children by office-based physicians increased from 1980 through 1992. The development of antimicrobial resistance, which increased for many organisms during the 1990s, is associated with antimicrobial use. To combat development of antimicrobial resistance, professional and public health organizations undertook efforts to promote appropriate antimicrobial prescribing.To assess (...) changes in antimicrobial prescribing rates overall and for respiratory tract infections for children and adolescents younger than 15 years.National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey data provided by 2500 to 3500 office-based physicians for 6500 to 13 600 pediatric visits during 2-year periods from 1989-1990 through 1999-2000.Population- and visit-based antimicrobial prescribing rates overall and for respiratory tract infections (otitis media, pharyngitis, bronchitis, sinusitis, and upper respiratory

2002 JAMA