Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

1301. The commonality of risk factors for nosocomial colonization and infection with antimicrobial-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, enterococcus, gram-negative bacilli, Clostridium difficile, and Candida. (Abstract)

transfer of the patient, especially from a nursing home; prolonged hospitalization; gastrointestinal surgery or transplantation; exposure to invasive devices of all types, especially central venous catheters; and exposure to antimicrobial drugs, especially cephalosporins. More restricted use of antibiotics, especially cephalosporins, and strategies to prevent medical device-related infection and cross-infection in the hospital would yield benefit with all types of resistant organisms. Preemptive (...) The commonality of risk factors for nosocomial colonization and infection with antimicrobial-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, enterococcus, gram-negative bacilli, Clostridium difficile, and Candida. Recent years have witnessed a rapidly growing crisis in antimicrobial resistance, especially among microorganisms that cause nosocomial infection. To better understand common risk factors among multiresistant organisms, this review explores risk factors for nosocomial infection with methicillin

2002 Annals of Internal Medicine

1302. Effect of beta lactam antibiotic use in children on pneumococcal resistance to penicillin: prospective cohort study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of beta lactam antibiotic use in children on pneumococcal resistance to penicillin: prospective cohort study. To examine the relation between use of antibiotics in a cohort of preschool children and nasal carriage of resistant strains of pneumococcus.Prospective cohort study over two years of 461 children aged under 4 years living in Canberra, Australia.Use of drugs, respiratory symptoms, and visits to doctors were documented in a daily diary by parents of the children during 25 months (...) of observation. Isolates of pneumococci, which were cultured from nasal swabs collected approximately six monthly, were tested for antibiotic resistance.From the four swab collections 631 positive pneumococcal isolates from 461 children were found, of which 13.6% were resistant to penicillin. Presence of penicillin resistant pneumococci was significantly associated with children's use of a beta lactam antibiotic in the two months before each swab collection (odds ratio 2.03 (95% confidence interval 1.15

2002 BMJ

1303. Antibiotics versus control for toxoplasma retinochoroiditis. (Abstract)

Antibiotics versus control for toxoplasma retinochoroiditis. Acute toxoplasma retinochoroiditis causes transient symptoms of ocular discomfort and may lead to permanent visual loss. Antibiotic treatment primarily aims to reduce the risk of permanent visual loss, recurrent retinochoroiditis, and the severity and duration of acute symptoms. There is uncertainty about the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment.The objective of this review was to compare the effects of antibiotics versus placebo (...) , and reference lists of review articles. Pharmaceutical companies were contacted for unpublished trials.We included randomised controlled trials that compared any systemic antibiotic treatment against placebo or no treatment. Trials that included immunocompromised patients were excluded.The primary outcomes for this review were visual acuity at least three months after treatment and risk of recurrent retinochoroiditis. Secondary outcomes were improvement in symptoms and signs of intraocular inflammation

2002 Cochrane

1304. Ursodeoxycholic acid and/or antibiotics for prevention of biliary stent occlusion. (Abstract)

Ursodeoxycholic acid and/or antibiotics for prevention of biliary stent occlusion. Malignant biliary obstruction, which requires endoscopic stenting as palliative therapy, is often complicated by clogging of the stent with subsequent jaundice and/or cholangitis. Stent clogging may be caused by microbiological adhesion and biliary stasis. Therefore, antibiotics and choleretic agents like ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) have been investigated to see whether they prolong stent patency.To evaluate (...) if UDCA and/or antibiotics may prolong stent patency and survival in patients with strictures of the biliary tract and endoscopically inserted stents.The Trials Register of The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group, The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Current Contents, EMBASE, and CancerLit were searched until June 2001. Reference lists of the identified articles were checked for further trials.All randomised or quasi-randomised clinical trials investigating UDCA and/or antibiotics in patients with biliary stents

2002 Cochrane

1305. Antibiotics for trachoma. (Abstract)

Antibiotics for trachoma. Trachoma is the world's leading cause of preventable blindness. In 1997 the World Health Organization launched an initiative on trachoma control based on the 'SAFE' strategy (surgery, antibiotics, facial cleanliness and environmental improvement).The aim of this review is to assess the evidence supporting the antibiotic arm of the SAFE strategy by assessing the effects of antibiotics on both active trachoma (primary objective) and on Chlamydia trachomatis infection (...) only randomised trials that satisfied either of two criteria: (a) trials in which topical or oral administration of an antibiotic was compared to placebo or no treatment in people with trachoma, (b) trials in which a topical antibiotic was compared with an oral antibiotic in people with trachoma. A subdivision of particular interest was of trials in which topical tetracycline/chlortetracycline was compared with oral azithromycin, as these are the two World Health Organization recommended

2002 Cochrane

1306. Prophylactic antibiotics for preventing pneumococcal infection in children with sickle cell disease. (Abstract)

Prophylactic antibiotics for preventing pneumococcal infection in children with sickle cell disease. People with sickle cell disease are particularly susceptible to infection. Infants and very young children are especially vulnerable, and the Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease observed an incidence rate of 10 per 100 patient years of pneumococcal septicaemia in children under the age of three. Vaccines, including customary pneumococcal vaccines, may be of limited use in this age group (...) . Therefore, prophylactic penicillin regimes may be advisable for this population.To assess the effects of prophylactic antibiotic regimes for preventing pneumococcal infection in children with sickle cell disease.We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group specialist trials register which comprises references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches, hand searching relevant journals and hand searching abstract books of conference proceedings. Date of the most

2002 Cochrane

1307. Antibiotic prophylaxis prior to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients with obstructive jaundice: is it worth the cost?

prophylaxis. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population The study population comprised patients older than 15 years of age, with obstructive jaundice, defined as total bilirubin greater or equal to 2.5 ml/dL or, in the absence of documented bilirubin, having frank jaundice documented by physical examination at the time of ERCP. Patients were excluded if they had received antibiotics other than single-dose prophylaxis during the 7 days prior to ERCP or had received antimicrobial (...) Antibiotic prophylaxis prior to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients with obstructive jaundice: is it worth the cost? Antibiotic prophylaxis prior to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients with obstructive jaundice: is it worth the cost? Antibiotic prophylaxis prior to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients with obstructive jaundice: is it worth the cost? Thompson B F, Arguedas M R, Wilcox C M Record Status This is a critical

2002 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1308. Monotherapy or aminoglycoside-containing combinations for empirical antibiotic treatment of febrile neutropenic patients: a meta-analysis

Monotherapy or aminoglycoside-containing combinations for empirical antibiotic treatment of febrile neutropenic patients: a meta-analysis Monotherapy or aminoglycoside-containing combinations for empirical antibiotic treatment of febrile neutropenic patients: a meta-analysis Monotherapy or aminoglycoside-containing combinations for empirical antibiotic treatment of febrile neutropenic patients: a meta-analysis Furno P, Bucaneve G, Del Favero A Authors' objectives To compare the efficacy (...) of antibiotic monotherapy with that of combination therapy including an aminoglycoside for empirical treatment of febrile neutropenic cancer patients. Searching MEDLINE was searched from January 1966 to December 2000, using the keywords given in the review. This was supplemented by a manual search of the bibliographies of pertinent studies and reviews. Only studies reported in the English language were included. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Only randomised clinical

2002 DARE.

1309. A meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials comparing short- and long-course antibiotic therapy for urinary tract infections in children

A meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials comparing short- and long-course antibiotic therapy for urinary tract infections in children A meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials comparing short- and long-course antibiotic therapy for urinary tract infections in children A meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials comparing short- and long-course antibiotic therapy for urinary tract infections in children Keren R, Chan E Authors' objectives To determine whether long-course (...) antibiotic therapy is more effective than short-course therapy for the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in children, and to explore potential sources of heterogeneity in the results of existing studies. Searching MEDLINE was searched for all studies published in the English language that compared short- and long-course therapy for the treatment of acute UTI in children. The searches were indexed by the MeSH terms 'urinary tract infection' and 'antibiotics', and were limited to RCTs, children

2002 DARE.

1310. Sequential intravenous/oral antibiotic vs. continuous intravenous antibiotic in the treatment of pyogenic liver abscess

Sequential intravenous/oral antibiotic vs. continuous intravenous antibiotic in the treatment of pyogenic liver abscess Sequential intravenous/oral antibiotic vs. continuous intravenous antibiotic in the treatment of pyogenic liver abscess Sequential intravenous/oral antibiotic vs. continuous intravenous antibiotic in the treatment of pyogenic liver abscess Ng F H, Wong W M, Wong B C, Kng C, Wong S Y, Lai K C, Cheng C S, Yuen W C, Lam S K, Lai C L Record Status This is a critical abstract (...) of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology The use of sequential intravenous-oral antibiotic therapy versus continuous intravenous antibiotic therapy for the treatment of pyogenic liver abscess. Type of intervention Treatment. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis

2002 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1311. A systematic review on the effect of systemic antimicrobials as an adjunct to scaling and root planing in periodontitis patients

A systematic review on the effect of systemic antimicrobials as an adjunct to scaling and root planing in periodontitis patients A systematic review on the effect of systemic antimicrobials as an adjunct to scaling and root planing in periodontitis patients A systematic review on the effect of systemic antimicrobials as an adjunct to scaling and root planing in periodontitis patients Herrera D, Sanz M, Jepsen S, Needleman I, Roldan S Authors' objectives To compare scaling and root planning (SRP (...) ) plus systemic antibiotics with SRP alone in patients with periodontitis. Searching MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Specialised Trials Register were searched to April 2001 for reports in the English language; the search terms were stated. The Journal of Periodontology, Journal of Clinical Periodontology and the Journal of Periodontal Research were searched to April 2001. In addition, reference lists in reviews, identified reports, the European Workshops (1994, 1997, 1999

2002 DARE.

1312. Prophylatic antibiotic use in transurethral prostatic resection: a meta-analysis

Prophylatic antibiotic use in transurethral prostatic resection: a meta-analysis Prophylactic antibiotic use in transurethral prostatic resection: a meta-analysis Prophylactic antibiotic use in transurethral prostatic resection: a meta-analysis Berry A, Barratt A Authors' objectives To determine the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in men undergoing transurethral prostatic resection. Searching MEDLINE (from 1979 to 2000), EMBASE (from 1984 to 2000) and the Cochrane Library were searched (...) for publications in the English language. The search was conducted using the terms 'antibiotic prophylaxis', 'transurethral resection', 'chemoprophylaxis', 'prostatic transurethral resection' and 'prostatectomy' in combination with the filter 'randomized controlled trial'. The reference lists from identified trials and reviews were examined. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were eligible. Specific interventions included in the review

2002 DARE.

1313. Antimicrobial prophylaxis for urinary tract infection in persons with spinal cord dysfunction

Antimicrobial prophylaxis for urinary tract infection in persons with spinal cord dysfunction Antimicrobial prophylaxis for urinary tract infection in persons with spinal cord dysfunction Antimicrobial prophylaxis for urinary tract infection in persons with spinal cord dysfunction Morton S C, Shekelle P G, Adams J L, Bennett C, Dobkin B H, Montgomerie J, Vickrey B G Authors' objectives To assess the benefits and harms of antimicrobial prophylaxis to prevent urinary tract infections (UTIs (...) included in the review Only studies that looked at antimicrobial prophylaxis of UTI were considered for inclusion. The treatments compared were any antimicrobial versus no antimicrobial, and a specific antimicrobial versus no antimicrobial. The antimicrobials included nitrofurantoin (50 to 100 mg, or 25 mg for children weighing less than 25 kg), methenamine (hippurate 1 g or mandelate 2 g), trimethoprim (40 to 160 mg), sulfamethoxazole (200 to 800 mg) and ciprofloxacin (100 mg). Where reported

2002 DARE.

1314. Risk of hemolytic uremic syndrome after antibiotic treatment of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 enteritis: a meta-analysis

Risk of hemolytic uremic syndrome after antibiotic treatment of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 enteritis: a meta-analysis Risk of hemolytic uremic syndrome after antibiotic treatment of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 enteritis: a meta-analysis Risk of hemolytic uremic syndrome after antibiotic treatment of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 enteritis: a meta-analysis Safdar N, Said A, Gangnon R E, Maki D G Authors' objectives To better understand the association between antibiotic therapy for Escherichia coli (E (...) . coli) 0157:H7 enteritis and the risk of haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), and to determine whether antibiotic therapy increases the risk of HUS. Searching MEDLINE and PubMed were searched for studies published in any language using the keywords 'hemolytic uremic syndrome', 'antibiotic', 'risk factor' and 'Escherichia coli 0157:H7'. The search was limited to reports on infections in human that were published between January 1983 (the year when Shiga toxin-producing E. coli was first found

2002 DARE.

1315. Meta-analysis: the effect of probiotic administration on antibiotic-associated diarrhoea

Meta-analysis: the effect of probiotic administration on antibiotic-associated diarrhoea Meta-analysis: the effect of probiotic administration on antibiotic-associated diarrhoea Meta-analysis: the effect of probiotic administration on antibiotic-associated diarrhoea Cremonini F, Di Caro S, Nista E C, Bartolozzi F, Capelli G, Gasbarrini G, Gasbarrini A Authors' objectives To perform a meta-analysis of published trials on the efficacy of probiotics in reducing the incidence of antibiotic (...) selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Placebo-controlled trials were eligible for inclusion. Specific interventions included in the review Studies in which a single probiotic species was administered were eligible for inclusion. The included trials assessed the decrease in the occurrence of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea during the administration of Saccharomyces boulardii (3 trials) and Lactobacillus spp. (4 trials). Participants included in the review The authors did

2002 DARE.

1316. Clinical, microbiological, and economic benefit of a change in antibiotic prophylaxis for cardiac surgery Full Text available with Trip Pro

Clinical, microbiological, and economic benefit of a change in antibiotic prophylaxis for cardiac surgery Clinical, microbiological, and economic benefit of a change in antibiotic prophylaxis for cardiac surgery Clinical, microbiological, and economic benefit of a change in antibiotic prophylaxis for cardiac surgery Spelman D, Harrington G, Russo P, Wesselingh S Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract (...) contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Two antibiotic prophylactics for cardiac surgery, cephazolin and a combination of intravenous vancomycin and oral rifampicin, were examined. Type of intervention Secondary prevention. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population The study population comprised patients who underwent CABG surgery

2002 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1317. Shorter courses of parenteral antibiotic therapy do not appear to influence response rates for children with acute hematogenous osteomyelitis: a systematic review

Shorter courses of parenteral antibiotic therapy do not appear to influence response rates for children with acute hematogenous osteomyelitis: a systematic review Shorter courses of parenteral antibiotic therapy do not appear to influence response rates for children with acute hematogenous osteomyelitis: a systematic review Shorter courses of parenteral antibiotic therapy do not appear to influence response rates for children with acute hematogenous osteomyelitis: a systematic review Le Saux N (...) , Howard A, Barrowman N J, Gaboury I, Sampson M, Moher D Authors' objectives To determine whether short courses (less than 1 week) of parenteral antimicrobial therapy show equivalent cure rates, compared with longer courses (greater than 1 week), in children with acute haematogenous osteomyelitis (AHO) caused primarily by Staphylococcus aureus. Searching MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched from January 1966 to April 2001. The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, in the Cochrane Library, was searched from

2002 DARE.

1318. Ceftriaxone versus other cephalosporins for perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis: a meta-analysis of 43 randomized controlled trials

Ceftriaxone versus other cephalosporins for perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis: a meta-analysis of 43 randomized controlled trials Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.

2002 DARE.

1319. Probiotics in prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhoea: meta-analysis

Probiotics in prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhoea: meta-analysis Probiotics in prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhoea: meta-analysis Probiotics in prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhoea: meta-analysis D'Souza A L, Rajkumar C, Cooke J, Bulpitt C J Authors' objectives To evaluate the efficacy of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of diarrhoea associated with the use of antibiotics. Searching MEDLINE was searched from 1966 to 2000 using the terms 'probiotics (...) ', 'biotherapeutic agents', 'lactobacilli', antibiotic associated diarrhoea' and 'Clostridium difficile'. The search included only published literature that had an English abstract. The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were also searched. Trials without an English abstract were identified using the review papers found by the MEDLINE and Cochrane database searches. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Only randomised double-blind

2002 DARE.

1320. Strategies to contain the emergence of antimicrobial resistance: a systematic review of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness

proposed to control the emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Searching Following an initial consultation with relevant world experts in AMR, the following sources were searched: MEDLINE (from 1960 to 2000), ISI (1981 to 2000), EMBASE (from 1988 to 2000), grey literature (from 1999 to 2000), DARE and NHS EED (numerous years), OPAC (from 1975 to 2000) and the Cochrane Library (1990 to 2000). The keywords used were combinations of the terms 'antimicrobial', 'antibiotic', 'cost', 'intervention (...) the emergence of AMR were eligible. The following types of measures were included: restrictions on the use of antibiotics (prohibition of certain drugs, formulary restrictions, stop-orders placed on inappropriately used antimicrobials); prescriber education, feedback, and the use of guidelines (patients and clinical education programmes, prescriber feedback and guidelines in reducing prescribing, education seminars on the quality of patient management and rational drug use); antibiotic combination therapies

2002 DARE.