Latest & greatest articles for antibiotics

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This page lists the very latest high quality evidence on antibiotics and also the most popular articles. Popularity measured by the number of times the articles have been clicked on by fellow users in the last twelve months.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics also referred to as antibacterial are a type of medicine that prevents the growth of bacteria. As such they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They kill or prevents bacteria from spreading.

Antibiotics are vital in modern day medicine; they are among the most frequently prescribed drug. There are over a 100 types of antibiotics, the main types and most commonly prescribed are penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolides, fluoroquinolone and tetracycline. They tend to be classified by mechanism of action. So, those that target the bacterial cell wall (penicillins and cephalosporins) or the cell membrane (polymyxins), or interfere with essential bacterial enzymes (rifamycins, lipiarmycins, quinolones, and sulfonamides) have bactericidal activities. Antibiotics such as macrolides, lincosamides and tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis.

Antibiotics can all be defined by their specificity. “Narrow-spectrum” antibiotics target specific types of bacteria, for instance gram-negative (-ve) or gram-positive (+ve), whereas broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria.

Antibiotics are increasingly suffering from antibiotic resistance caused by bacterial mutations meaning the bacteria evolves to not be sensitive to the specific antibiotics being used.

Clinical trials are important to the development and understanding of antibiotics and their side effects. Although they are deemed safe, over use of the drug can kill good bacteria and lead to antibiotic resistance. This halts the ability of bacteria and microorganisms to resist the effects of the antibiotic. Clinical trials and research allow scientists and medical professionals to study the effects and develop new antibiotics.

Trip has extensive coverage of the evidence base on antibiotics allowing users to easily find trusted answers. Coverage include guidelines, systematic reviews, controlled trials and evidence-based synopses.

Top results for antibiotics

1301. A comparison of two antimicrobial-impregnated central venous catheters. Catheter Study Group. (Abstract)

A comparison of two antimicrobial-impregnated central venous catheters. Catheter Study Group. The use of central venous catheters impregnated with either minocycline and rifampin or chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine reduces the rates of catheter colonization and catheter-related bloodstream infection as compared with the use of unimpregnated catheters. We compared the rates of catheter colonization and catheter-related bloodstream infection associated with these two kinds of antiinfective

1999 NEJM Controlled trial quality: uncertain

1302. Economic evaluation of ciprofloxacin compared with usual antibacterial care for the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis in patients followed for 1 year

. Bibliographic details Torrance G, Walker V, Grossman R, Mukherjee J, Vaughan D, La Forge J, Lampron N. Economic evaluation of ciprofloxacin compared with usual antibacterial care for the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis in patients followed for 1 year. PharmacoEconomics 1999; 16(5 Part 1): 499-520 PubMedID Other publications of related interest Grossman R, Mukherjee J, Vaughan D et al. A 1-year community-based health economic study of ciprofloxacin vs. usual antibiotic treatment (...) Economic evaluation of ciprofloxacin compared with usual antibacterial care for the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis in patients followed for 1 year Economic evaluation of ciprofloxacin compared with usual antibacterial care for the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis in patients followed for 1 year Economic evaluation of ciprofloxacin compared with usual antibacterial care for the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis in patients

1999 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1303. Prophylactic antibiotics with intracranial pressure monitors and external ventricular drains: a review of the evidence

Prophylactic antibiotics with intracranial pressure monitors and external ventricular drains: a review of the evidence Prophylactic antibiotics with intracranial pressure monitors and external ventricular drains: a review of the evidence Prophylactic antibiotics with intracranial pressure monitors and external ventricular drains: a review of the evidence Prabhu V C, Kaufman H H, Voelker J L, Aronoff S C, Niewiadomska-Bugaj M, Mascaro S, Hobbs G R Authors' objectives To evaluate the role (...) of prophylactic antibiotics (PABs) in preventing infections associated with intracranial pressure (ICP) monitors and external ventricular drains (EVD). Searching A review of articles in English in MEDLINE was performed for the period 1966-1996 using the following search terms: ventriculostomy, ICP monitors, prophylactic antibiotics, and infection. The reference lists of the articles selected were reviewed, as well as abstracts presented at the two main annual American neurosurgical meetings, the American

1999 DARE.

1304. Antibiotics in acute bronchitis: a meta-analysis

Antibiotics in acute bronchitis: a meta-analysis Antibiotics in acute bronchitis: a meta-analysis Antibiotics in acute bronchitis: a meta-analysis Bent S, Saint S, Vittinghoff E, Grady D Authors' objectives To assess the effectiveness of antibiotics in the treatment of acute bronchitis. Searching The authors searched the MEDLINE electronic database (January 1966 to April 1998) using the search terms: 'bronchitis, drug therapy' and 'xs acute disease'. The reference lists of retrieved articles (...) were also scanned and experts were consulted to identify additional relevant studies. The search was limited to English language publications. Study selection Study designs of evaluations included in the review Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that provided sufficient data to calculate effect sizes. Studies were excluded if they were non-experimental in design or if they compared one antibiotic with another without a placebo arm. Specific interventions included in the review Antibiotics

1999 DARE.

1305. A systematic review of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: the impact of antimicrobial resistance on eradication rates

in antibiotic resistance emphasises the need for additional surveillance of H. pylori. It is also important that resistance-testing methods are standardised and validated to allow comparisons to be made between different studies and to monitor the clinical impact of antimicrobial resistance. The authors also state that routine pre-treatment testing seems currently not necessary. Research: The authors state that, for future therapies, the effectiveness needs to be determined for different regimens separately (...) A systematic review of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: the impact of antimicrobial resistance on eradication rates A systematic review of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: the impact of antimicrobial resistance on eradication rates A systematic review of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: the impact of antimicrobial resistance on eradication rates Houben M H, Van de Beek D, Hensen E F, De Craen A J, Rauws E A, Tytgat G N Authors' objectives To review the eradication rates

1999 DARE.

1306. Antimicrobial prophylaxis in total hip replacement: a systematic review

of infection, antibiotic regimen, results, and comments and authors' conclusions. Cost-effectiveness data were also recorded though no further analysis was undertaken on these data. Methods of synthesis How were the studies combined? Studies were grouped and analysed by type of antimicrobial intervention. Where sufficient data were available pooled relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and number-needed-to-treat (NNT) were calculated using a fixed-effect model. How were differences between (...) . In five trials comparing antibiotics to placebo for the prevention of SWIs: SWI rate 1.0% versus 4.3%; RR 0.24, 95% CI: 0.14, 0.43; NNT 30. In 15 other comparisons of antimicrobial versus antimicrobial, it was not possible to identify the most effective antimicrobial agent within the review. Route of administration: gentamicin-loaded bone cement (1 RCT) was statistically significantly better than systemic antimicrobial prophylaxis (RR 4.38, 95% CI: 1.25, 15.32) while systemic antimicrobial prophylaxis

1999 DARE.

1307. Meta-analysis of antibiotic prophylaxis in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)

Meta-analysis of antibiotic prophylaxis in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.

1999 DARE.

1308. Early switch from intravenous to oral antibiotics: guidelines and implementation in a large teaching hospital

Early switch from intravenous to oral antibiotics: guidelines and implementation in a large teaching hospital Early switch from intravenous to oral antibiotics: guidelines and implementation in a large teaching hospital Early switch from intravenous to oral antibiotics: guidelines and implementation in a large teaching hospital Sevinc F, Prins J M, Koopmans R P, Langendijk P N, Bossuyt P M, Dankert J, Speelman P Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets (...) the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Short intravenous antibiotic therapy followed by oral antibiotic treatment as an alternative to intravenous administration for the entire treatment course for patients suffering from serious infections. This switch strategy (also known as sequential antibiotic therapy

1999 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1309. Comparison of 7 versus 10 days of antibiotic therapy for hospitalized patients with uncomplicated community-acquired pneumonia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study

Comparison of 7 versus 10 days of antibiotic therapy for hospitalized patients with uncomplicated community-acquired pneumonia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study Comparison of 7 versus 10 days of antibiotic therapy for hospitalized patients with uncomplicated community-acquired pneumonia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study Comparison of 7 versus 10 days of antibiotic therapy for hospitalized patients with uncomplicated community-acquired pneumonia: a prospective (...) or hypersensitivity to cephalosporins, or had received systemic antibiotics in the past 72 hours. Setting The setting was secondary care. The study was carried out in New York, USA. Dates to which data relate The effectiveness data were collected between December 1995 and June 1997. The cost data were collected from studies published in 1993 and 1997, and from hospital data from the Centers for Disease Control (1992). The price year was not reported. Source of effectiveness data The source of the effectiveness

1999 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1310. A prospective, randomised comparison of single-vs. multiple-dose antibiotic prophylaxis in penetrating trauma

A prospective, randomised comparison of single-vs. multiple-dose antibiotic prophylaxis in penetrating trauma Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.

1999 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1311. Antibiotic therapy of Helicobacter pylori infection reduces healthcare expenditures related to duodenal ulcer

Antibiotic therapy of Helicobacter pylori infection reduces healthcare expenditures related to duodenal ulcer Antibiotic therapy of Helicobacter pylori infection reduces healthcare expenditures related to duodenal ulcer Antibiotic therapy of Helicobacter pylori infection reduces healthcare expenditures related to duodenal ulcer Sonnenberg A, Pauly M P, Levenson S D, Schwartz J S Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED (...) . Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Antibiotic therapy of Helicobacter pylori infection in duodenal ulcer. Type of intervention Treatment. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population Adult patients (aged over 18 years) with active duodenal ulcer and confirmed H pylori infection. Setting Hospital. The economic

1999 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1312. Domiciliary treatment of febrile episodes in cancer patients: a prospective randomized trial comparing oral versus parenteral empirical antibiotic treatment

Domiciliary treatment of febrile episodes in cancer patients: a prospective randomized trial comparing oral versus parenteral empirical antibiotic treatment Domiciliary treatment of febrile episodes in cancer patients: a prospective randomized trial comparing oral versus parenteral empirical antibiotic treatment Domiciliary treatment of febrile episodes in cancer patients: a prospective randomized trial comparing oral versus parenteral empirical antibiotic treatment Minotti V, Gentile G (...) of the participating centres. Study exclusion criteria were: severe chemotherapy-induced neutropenia; severe comorbidity requiring hospitalisation; acute leukaemia and bone marrow transplant within the last two years; antibiotic treatment within the previous 5 days; use of haematopoietic growth factors; positive history of intolerance to quinolone derivatives or beta lactams; renal failure, under 18 years of age; and pregnant or nursing a baby. Setting The setting was primary and secondary care. The economic study

1999 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1313. Preventing neonatal group B streptococcal disease: cost-effectiveness in a health maintenance organization and the impact of delayed hospital discharge for newborns who received intrapartum antibiotics

Preventing neonatal group B streptococcal disease: cost-effectiveness in a health maintenance organization and the impact of delayed hospital discharge for newborns who received intrapartum antibiotics Preventing neonatal group B streptococcal disease: cost-effectiveness in a health maintenance organization and the impact of delayed hospital discharge for newborns who received intrapartum antibiotics Preventing neonatal group B streptococcal disease: cost-effectiveness in a health maintenance (...) organization and the impact of delayed hospital discharge for newborns who received intrapartum antibiotics Mohle-Boetani J C, Lieu T A, Ray G T, Escobar G Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Guidelines for the prevention

1999 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1314. A randomized, prospective study measuring outcomes after antibiotic therapy intervention by a multidisciplinary consult team

A randomized, prospective study measuring outcomes after antibiotic therapy intervention by a multidisciplinary consult team A randomized, prospective study measuring outcomes after antibiotic therapy intervention by a multidisciplinary consult team A randomized, prospective study measuring outcomes after antibiotic therapy intervention by a multidisciplinary consult team Gums J G, Yancey R W, Hamilton C A, Kubilis P S Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation (...) that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology A timely consult with a multidisciplinary antimicrobial therapy team composed of pharmacists, a clinical microbiologist, and an infectious disease specialist, for hospitalised patients receiving intravenous antimicrobials. A number of methods were used

1999 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1315. Antimicrobial resistance testing of H pylori epsilometer test and disk diffusion test

it is recommended for routine testing for resistance of Helicobacter pylori to antibiotics. Bibliographic details Fukazawa K, Seki M, Satoh K, Sugano K. Antimicrobial resistance testing of H pylori epsilometer test and disk diffusion test. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine 1999; 57(1): 76-80 PubMedID Indexing Status Subject indexing assigned by NLM MeSH Clarithromycin /pharmacology; Cost-Benefit Analysis; Helicobacter pylori /drug effects; Metronidazole /pharmacology; Microbial Sensitivity Tests /economics (...) Antimicrobial resistance testing of H pylori epsilometer test and disk diffusion test Antimicrobial resistance testing of H pylori epsilometer test and disk diffusion test Antimicrobial resistance testing of H pylori epsilometer test and disk diffusion test Fukazawa K, Seki M, Satoh K, Sugano K Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions

1999 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1316. Economic evaluation of antibacterials in the treatment of acute sinusitis

Economic evaluation of antibacterials in the treatment of acute sinusitis Economic evaluation of antibacterials in the treatment of acute sinusitis Economic evaluation of antibacterials in the treatment of acute sinusitis Laurier C, Lachaine J, Ducharme M Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment (...) on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology Oral antibacterial regimens for the treatment of ambulatory patients with acute sinusitis. No single regimen was identified as the intervention. Type of intervention Treatment. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population Adults treated for acute sinusitis. Setting Primary care. The economic study was carried out in the Canadian province of Quebec. Dates to which data relate Effectiveness data and resource use data

1999 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1317. Prospective, randomized, double-blind trial comparing teicoplanin and cefazolin as antibiotic prophylaxis in prosthetic vascular surgery

Prospective, randomized, double-blind trial comparing teicoplanin and cefazolin as antibiotic prophylaxis in prosthetic vascular surgery Prospective, randomized, double-blind trial comparing teicoplanin and cefazolin as antibiotic prophylaxis in prosthetic vascular surgery Prospective, randomized, double-blind trial comparing teicoplanin and cefazolin as antibiotic prophylaxis in prosthetic vascular surgery Marroni M, Cao P, Fiorio M, Maghini M, Lenti M, Repetto A, Menichetti F Record Status (...) This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. Health technology The use of prophylactic antibiotics to prevent wound and graft infections in patients following prosthetic vascular surgery. Type of intervention Secondary Prevention. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness

1999 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1318. Utility of blood cultures in community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization: influence of antibiotic treatment before admission

Utility of blood cultures in community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization: influence of antibiotic treatment before admission Utility of blood cultures in community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization: influence of antibiotic treatment before admission Utility of blood cultures in community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization: influence of antibiotic treatment before admission Glerant J C, Hellmuth D, Schmit J L, Ducroix J P, Jounieaux V Record Status (...) for the diagnosis of patients hospitalised for moderate CAP, and who had received an antibiotic prior to admission. Type of intervention Diagnosis. Economic study type Cost-effectiveness analysis. Study population The study population comprised patients aged over 15, with moderate CAP, hospitalised in the respiratory unit of the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sud from 1 March 1994 to 28 February 1995. Setting The setting was secondary care. The economic study was carried out in the Centre Hospitalier

1999 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1319. Evaluation of a computer-assisted antibiotic-dose monitor

Evaluation of a computer-assisted antibiotic-dose monitor Evaluation of a computer-assisted antibiotic-dose monitor Evaluation of a computer-assisted antibiotic-dose monitor Evans R S, Pestotnik S L, Classen D C, Burke J P Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study (...) and the conclusions drawn. Health technology A computer-assisted antibiotic-dose monitor to check the renal function of every patient each day and to identify patients who may be receiving excessive dosages of antibiotics. Each morning during the 12-month intervention period, the antibiotic-dose monitor checked the renal function of all patients who were receiving any of five targeted antibiotics (vancomycin, gentamicin, imipenem, cefazolin, and cefuroxime). Pharmacists received a computer listing of patients who

1999 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

1320. Antibiotic prophylaxis for the prevention of bacterial infections in cirrhotic patients with gastrointestinal bleeding: a meta-analysis

Antibiotic prophylaxis for the prevention of bacterial infections in cirrhotic patients with gastrointestinal bleeding: a meta-analysis Untitled Document The CRD Databases will not be available from 08:00 BST on Friday 4th October until 08:00 BST on Monday 7th October for essential maintenance. We apologise for any inconvenience.

1999 DARE.