Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

1281. Antibiotic prophylaxis for intrauterine contraceptive device insertion. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic prophylaxis for intrauterine contraceptive device insertion. Concern about the risk of upper genital tract infection (pelvic inflammatory disease) often limits use of the IUD, a highly effective contraceptive. Prophylactic antibiotic administration around the time of induced abortion significantly reduces the risk of postoperative endometritis.(Sawaya, 1996) Since the risk of IUD-related infection is limited to the first few weeks to months after insertion,(Lee, 1983; Farley, 1992 (...) ) contamination of the endometrial cavity at the time of insertion(Mishell, 1966) appears to be the mechanism, rather than the IUD or string itself. Thus, antibiotic administration before IUD insertion might reduce the risk of upper genital tract infection from passive introduction of bacteria at insertion.To assess the effectiveness of prophylactic antibiotic administration before IUD insertion in reducing IUD-related complications and discontinuations within three months of insertion. The primary outcome

2000 Cochrane

1282. Short course antibiotics for acute otitis media. (Abstract)

Short course antibiotics for acute otitis media. Otitis media is a common pediatric problem, for which antibiotics are frequently prescribed.To determine the effectiveness of a short course of antibiotics (less than seven days) in comparison to a longer course (seven days or greater) for the treatment of acute otitis media in children.The medical literature was searched for randomized controlled studies of the treatment of ear infections in children with antibiotics published from January 1966 (...) to July 1997. Search last updated March 1998.Studies were included if they met the following criteria: subjects one month to 18 years of age, clinical diagnosis of ear infection, no previous antimicrobial therapy and randomization to treatment with less than seven days versus seven days or more of antibiotics.Data on treatment outcomes were extracted from individual studies, and combined in the form of a summary odds ratio. A summary odds ratio (OR) equivalent to one indicated that the treatment

2000 Cochrane

1283. Antibiotics for treating scrub typhus. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotics for treating scrub typhus. Scrub typhus is a cause of fever in regions of Asia and the Pacific. Recently, resistance to antibiotics has been reported.To assess treatment regimens for scrub typhus through time to fever resolution and incidence of relapse.Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and contacted individual researchers for unpublished data.Randomised and pseudorandomised studies; patients diagnosed with scrub typhus defined by authors; any comparison (...) of antibiotic regimens for treating scrub typhus.Trial quality was assessed, and data abstracted by both reviewers.Three trials met the inclusion criteria. One small trial compared tetracycline against chloramphenicol. The other two trials compared doxycycline with tetracycline, and showed little difference in the proportion febrile at 48 hours, with no relapses after either drug.Tetracycline and doxycycline seem to be effective in treating scrub typhus. Further research is required to identify appropriate

2000 Cochrane

1284. Antibiotics for treating salmonella gut infections. (Abstract)

Antibiotics for treating salmonella gut infections. Antibiotic treatment of salmonella infections aims to shorten illness and prevent serious complications. There are also concerns about increasing antibiotic drug resistance.The objective of this review was to assess the effects of antibiotics in adults and children with diarrhoea who have salmonella.We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group trials register, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Medline, Science Citation Index (...) , African Index Medicus, Lilacs, Extra Med and reference lists of relevant articles. We also contacted experts in the field.Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing antibiotic therapy with placebo or no antibiotic therapy for salmonella infections in symptomatic or asymptomatic adults or children. Typhoid and paratyphoid salmonella infections were excluded.Trial quality assessment and data were extracted independently by two reviewers.Twelve trials involving 778 participants (with at least 258

2000 Cochrane

1285. Antibiotics for preventing pneumonia in children with measles. (Abstract)

Antibiotics for preventing pneumonia in children with measles. Measles causes more than a million deaths a year, of which most are children under five years of age who die from pneumonia.The objective of this review was to assess the effects of antibiotics given to children with measles on reducing pneumonia or mortality, and to assess whether antibiotics should be given to all children with measles in communities with a high fatality rate.We searched MEDLINE (1966 - 1999), EMBASE (1980-1999 (...) ) and the specialized trials register of the Acute Respiratory Infections Group in August 1999, and all relevant journals in the University of Melbourne medical library for the years 1935-46.Randomised or controlled trials of antibiotics for children with measles.Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed trial quality.Six trials with 1304 children were included. All but one of the trials were unblinded, and randomisation was either not described or was by alternate allocation. In four studies

2000 Cochrane

1286. Nebulised anti-pseudomonal antibiotics for cystic fibrosis. (Abstract)

Nebulised anti-pseudomonal antibiotics for cystic fibrosis. Lung damage associated with persistent infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in people with cystic fibrosis. Nebulised antibiotics are commonly used for treatment of this infection.To examine the evidence that nebulised anti-pseudomonal antibiotic treatment in patients with cystic fibrosis reduces frequency of exacerbations of infection, improves lung function, quality of life and survival (...) . To assess adverse effects of nebulised anti-pseudomonal antibiotic treatment.Trials were identified from the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group clinical trials register. Companies which marketed nebulised anti-pseudomonal antibiotics were contacted for information on unpublished trials. Date of the most recent search of the Group's specialised register: November 1999.Trials were selected if, nebulised anti-pseudomonal antibiotics treatment was used in patients with cystic fibrosis

2000 Cochrane

1287. Antibiotic prophylaxis for surgery for proximal femoral and other closed long bone fractures. (Abstract)

Antibiotic prophylaxis for surgery for proximal femoral and other closed long bone fractures. Antibiotic prophylaxis has been established policy for major surgical operations for many years. In fracture fixation, the effectiveness, and the duration of administration, have been a matter of debate.To assess the effects of the prophylactic administration of antibiotics in patients undergoing surgical management of hip or other long bone fractures.We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Current Contents (...) , Dissertation Abstracts, and Index to UK Theses, and bibliographies of identified articles. Trials were also obtained from the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Injuries Group trials register. Date of the most recent search: end of 1997.Any patients with a hip or other closed long bone fracture undergoing surgery for internal fixation or replacement arthroplasty.Any regimen of systemic antibiotic prophylaxis administered at the time of surgery.Wound infection (deep and superficial), urinary tract infection

2000 Cochrane

1288. Antibiotics for preventing respiratory tract infections in adults receiving intensive care. (Abstract)

Antibiotics for preventing respiratory tract infections in adults receiving intensive care. Pneumonia is an important cause of mortality in intensive care units. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of antibiotics for preventing respiratory tract infections and overall mortality in adults receiving intensive care.We searched MEDLINE, proceedings of scientific meetings and reference lists of articles from January 1984 to September 1997. We also contacted investigators (...) in the field.Randomised trials of antibiotic prophylaxis for respiratory tract infections and deaths among adult intensive care unit patients.Trials were assessed for quality and investigators contacted for additional information.Overall 33 trials involving 5727 people were included. There was variation in the antibiotics used, patient characteristics and the risk of respiratory tract infections and mortality in the control groups. In 16 trials (involving 3493 patients) of a topical and systemic antibiotic

2000 Cochrane

1289. Antibiotics for sore throat. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotics for sore throat. Sore throat is a very common reason for people to attend for medical care. Sore throat is a disease that remits spontaneously, that is, 'cure' is not dependant on treatment. Nonetheless primary care doctors commonly prescribe antibiotics for sore throat and other upper respiratory tract infections.To assess the benefits of antibiotics in the management of sore throat.Systematic search of the literature from 1945 to 1999, using electronic searches of MEDLINE (using (...) the keywords, "pharyngitis", "sore throat" and "tonsillitis") after 1966, the Cochrane Library, the Cochrane collection of hand-searched trials, and the reference sections of the articles identified. Abstracts of identified articles were used to determine which studies were trials.Trials of antibiotic against control with either measures of the typical symptoms (throat soreness, headache or fever), or complications (suppurative and non-suppurative) of sore throat.RevMan 4.0.3A total number of 10,484 cases

2000 Cochrane

1290. Antibiotics for acute maxillary sinusitis. (Abstract)

Antibiotics for acute maxillary sinusitis. For adults seeking care in ambulatory practices, sinusitis is the most common diagnosis treated with antibiotics. We examined whether antibiotics are indicated for acute sinusitis, and if so, which antibiotic classes are most effective.Relevant studies were identified from searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE in October 1998, contacts with pharmaceutical companies and bibliographies of included studies.Randomized trials were eligible that compared antibiotic (...) to control or antibiotics from different classes for acute maxillary sinusitis. Additional criteria were diagnostic confirmation by radiograph or sinus aspiration, outcomes that included clinical cure or improvement and a sample size of 30 or more adults. Of 1784 potentially relevant studies, two or more reviewers identified 32 studies meeting selection criteria.Data were abstracted independently by 2 persons and synthesized descriptively. Some data were analyzed quantitatively using a random effects

2000 Cochrane

1291. Antibiotics for acute bronchitis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotics for acute bronchitis. Antibiotic treatment of acute bronchitis, which is one of the most common illnesses seen in primary care, is controversial. Most clinicians prescribe antibiotics in spite of expert recommendations against this practice.People with acute bronchitis may show little evidence of bacterial infection. If effective, antibiotics could shorten the course of the disease. However if they are not effective, the risk of antibiotic resistance may be increased. The objective (...) of this review was to assess the effects of antibiotic treatment for patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute bronchitis.We searched Medline, Embase, reference lists of articles and the authors' personal collections up to 1996, and Scisearch from 1989 to 1996.Randomised trials comparing any antibiotic therapy with placebo in acute bronchitis.At least two reviewers extracted data and assessed trial quality.Eight trials involving 750 patients aged eight to over 65 and including smokers and non-smokers were

2000 Cochrane

1292. Antibiotics for the common cold. (Abstract)

Antibiotics for the common cold. The common cold is caused by viruses which cannot be helped by antibiotics.The objective of this review was to assess the effects of antibiotics for the common cold.We searched the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Family Medicine Database, and reference lists of articles, and we contacted principal investigators. The most recent search was in December 1998.Randomised trials comparing any antibiotic therapy with placebo in acute upper (...) respiratory tract infections.Both reviewers independently assessed trial quality and extracted data.Main results: Seven trials involving 2056 people aged between six months and 49 years were included. The overall quality of the included trials was variable. People receiving antibiotics did not do better in terms of cure or improvement than those on placebo (odds ratio 0.95, 95% confidence interval 0.70 to 1.28 fixed effects model). One study found a significant benefit for antibiotics compared

2000 Cochrane

1293. Antibiotics for acute otitis media in children. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotics for acute otitis media in children. Acute otitis media is one of the most common diseases in early infancy and childhood. Antibiotic use for acute otitis media varies from 31% in the Netherlands to 98% in the USA and Australia.The objective of this review was to assess the effects of antibiotics for children with acute otitis media.We searched the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, Index Medicus, Current Contents and reference lists of articles from 1958 to January 1999 (...) .Randomised trials comparing antimicrobial drugs with placebo in children with acute otitis media.Three reviewers independently assessed trial quality and extracted data.Nine trials were eligible but only six trials, with a total of 1,962 children, included patient-relevant outcomes. The methodological quality of the included trials was generally high. All trials were from developed countries. The trials showed no reduction in pain at 24 hours, but a 34% relative reduction (95% confidence interval 16

2000 Cochrane

1294. A double-blind comparison of empirical oral and intravenous antibiotic therapy for low-risk febrile patients with neutropenia during cancer chemotherapy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A double-blind comparison of empirical oral and intravenous antibiotic therapy for low-risk febrile patients with neutropenia during cancer chemotherapy. Among patients with fever and neutropenia during chemotherapy for cancer who have a low risk of complications, oral administration of empirical broad-spectrum antibiotics may be an acceptable alternative to intravenous treatment.We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of patients (age, 5 to 74 years) who had fever (...) for modifications in the regimen in 13 percent and 32 percent of episodes, respectively (P<0.001) and because of the patient's inability to tolerate the regimen in 16 percent and 1 percent of episodes, respectively (P<0.001). There were no deaths. The incidence of intolerance of the oral antibiotics was 16 percent, as compared with 8 percent for placebo (P=0.07).In hospitalized low-risk patients who have fever and neutropenia during cancer chemotherapy, empirical therapy with oral ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin

1999 NEJM Controlled trial quality: predicted high

1295. Oral versus intravenous empirical antimicrobial therapy for fever in patients with granulocytopenia who are receiving cancer chemotherapy. International Antimicrobial Therapy Cooperative Group of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Can (Abstract)

Oral versus intravenous empirical antimicrobial therapy for fever in patients with granulocytopenia who are receiving cancer chemotherapy. International Antimicrobial Therapy Cooperative Group of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Can Intravenously administered antimicrobial agents have been the standard choice for the empirical management of fever in patients with cancer and granulocytopenia. If orally administered empirical therapy is as effective as intravenous therapy

1999 NEJM Controlled trial quality: predicted high

1296. Clinical and financial benefits of rapid bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing

Clinical and financial benefits of rapid bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing Clinical and financial benefits of rapid bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing Clinical and financial benefits of rapid bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing Barenfanger J, Drake C, Kacich G Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains (...) a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Rapid bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (RAST). Type of intervention Diagnosis. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population Patients for whom antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) was performed in a normal (NAST) or rapid (RAST) manner. Setting Memorial Medical

1999 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1297. Sequential antimicrobial therapy: treatment of severe lower respiratory tract infections in children

antimicrobial costs were related to the drug acquisition costs and the hidden costs of consumables, staff time and waste disposal. The costs were estimated from actual prices and hospital records. The resource use data were gathered between December 1994 and February 1996. The resource quantity data were given only for the length of stay and the duration of antibiotic treatment. The price year was not reported, but prices were collected between 1995 and 1996. Statistical analysis of costs The differences (...) Sequential antimicrobial therapy: treatment of severe lower respiratory tract infections in children Sequential antimicrobial therapy: treatment of severe lower respiratory tract infections in children Sequential antimicrobial therapy: treatment of severe lower respiratory tract infections in children Al-Eidan F A, McElnay J C, Scott M G, Kearney M P, Troughton K E, Jenkins J Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED

1999 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1298. [Appraisal of the variability and suitability of prescribing antimicrobials in primary health care in the Basque Country]

[Appraisal of the variability and suitability of prescribing antimicrobials in primary health care in the Basque Country] Evaluacion de la variabilidad e idoneidad en la prescripcion de antimicrobianos en atencion primaria en la Comunidad Autonoma del Pais Vasco. Recomendaciones de uso apropiado. [Appraisal of the variability and suitability of prescribing antimicrobials in primary health care in the Basque Country] Evaluacion de la variabilidad e idoneidad en la prescripcion de antimicrobianos (...) en atencion primaria en la Comunidad Autonoma del Pais Vasco. Recomendaciones de uso apropiado. [Appraisal of the variability and suitability of prescribing antimicrobials in primary health care in the Basque Country] Rotaeche R, Vicente D, Etxeberria A, Mozo C, Larranaga M, Valverde E, Lopez L, Olasagasti C, Barandiaran M, Iturrioz P Citation Rotaeche R, Vicente D, Etxeberria A, Mozo C, Larranaga M, Valverde E, Lopez L, Olasagasti C, Barandiaran M, Iturrioz P. Evaluacion de la variabilidad e

1999 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

1299. Study of the appropriateness of prescribing antibiotic treatments in primary care and costs derived from inappropriateness

Study of the appropriateness of prescribing antibiotic treatments in primary care and costs derived from inappropriateness Study of the appropriateness of prescribing antibiotic treatments in primary care and costs derived from inappropriateness Study of the appropriateness of prescribing antibiotic treatments in primary care and costs derived from inappropriateness Caminal J, Rovira J, Segura A Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from (...) a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Caminal J, Rovira J, Segura A. Study of the appropriateness of prescribing antibiotic treatments in primary care and costs derived from inappropriateness. Barcelona: Catalan Agency for Health Information, Assessment and Quality (CAHIAQ -formerly CAHTA). BR99003. 1999 Authors' objectives The main objective of this study was to establish the appropriateness of antibiotic prescriptions

1999 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

1300. Antimicrobial prophylaxis in total hip replacement: a systematic review

Antimicrobial prophylaxis in total hip replacement: a systematic review Antimicrobial prophylaxis in total hip replacement: a systematic review Antimicrobial prophylaxis in total hip replacement: a systematic review Glenny A M, Song F Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Glenny A M, Song F. Antimicrobial prophylaxis in total (...) hip replacement: a systematic review. Health Technology Assessment 1999; 3(21): 1-57 Authors' objectives The aim of this review was to undertake a systematic review of the research evidence on the comparative efficacy and cost-effectiveness of antimicrobial prophylaxis used for patients undergoing a THR. Authors' conclusions Antimicrobial prophylaxis is effective for the prevention of SWI in both TKR and THR surgery. The efficacy of many of the regimens studied may be similar, and available data

1999 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.